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Manufacturing industries or industrial expansion

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  • 1. • Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers".
  • 2.  According to some economists, manufacturing is a wealth-producing sector of an economy, whereas a service sector tends to be wealth-consuming.[1][2] Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense.  On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor Unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing.
  • 3. • Manufacturing sector is consider as backbone of development in general and economics development. • Manufacturing industries not only help in modernizing agriculture, which form the backbone of our economy ,they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agriculture income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary. • Export of manufacturing goods expand trade and commerce, and brings in such needs foreign exchanges. • Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide varieties of furnished goods of higher value are prosperous.
  • 4.  On the basis of source of raw materials used- 1.Agro based: cotton, woolen , jute , silk, textile , rubber and sugar ,tea and edible oils. 2.Mineral based iron and steel ,cement,almunium, machines tools , petrochemicals.  According to their main role- 1.Basis or key industries which supply their product or raw material to manufactured other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting , aluminum smelting. 2. Consumers industries that produce goods for direct use of consumers –sugar, toothpaste, sewing machines , fans.  On the basis of ownerships- 1.Public sectors, owned and operated by government agencies-BHEL, SAIL. 2.Private sectors industries owned and operated by individual or a group of individuals-TISCO, BAJA AUTO LTD. ,DABUR INDUSTRIES.
  • 5. 3.Joint sectors industries which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India limited.(OIL) is jointly owned by public and private sectors. 4.Cooperative sectors industries are owned industries and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials ,workers or both.  Based on bulk and weight of raw materials and finished goods: 1.Heavy industries such as iron and steel . 2.Light industries are those industries which uses light raw materials as electrical industries.
  • 6. The agro industry is regarded as an extended arm of agriculture. The development of the agro industry can help stabilise and make agriculture more lucrative and create employment opportunities both at the production and marketing stages. The broad-based development of the agro- products industry will improve both the social and physical infrastructure of India. Since it would cause diversification and commercialization of agriculture, it will thus enhance the incomes of farmers and create food surpluses. The agro-industry mainly comprises of the post-harvest activities of processing and preserving agricultural products for intermediate or final consumption. It is a well-recognized fact across the world, particularly in the context of industrial development, that the importance of agro-industries is relative to agriculture increases as economies develop. It should be emphasized that ‘food’ is not just produce. Food also encompasses a wide variety of processed products. It is in this sense that the agro-industry is an important and vital part of the manufacturing sector in developing countries and the means for building industrial capacities.
  • 7. • In terms of the industry classification, this includes the following groups: wood, wood products and furniture, paper and paper products (see Forestry). Saw mills are found in many communities, but the other activities are much more localised, being dependent on both native hardwood forests and softwood plantations. The latter are found in such areas as Tumut, Oberon, and north-east Victoria's Kiewa Valley. The native hardwood forests of the Basin are of limited commercial value, with the exception of the cypress pines of the Pilliga State Forest, where there is an important saw milling industry. As well as mills producing sawn timber, manufacturing plants produce various types of fibreboard (as at Oberon, where CSR is undertaking a $250 million expansion of its medium density fibreboard mill to a capacity of 400,000 tonnes per annum, building a new sawmill, and setting up a research and development centre) and particle board (as at Tumut), in fully integrated operations. CSR is Australia's largest sawmiller and producer of sawn softwood timber. Australia's largest newsprint mill is located at Albury, using timber from Pinus radiata plantations in the region and recycled paper.
  • 8. • This group covers the initial processing of minerals mined in the Basin and the processing and manufacture of minerals mined elsewhere. Though not a large sector, it is locally important, especially in terms of the large mining operations (see the Mining and Minerals Production). Other industries include such activities as Stonetile (stone tiles for an international market) at Orange and brick making at numerous locations. • • In addition to the above metal products industries, there are others that are not linked to agriculture. Some are large and well-known, though the fact that they are located within the MDB may not be so well known. They include Email in Orange, where it has consolidated its refrigerator manufacturing in a new plant; BTR Engineering at Albury which manufactures automatic and manual transmissions; Jakab Industries at Tamworth that produces specialist motor vehicle bodies such as ambulances; and Clyde Industries at Bathurst which produces railway rolling stock.
  • 9. • Metal products industries • In terms of the industry classification, this includes the following groups: basic metal products, fabricated metal products, transport equipment, other machinery and equipment. This is the most diverse sector of manufacturing industry within the Basin, in terms of types of activities and size of operations. There are some larger firms, such as Southern Cross at Toowoomba and Horwood Bagshaw (formerly Shearers) at Mannum, both manufacturers of farm equipment. The majority, however, are small engineering firms, providing traditional products on a limited or one-off basis for local consumers, especially in agriculture. They include farmers who have moved from a maintenance and repair facility for their own equipment to the manufacture of farm and other equipment, such as Pendulum Dairy Gates, a stall gate system for farm dairies developed by a Wodonga dairy farmer (Carson 1995), a farmer near Warialda (near Inverell) producing loading ramps, cattle and sheep feeders, and basketball backboards (The Australian, February 3, 1995), and one near Moree who has developed an infra-red guidance system for row-crop operations (Lyon 1994). Others are small but highly innovative concerns, such as UR Machinery at Mildura, which manufactures grape harvesters that have a market in California as well as Australia.
  • 10. CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES • The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy, it converts raw materials (oil, natural gas, air, water, metals, and minerals) into more than 70,000 different products. • Polymers and plastics, especially polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polycarbonate comprise about 80% of the industry’s output worldwide.Chemicals are used to make a wide variety of consumer goods, as well as thousands inputs to agriculture, manufacturing, construction, and service industries. The chemical industry itself consumes 26 percent of its own output.[citation needed] Major industrial customers include rubber and plastic products, textiles, apparel, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and primary metals. Chemicals is nearly a $3 trillion global enterprise, and the EU and U.S. chemical companies are the world's largest producers.
  • 11. AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRIES • The Automobile industry in India is one of the largest in the world and one of the fastest growing globally. India's passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the seventh largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 3.7 million units in 2010.[1] According to recent reports, India is set to overtake Brazil to become the sixth largest passenger vehicle producer in the world, growing 16- 18 per cent to sell around three million units in the course of 2011-12.[2] In 2009, India emerged as Asia's fourth largest exporter of passenger cars, behind Japan, South Korea, and Thailand.[3] • As of 2010, India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles. More than 3.7 million automotive vehicles were produced in India in 2010 (an increase of 33.9%), making the country the second fastest growing automobile market in the world.[4][5] According to the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, annual vehicle sales are projected to increase to 5 million by 2015 and more than 9 million by 2020.[6] By 2050, the country is expected to top the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation's roads.[7]
  • 12. • The majority of India's car manufacturing industry is based around three clusters in the south, west and north. The southern cluster near Chennai is the biggest with 35% of the revenue share. The western hub near Maharashtra is 33% of the market. The northern cluster is primarily Haryana with 32%.[8] Chennai, is also referred to as the "Detroit of India"[9] with the India operations of Ford, Hyundai, Renault and Nissan headquartered in the city and BMW having an assembly plant on the outskirts. Chennai accounts for 60% of the country's automotive exports.[10] Gurgaon and Manesar in Haryana form the northern cluster where the country's largest car manufacturer, Maruti Suzuki, is based.[11] The Chakan corridor near Pune, Maharashtra is the western cluster with companies like General Motors, Volkswagen, Skoda, Mahindra and Mahindra, Tata Motors, Mercedes Benz, Land Rover, Fiat and Force Motors[12][13] having assembly plants in the area. Aurangabad with Audi, Skoda and Volkswagen also forms part of the western cluster. Another emerging cluster is in the state of Gujarat with manufacturing facility of General Motors in Halol and further planned for Tata Nanoat Sanand. Ford, Maruti Suzuki and Peugeot- Citroen plants are also set to come up in Gujarat.[14] Kolkatta with Hindustan Motors, Noida with Honda and Bangalore withToyota are some of the other automotive manufacturing regions around the country.[15][16][17]
  • 13. POLLUTION BY INDUSTRIES • Air pollution is defined as the addition of various hazardous chemicals, particulate matter, toxic substances and biological organisms into the Earth's atmosphere. There are various factors causing air pollution, but what comes from industries and factories is often considered a prime factors in air pollution. According to a study conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA, it has been found that industrial pollution accounts for approximately 50 percent of the pollution in the United States of America. There are numerous serious ecological implications and health risks associated with industrial air pollution. Some of them are discussed at length below. • Global Warming – Global warming is largely considered one of the most hazardous and serious complications associated with air pollution caused by industries and other stationary sources of air pollution. The liberation of certain gases such as methane, or CH4, and carbon dioxide, or CO2, together known as greenhouse gases, is often considered to be prime factors causing global warming. These greenhouse gases often result in an increase in the atmospheric temperature, causing global warming. Global warming has various serious implications both on the ecological balance as well as human health. It often results in the melting of glaciers and snowcapped mountains, resulting in an increase in the water levels of seas and rivers, eventually increasing the risk of floods. Apart from this, global warming also often has numerous serious health risks on humans such as increase in diseases like Lyme, malaria, cholera, dengue and plague, among others. • Acid Rain – Industries often emit large amounts of nitrogen and sulphur gases into the Earth's atmosphere. When these gases react with water vapors in the atmosphere, they often change into more aggressive gases, namely nitric acid and sulphuric acid respectively. The rain containing large amounts of these acids is known as acid rain. Acid rain has various health and natural dangers. It results in the erosion of monuments and buildings, makes the soil acidic in nature, resulting in reduction of plant and animal growth, among other issues. Apart from these, acid rain causes serious health disorders such as cancer, skin disorders and even death.
  • 14. • Respiratory Disorders – The emission of various gases such as carbon monoxide, or CO, often results in various respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, in individuals. CO damages air passages in individuals, leading to respiratory disorders. However, if carbon monoxide is present in increased levels in the atmosphere, it can even cause the death of the person, by inhibiting oxygen intake by combining with hemoglobin. • Ozone Layer Depletion – The ozone layer is a gaseous blanket that helps in supporting and sustaining life on Earth by protecting us from various hazardous radiations such as UV rays. Hence, the addition of some of the above mentioned pollutants often damages the atmosphere, thus causing various health risks in humans such as skin disorders like rashes, irritation and even cancer in severe cases. • Other Effects of Industrial Air Pollution – Other common effects often associated with air pollution caused due to industrial emissions include increasing risk of occupational diseases such as pneumoconiosis and asbestosis.
  • 15. THERMAL POLLUTION • Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, results in a change in the physical properties of water. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. Elevated water temperatures decreases oxygen levels (which can kill fish) and affects ecosystem composition, such as invasion by new thermophilic species. Urban runoff may also elevate temperature in surface waters. • Thermal pollution can also be caused by the release of very cold water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers.
  • 16. POLLUTION BY CHEMIAL INDUSTRIES • Most water pollutants are eventually carried by rivers into the oceans. In some areas of the world the influence can be traced hundred miles from the mouth by studies using hydrology transport models. Advanced computer models such as SWMM or the DSSAM Model have been used in many locations worldwide to examine the fate of pollutants in aquatic systems. Indicator filter feeding species such as copepods have also been used to study pollutant fates in the New York Bight, for example. The highest toxin loads are not directly at the mouth of the Hudson River, but 100 kilometers south, since several days are required for incorporation into planktonic tissue. The Hudson discharge flows south along the coast due to coriolis force. Further south then are areas of oxygen depletion, caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms, caused by excess nutrientsfrom algal cell death and decomposition. Fish and shellfish kills have been reported, because toxins climb the food chain after small fish consume copepods, then large fish eat smaller fish, etc. Each successive step up the food chain causes a stepwise concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals (e.g. mercury) and persistent organic pollutantssuch as DDT. This is known as biomagnification, which is occasionally used interchangeably with bioaccumulation.
  • 17. MINING CAUSE LAND POLLUTIONS • Modern mining projects leave behind disrupted communities, damaged landscapes, and polluted water. • Mining also affects ground and surface waters, the aquatic life, vegetation, soils, animals, and the human health. • Acid mine drainage can cause damage to streams which in return can kill aquatic life. • The vast variety of toxic chemicals released by mining activities can harm animals and aquatic life as well as their habitat. • Mining gas and petroleum also pollutes the land. Petroleum extraction and manufacturing contaminates the soil with bitumen, gasoline, kerosene and mining brine solutions. • Opencast mining, which is a process where the surface of the earth is dug open to bring out the underground mineral deposits, destroys the topsoil and contaminates the area with toxic metals and chemicals.