C O T T O N
L IN E N
J U T E
H E M P & R E M IE
V E G E T A B L E
(C e llu lo s ic )
W O O L
S IL K
A N IM A L
(P ro te in )
M E T A L ( Z A R I)
M IN E R A L
N A T U R A L
V IS C O S E R A Y O N
M O D A L
L Y O C E L L
S E M I-S Y N T H E T IC
(R E G E N E R A T E D )
N Y L O N
T E Y L E N E
O R L O N
S Y N T H E T IC
M A N M A D E
T E X T IL E F IB R E S
The process of making the yarn from a
textile fiber is called Spinning.
Yarn is defined as a linear assemblage of
the fibers twisted together.
B. Yarns are classed based on fiber
length and method of processing
1) Blow room
a) Mixing bale opener
b) Condenser & cages
c) Hopper feeder
d) Breaker scutcher
e) finisher scutcher
f) Lap forming unit
1) Reduction of bigger tufts of
material into small size.
2) Removal of trash.
BALE OPENING or BREAKING:
The cotton tufts are opened in this
As the cotton arrives in an extremely
compressed condition the first
operation is to loosen the matted
The cotton fiber is loosen by means of
rotating spiked rollers of the bale
This is a process of mixing the
same/different category of fibers
to get desired properties and cost
Mixing is done after the study of
the essential properties of fiber like
staple length,Tensile strength,
fineness, uniformity etc.
1) Condensation of loose fibre into sheet
2) Removal dust trough suction.
1) Reduction of tuft size.
2) Opening cleaning & removal of trash.
3) Condensation of fibre.
1) Indiviualization of fibre.
2) Removal of trash & dust.
3) Removal of short fibre & nep.
4) Conversion of lap into sliver.
Carding is the heart of spinning in
this process the minute impurities
like small seed particles,immature
fibers etc. are removed.
The straightening and aligning of
fibers are done in this process.
In carding the Blow room lap is
attenuated to the card sliver.
1) Parallelisation of fibre.
2) Reduction in trash.
3) Improving in uniform way by
Through drafting fibbers get paralleled
Up to Eight Carded Slivers are fed into the
Draw-Frame and they are
stretched/Straightened and made into a
Also fiber blending can be done at this
1) Reduction of no. of fibre into sliver.
2) Parallelisation of fibre & convert in
Further drafting is done here to get
the fibers more aligned/paralleled.
The Sliver from Draw-Frame is thicker
and will be difficult to be fed into the
Ring-frame as is, hence here the
Slivers are stretched and were made
thinner by Drafting and mild twisting
(so as to strengthen the Roving).
The End-Product from the Simplex is
called as Roving.
1) Conversion roving into yarn.
2) Improving the strength by twisting.
3) Winding into suitable package.
The roving is fed into the Ring-frame
and is made into yarn by further
Drafting & Twisting.
Basic Functions of Ring Frame
to draft the roving until the required
fineness is achieved
to impart strength to the fiber, by inserting
Depending upon the yarn count required
, the drafting and twisting can be