Concept of networking


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Concept of networking

  1. 1. CONCEPTS OF NETWORKING <ul><li>PRESENTED BY : </li></ul><ul><li> SUMIT DIMRI </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  2. 2. AGENDA <ul><li>Topics To Be Illustrated :- </li></ul><ul><li>Networking & 3Elements Required For NetworkinG </li></ul><ul><li>NeeD FoR NetworkinG </li></ul><ul><li>Types Of NeTwoRk </li></ul><ul><li>OSI Reference ModeL </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP SuiT </li></ul><ul><li>ComParInG tcpip wiTH osi model </li></ul><ul><li>NetWorK harDwarE </li></ul><ul><li>IP AddReSSinG  First Octet RulE </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Basic Elements For Functionality Of Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Network Hardware - For Data Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Network Software - For Data Representation & Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Network ProtocoL - For Defining RuLeS For data Communations </li></ul>
  4. 4. NeEd Of NetworkinG <ul><li>File sharing: A network makes it easy for everyone to access the same file and prevents people from accidentally creating different versions. </li></ul><ul><li>Printer sharing: With a network, several computers can share the same printer. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and collaboration: A network allows employees to share files, view other people's work, and exchange ideas more efficiently. In a larger office, you can use e-mail and instant messaging tools to communicate quickly and to store messages for future reference. </li></ul><ul><li>Remote access: With remote access in place, users are able to access the same files, data, and messages even when they're not in the office. </li></ul><ul><li>Data protection: A network makes it easier to back up all of your company's data on an offsite server, a set of tapes, CDs, or other backup systems. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of networkinG <ul><ul><li>LAN (Local Area Network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAN (Wide Area Network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer To Peer Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server Base Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Host (Sender of Information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guest (Receiver of Information) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. LAN (Local Area Network) <ul><li>Network which is include in a single building or room can be defined as </li></ul><ul><li>LAN or we can say Intranet. </li></ul>
  7. 7. WAN (Wide Area Network ) <ul><li>Network expanding through cities , countries, continents limit called WAN, which can be connected through phone or modem . it’s also called internet. </li></ul>
  8. 8. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) <ul><li>Network expand through a Single building in city limit is called MAN. </li></ul>Sector 1 Sector 2
  9. 9. Peer To Peer Network <ul><li>In this network both computers have equal rights to share their resources. And both acts as server. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Server Base Network <ul><li>In this network all computers and other shared resources are controlled by centralized server. </li></ul>
  11. 11. OSI REFERENCE MODEL [ Open System Interconnection ]
  12. 12. Layers In OSI Model <ul><li>Application Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible For Allowing Network Processes To Applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains Set Of Applications For Representation Of Data. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Presentation Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible For Data Encryption, Compression And Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Determines The Format Of Presentation Of Data </li></ul><ul><li>3. Session Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible For Establishing, Managing And Terminating sessions Between Applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Inter-Hosts Communication </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>4. Transport layer </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Virtual End To End Communication Between Peer Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Checks For Header And Reliable Connection By Error Detection And Correction </li></ul><ul><li>5. Network Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible For Path Selection Between End Systems Through Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Performs Subnet Flow Control </li></ul><ul><li>Performs Fragmentation Of A Data Packet To Be Sent And Assembly Of Frames Being Received By Sender </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes Virtual Circuits </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>6. Data Link Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluates Physical Address Of Concerned Hardware Or Device For Receiving Or Transmitting Frames. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains Two Sub Protocols. Medium Access And Link Layer Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Error Free Communication Link </li></ul><ul><li>7. Physical Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible For Transmission Of Raw Bits Over A Communication Link </li></ul><ul><li>Consists Of Mechanical and Electrical Interfaces To Physically Transfer Data Through Physical Medium </li></ul>
  15. 15. The TCPIP ModeL <ul><li>The TCPIP Model Is a Specification For Computer Network Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Also Called Internet Reference Model </li></ul><ul><li>TCPIP Defines Set Of Rules To Enable The Computers To Communicate Over A Network </li></ul><ul><li>Provides End To End Connectivity Specifying How Data Should Be Formatted, Addressed And Routed Over A Network </li></ul><ul><li>Contains 4 Layers </li></ul>
  16. 17. Layers In TCPIP ModeL <ul><li>Application Layer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the scope within which applications create user data and communicate this data to other processes or applications on another or the same host. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The communications partners are often called peers . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is where the &quot;higher level&quot; protocols such as SMTP , FTP , SSH , HTTP , etc. operate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transport Layer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Transport Layer constitutes the networking regime between two network hosts, either on the local network or on remote networks separated by routers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Transport Layer provides a uniform networking interface that hides the actual topology (layout) of the underlying network connections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is where flow-control, error-correction, and connection protocols exist, such as TCP . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This layer deals with opening and maintaining connections between Internet hosts. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Internet Layer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet Layer has the task of exchanging datagrams across network boundaries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is therefore also referred to as the layer that establishes internetworking, indeed, it defines and establishes the Internet . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This layer defines the addressing and routing structures used for the TCP/IP protocol suite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The primary protocol in this scope is the Internet Protocol , which defines IP addresses . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its function in routing is to transport datagrams to the next IP router that has the connectivity to a network closer to the final data destination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link Layer : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This layer defines the networking methods with the scope of the local network link on which hosts communicate without intervening routers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This layer describes the protocols used to describe the local network topology and the interfaces needed to affect transmission of Internet Layer datagrams to next-neighbor hosts. (cf. the OSI Data Link Layer). </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Network hardware <ul><li>Typically refers to equipment facilitating the use of a computer network.Typically, this includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>routers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>switches, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hubs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gateways, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>network interface cards, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking cables, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>network bridges, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modems. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Router <ul><li>It works on layer three (Network) </li></ul><ul><li>It communicates different network. </li></ul><ul><li>It has it’s own OS which can be configured by Computer. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s best than all. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Switch <ul><li>It works on layer two (data link) </li></ul><ul><li>It has many collision domain. Each port is one collision domain. </li></ul><ul><li>It broadcasts at first time. </li></ul><ul><li>It communicates all computers of same network. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s speed is better than Hub. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Hub (Hybrid Unit Board) <ul><li>It works on layer one (Physical) </li></ul><ul><li>It has One Collision domain or one way for sending data. </li></ul><ul><li>It always broadcast. </li></ul><ul><li>It communicates computers of one network. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s differentiated by it’s sticker and it’s port (hub link) </li></ul>
  22. 23. Gateway <ul><li>Operates as a router </li></ul><ul><li>Data conversions above the network layer. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encapsulation - use an intermediate network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>translation - connect different application protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encrpyption - could be done by a gateway </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Nic (Network interface cards) <ul><li>Network interface cards (also called NICs, network adapters,or network cards) are connectivity devices that enable a workstation, server, printer, or other node to receive and transmit data over the network media </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all NICs contain a data transceiver, the device that transmits and receives data signals </li></ul><ul><li>NICs belong to both the Physical layer and Data Link layer of the OSI Model, because they apply data signals to the wire and assemble or disassemble data frames </li></ul>
  24. 25. Network Cabling <ul><li>There are lots of Cables which are used in Network to communicate computers and Network devices to each others. The main cables are . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight through Cables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross through Cables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rollover cables </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Straight Through Cables <ul><li>This type of cables are used to join two different divices. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. PC to Switch , Switch to Router , PC to Hub. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Cross Through Cable <ul><ul><li>It connects same devices . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. PC to PC , Switch to Switch etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Rollover Cables <ul><li>It connects switch or Router to computer through console port. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Coaxial Cable <ul><li>Types of cables which are used for communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Co axial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made By Copper , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data move in the form of Electronic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cheap but slow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The connector of this wire is BNC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. TV Cable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length Covers about 500 m. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Twisted-Pair <ul><li>It ‘s the network media of choice </li></ul><ul><li>It’s well suited to the need of the modern network. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s used for both telephone and Network. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Types T-P Cables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shielded Twisted pair (STP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Untwisted Twisted Pair (UTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The difference between STP and UTP is the extra shielding cover of it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The distance is longer than UTP. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Fiber Optic Cables <ul><li>It’s newcomer in the Networking scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Electric signals to send data transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>Travels distances measured in Kilometers. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s costly than other cables. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Bridge <ul><li>Copies frames from one network to another </li></ul><ul><li>Can operate selectively - does not copy all frames (must look at data-link headers). </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the network beyond physical length limitations. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Bridge
  33. 34. IP Addressing  First Octet Rule <ul><li>IP Address : A Numerical Identification Assigned To Devices For Addressing Them. </li></ul><ul><li>32-BIT Binary Code Format Address </li></ul><ul><li>32 Bits Divided Into 4 Octets With Each Octet Of 8 Bits. </li></ul><ul><li>Each Octet Is Converted Into Equivalent Decimal Form </li></ul><ul><li>Each pair Is Then Written Together In Dotted Decimal Form </li></ul>
  34. 35. There Are Five Primary Classes Of IP Addresses. The Higher Order 3 Bits determines The Class. Class First Octet Network A 0 - 126 Large B 128 - 191 Medium C 192 -223 Small D 224 - 239 Multicast E 240 - 255 Experiment
  35. 36. 1st octet = network address, octets 2-4 = host address. 1st bits of 1st octet set to 0 or OFF. Range varies from (0-127). Class A IP Address:
  36. 37. Class B IP Address: 1st 2 octets = network address, octets 3-4 = host address. First 2 bits of 1st octet set to 10. Range varies from (128-191).
  37. 38. 1st 3 octets = network address, octet 4 = host address. 1st 3 bits of 1st octet set to 110 Range varies from (192-223) Class C IP Address:
  38. 39. Thank You !