Solar technologies- Introduction and Basics


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This is an introductory presentation used for training and building awareness towards Solar energy technologies , their uses, comparisons and day to day applications. This presentation is accompanied with a large no. of interactive video tutorials (not included here due to size constraints) to complete the understanding and to make the sessions lively. Contact me on to know more.

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Solar technologies- Introduction and Basics

  1. 1. Introduction toSolar Energy Technologies Presented by Sumit Mathur Business Unit Manager Renewable Energy Dar Al Riyadh 1
  2. 2. Content• Part 1 : Background and Intro to Solar technologies• Part 2: Applications of Solar Technologies
  4. 4. Lets Start by Asking a simple questionWhat is the KEY and the PRIMARY source of Energyavailable to us?
  5. 5. It’s the SUN!!!!SURPRISED???Sun’s Energy (Heat & Light) is the basis of all life andenergy in the environment/surroundings
  6. 6. SUN is INDEED the Primary Source of all energy Oxygen Plants Photosynthesis Bio Fuels Food Biomass Food Fossil fuels Fossil Fuels Animals Biomass Bio fuels Piezo -Electric Energy Energy = Heat & Light Hydro PowerSun Water Bodies Tidal Energy Ocean Thermal Energy Direct radiation Wind Energy Earth Volcanic Eruptions Heat Geo Thermal Energy Earthquakes Nuclear Energy Please note that there may be overlaps in the secondary and tertiary sources of energy
  7. 7. What is Solar Energy?• Originates with the thermonuclear fusion reactions occurring in the sun.• Represents the entire electromagnetic radiation (visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays, and radio waves).
  8. 8. How much solar energy do we get ? The surface receives about 47% of the total solar energy that reaches the Earth. Only this amount is usable.
  9. 9. World DNI Radiation Data Saudi Arabia is amongst the highest solar radiation receiving regions in the world
  10. 10. Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Energy • Advantages • All chemical and radioactive polluting byproducts of the thermonuclear reactions remain behind on the sun, while only pure radiant energy reaches the Earth. • Energy reaching the earth is incredible. By some estimates, 30 days of sunshine striking the Earth have the energy equivalent of the total of all the planet’s fossil fuels, both used and unused! • Disadvantages • Sun does not shine consistently. • Solar energy is a diffused source. To harness it, we must concentrate it into an amount and form that we can use, such as heat and electricity. • Addressed by approaching the problem through: 1) collection, 2) conversion, 3) storage.
  11. 11. So How Can We Utilize The Immense Power Of The Sun? • Getting electricity from Sun – Photo Voltaic (PV) Technologies • Direct conversion of sun’s energy to electricity (DC) • Easy to design and set up / construct – PV cells are put together in series and parallel combinations to form modules. Sets of modules in form arrays. Strings of arrays are set up to get desired EMF & current. • Generate power only during ‘Day Hours’ – Need battery banks to be charged for usage in night hours • Getting heat from Sun and utilizing as thermal or electrical power – Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Technologies (also called Solar Thermal Tech.) • Utilization of heat in Sun’s energy for Heating/Cooling applications and Electricity generation. – Focus sun’s rays using mirrors to a specific point for raising temp of working fluid, which may be used for generation of HP steam or for heating air/gases/other fluids • More complex than PV technology – Thermal to electric conversion very similar to Coal/Oil/Gas based generation • Can generate electricity 24hrs using energy storage technologies
  12. 12. Photovoltaic Technologies• Photo Voltaic (PV) – Crystalline Silicon : Oldest, tried & tested • Mono Silicon : Conversion efficiency 18 - 22% • Poly Silicon : Conversion Efficiency 15-17% – Thin Films : Relatively new • Conversion Efficiency 8-12% Mono Crystalline Silicon Poly Crystalline Silicon PV module PV module – Concentrated PV : Very recent • Conversion Efficiency 30 - 40% (lab scale proven upto 70%)*Conversion efficiencies vary between technologies andeven within same technology based on design, locationand environment.**Use of sun-tracking mechanism increases conversionefficiency by almost 10-15% Thin Film Concentrated PV Cells PV module
  13. 13. Concentrating Solar Power Technologies• CSP ( Conversion efficiency usually upwards of 25% up to 55% or higher) – Parabolic Trough – Linear Fresnel – Power Tower Parabolic Trough CSP Linear Fresnel CSP – Sterling Engine-Dish *Conversion efficiencies vary between technologies and even within same technology based on design, location and environment. **Use of sun-tracking mechanism increases conversion efficiency . Power Tower CSP Sterling Engine – Dish CSP
  14. 14. Different technologies for different applications
  15. 15. Different technologies for different applications
  17. 17. Solar PV manufacturing approaches Cd Te = Cadmium Telluride; CIGS = Copper Indium Gallium (di) Selenide
  18. 18. World’s largest Solar PV Plants DC peak PV power DC peak powerPV power Country Notes Country power Notes station (MWp)station (MWp) Okhotnykovo Completed Ukraine 80Charanka Completed Solar Park 2011 India 214Solar Park 2012 Phase II and IIIGolmud Solar Completed completed China 200 SolarparkPark 2011 Germany 78 2011, another SenftenbergSarnia 70 MW phase Constructed plannedPhotovoltaic Canada 97 2009–Power Lieberose 2010[33]Plant[32] Photovoltaic Germany 71.8Montalto di ParkCastro Rovigo Completed ConstructedPhotovoltaic Italy 84.2 Photovoltaic Italy 70 November 2009–2010Power Power Plant 2010Station Olmedilla Completed Phase I Photovoltaic Spain 60 SeptemberFinsterwalde completed Park 2008 Germany 80.7Solar Park 2009, phase Strasskirchen II and III 2010 Germany 54 Solar Park Puertollano Photovoltaic Spain 50 opened 2008 Park
  19. 19. Cost Components of PV technologies
  20. 20. Projected PV Costs upto 2020
  21. 21. Wide variation in PV CAPEX costs between different regions
  22. 22. Competition in PV CAPEX costsbetween C-Si and TF technologies
  23. 23. Average PV Installation CAPEX
  24. 24. Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) for PV
  25. 25. LCOE Comparison of PV vs Conventional Technologies Source: Sunrise in the Desert , ESIA , Jan 2012
  27. 27. Estimated Global Deployment of CSP
  28. 28. World’s largest Solar CSP Plants Capacity Name Country Location Notes (MW) Solar Energy Mojave Desert Collection of 9 354 Generating USA California units Systems Solnova Solar Completed 150 Spain Seville Power Station 2010 completed Andasol solar 2011, with 150 Spain Granada power station 7.5h thermal energy storage Torre de Completed Extresol Solar Miguel 100 Spain December Power Station Sesmero 2010 (Badajoz) Martin Next steam input Generation into a 75 USA Florida Solar Energy combined Center cycle Nevada Solar Boulder City, 64 USA One Nevada
  29. 29. Estimated CAPEX for CSP by Technology
  30. 30. Estimated CAPEX for CSP by Technology
  31. 31. Levelized Cost of Electricity forCSP Trough & Tower Technologies
  32. 32. Regional (DNI) dependence of LCOE
  33. 33. Cost Components of Trough & Tower CSP technologiesCSP Trough Technology CSP Power Tower Technology
  34. 34. Cost Economics – PV vs CSP
  36. 36. Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) plant (Kuraymat, Egypt) • The project based on CSP parabolic trough technology integrated with combined cycle power plant using natural gas as a fuel • The project is one of 3 similar projects are being implemented in Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Egypt), which mainly depending on integrating solar field with combined cycle. • The capacity of the project is 140 MW including solar share of 20 MW. • Total cost is 340 Million Dollar. • The project was completed in 2011.
  37. 37. Energy Storage• Molten Salts are used to store Solar energy by heating them to high temperatures. Salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost, have a high specific heat capacity and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems. Storage efficiency may range above 90%.• Rechargeable batteries have been traditionally used in Off-grid PV systems to store excess electricity. With grid-tied systems, excess electricity can be sent to the transmission grid. Net metering programs give these systems a credit for the electricity they deliver to the grid. This credit offsets electricity provided from the grid when the system cannot meet demand, effectively using the grid as a storage mechanism.• Pumped-storage hydroelectricity stores energy in the form of water pumped when surplus electricity is available, from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation one. The energy is recovered when demand is high by releasing the water: the pump becomes a turbine, and the motor a hydroelectric power generator.• Artificial photosynthesis involves the use of nanotechnology to store solar electromagnetic energy in chemical bonds, by splitting water to produce hydrogen fuel or then combining with carbon dioxide to make biopolymers such as methanol.
  38. 38. Land Use ComparisonAverage, Maximum, and Minimum Land Use Efficiencies for Four Solar Technologies Source: Renewable Energy in the California Desert;
  40. 40. Applications of Solar Technologies• Based on type of energy generated – Power – Heat• Customer & Scale – Utility – Industrial – Commercial – Residential
  41. 41. Some Examples of Applications• Utility – Power Generation – Water Desalination – Water Filtration• Industrial – Hot Water/Steam – HVAC – Water Filtration & Desalination – Water Pumping – Mobile Phone Towers – Remote applications (Process Instrumentation) etc• Residential / Commercial – Power for Home & office Electrical Systems – Space Heating – Cooling and Chilling – Street Lighting – Traffic Lights etc
  43. 43. Utility Scale Power Generation Solar PV Based Solar CSP Sterling Dish Based Solar CSP Power Tower Based
  44. 44. Solar Powered Water Treatment- PV Technology Solar PV based Water Desalination concept Solar PV based Water Treatment Plant, Philadelphia
  45. 45. Solar Powered Water Desalination – Sterling Dish CSP Technology
  46. 46. Advantages ofCSP Sterling Dish Technology
  47. 47. Solar Powered Telecom Towers
  48. 48. Solar Powered Industrial Instruments
  50. 50. Solar Energy BasedHome Lighting & Power Systems
  51. 51. Solar Powered Air Conditioners
  52. 52. Solar Powered Air Conditioners
  53. 53. Integrated Solar Powered Heating (Space Heating & Hot Water)
  54. 54. Solar Hot Water Systems
  55. 55. Solar Hot Water Systems
  56. 56. Solar Powered Swimming Pool Heating
  57. 57. Solar Powered Street Lights
  58. 58. Solar Powered Lighting (Parking and Garden)
  59. 59. Solar Powered Traffic Lights
  60. 60. Solar Powered Fancy Lighting
  61. 61. Low Power Solar Applications
  62. 62. Low Power Solar Applications (Lanterns)
  63. 63. Solar Powered Remote Applications - Water Purification System
  64. 64. Solar Powered Remote Applications - Water Purification System
  65. 65. Solar Powered Remote Applications – Water Purification
  66. 66. Solar Powered Remote Applications - Habitable Tents
  67. 67. Lets look out for and discuss opportunities forintroducing Solar Energy based Projects,Applications and Solutions!!Thank youFor any queries, please write to me on sumitmathur80@gmail.comInterested to learn more. Read my blog: