Biology and pharmaceutical sciences

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Biology and pharmaceutical sciences, branches of biology, applied biology, economic botany

Biology and pharmaceutical sciences, branches of biology, applied biology, economic botany

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  • 1. BIOLOGY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
  • 2.  The word biology is the combination of two greek words i.e. bios: Life and logos: disclosure. Thus biology is science dealing with the study of living things.  Living things have four characteristics. They can grow, respire, reproduce and have property of autonomic movements.  Livings things may be found from plant or animal origin. Thus the branch dealing with plants known as botany(Gk botane: plant) and the branch dealing with animals (Gk zoon: animal) known zoology.  General biology includes study of plants, animals, includes  Bacteria & viruses,  Fungi,  Algae,  Bryophyta,  Pteridophyta,  Gymnosperms,  Angiosperms and their life processes.
  • 3. Bacteria  Microscopic 0.2mm or less  Present everywhere
  • 4. Economic importance-Useful aspect  Products in our day to day life are the result of bacteria   Curd Cheese  Antibiotics  Streptomycin  Amoxicillin
  • 5. Economic importance-Harmful aspect Diseases in human being  Tuberculosis - M c o ba c te rium tube rc ulo s is y  Syphilis- Try p o ne m a p a llid um  Gonorrhoea- N is s e ria g o nno rho e a e  Diphtheria- Co ry ne ba c te rium d ip hthe ria e  Tetanus- Clo s trid ium te ta ni  Whooping cough- Bo rd e te lla p e rtus s is  Anthrax-Ba c illus a nthra c is 
  • 6. Food poisoning (Botulism)Clo s trid ium bo tulinum  Diseases in plants  Citrus canker- Xa ntho m o na s c itri 
  • 7. Viruses   Causes diseases only in plants & humans In humans -e.g. cough & cold (caused by 100 different viruses), measles, mumps, AIDS etc  In plants- e.g. yellow vein mosaic of bhindi, Papaya mosaic, leaf roll of papaya etc
  • 8. FUNGI Non green plants  Grow on dead & decaying organic matter and absorb food from it  Microscopic form to large ones with big fruiting bodies  Common example is mushroom  Microscopic form Macroscopic form
  • 9. Forms which you have seen Edible mushroom  Poisonous mushroom like toadstool  Bread mould-A p e rg illus , Pe nic illium , M o r etc s uc  On the leaves of sarso, muli etc as black rounded spots  Yeast -baking, brewing (bread, beer, wine)  Antibiotics- Penicillin & Cephalosporin  Cheese- Roquefort & Camembert 
  • 10. Economic importance- useful aspect In market different forms of mushroom are available which are edible  Packed button mushroom  Truffles 
  • 11. Economic importance- useful aspect Soy sauce , tofu, tempeh , miso  tofu tempeh
  • 12. Economic importance- useful aspect G a no d e rm a luc id um tea, powder, tooth paste Used in cancer treatment
  • 13. Economic importance- harmful aspec  Crop diseases- e.g. potato blight (cause of irish famine in 1845) Dandruff in human beings-M la s s e z ia furfur a 
  • 14. Economic importance- harmful aspec Athelets foot-Tric ho p hy to n sp. Ring worm-Tric ho p hy to n sp.
  • 15. ALGAE Largest producer of carbohydrate  Range from microscopic to giant forms  Some forms are edible like Ulva (sea lettuce)  Agar agar extracted from algae G e lid ium used as a solidifying agent in culture medium 
  • 16. Sometimes colour of sea & snow shows the colour of algae (Cha m y d o m o na s niva lis ) 
  • 17. Causes water bloom (Forms a layer on the surface of dirty water) 
  • 18. BRYOPHYTA Marcantia Amphibious  plant Grows on land  as well as water Anthoceros
  • 19. PTERIDOPHYTA Grows in moist and shady places.e.g. Ferns   Ly c o p o d ium
  • 20. GYMNOSPERMS Do not produce flowers but form seeds  Seeds are naked. Fruits not formed  E.g. Cy c a s , Pinus , Ep he d ra  Terpentine oil is extracted from Pinus  Chilgoza is the seed of Pinus g e ra rd ia na  Cy c a s (sago palm) is a source of sago  Ep he d ra is a source of medicine Ephedrine 
  • 21. ANGIOSPERMS   Flowering plants Produce seeds in fruit
  • 22.  The study of botany has paramount importance as human being totally depends upon the living world for his food, clothing and shelter. Food is basic need of life without which no one can survive. Food may be plant or animal origin like pulses, cereals, vegetables, eggs, meat etc.  Increased population creates food problem because the population increases in a geometric ratio while food increases arithmetically.
  • 23. • Biology is such a very vast subject and is intimately connected with several other sciences. BRANCHES OF BOTANY 1. Morphology: (Gk morphe: form) structure of an organ or organism as whole which includes a) External morphology: external structures of plant and mainly dealing with size and shape. b) Internal morphology which includes: i. Cytology or cell biology: This deals with study of cells. ii. Histology: This deals with structure and arrangement of tissues. iii.Anatomy: This deals with internal gross structure of plants and animals.
  • 24. 2. Physiology: This branch deals with life processes of growth, respiration, excretion, nutrition etc. in animals and plants. 3. Ecology: deals with the study distribution and abundance of plants, the interactions among and between members of plant species and their interaction with their environment. 4. Genetics: deals with studies of heredity and variation in plants. 5. Taxonomy: science that finds, describes, classifies, identifies, and names plants on the basis of external features, internal features & showing relatedness. 6. Palaeontology: This deals with study of ancient organisms through animals or plant fossils.
  • 25. • Biology is closely related with the following under disciplinary subjects: a) Biochemistry: it involves study of chemistry of living organisms. b) Biophysics: It deals with study of principles of physics as seen in organism and has applications in the field of space biology, soil sciences and radiation biology. c) Biometry: This deals with study of collection and analysis of biological data, available in genetics and physiology. d) Aerobiology: This deals with the scientific and mutidisclipinary approach focused on transport of organism and biologically significant materials and also with their sources, release in atmosphere and allergic properties.
  • 26. • Applied Biology: Application of biological knowledge practically for the human welfare is known as Applied biology. • Applied biology is divided in following subclasses. 1. Agriculture: Dealing with cultivation of crop plants for better yields. 2. Horticulture : Dealing with cultivation of flower and fruits yielding plants. 3. Fisheries: Dealing with the study of culture, development and propagation of fishes as foods. 4. Forestry: Dealing with the study of exploration and conservation of forests. 5. Medicine: Dealing with the study of causes and cures of diseases.
  • 27. • Applied Botany/ Economic Botany: This deals with the study of economically valuable plants and their products, wherein botanical knowledge is utilized for the well being of mankind. . • Plants are known to constitute the environment right from the dawn of human race. Human beings at the most primitive stage of their development were totally dependant on plants as their main source of food, cloth and shelter. • With the increased complexity of civilization human life has become more dependant on plants as will revealed by the superficial study of economically important plants. • It is needless to say that human life has become more comfortable, secure and healthy to great extent due to plants.
  • 28. • Applied botany has been divided into following subclasses. 1. Pharmaceutical botany: it is botanical study of drugs, spices and poisonous plants. 2. Plant pathology : Deals with diseases of plants, along with their diagnosis, cure and prevention. 3. Plant breeding: Deals with hybridization of crossbreeding of plants, produce new or improved varieties of plants. 4. Pharmacognosy: Dealing with the study of crude drug mainly of plant origin, with special reference to their cultivation, collection preparation for market, standardization and storage. 5. Bacteriology: A branch of microbiology dealing with study of bacteria. 6. Agricultural botany or agronomy: it is botanical study of the plants of agricultural importance.
  • 29. Relevance of Biology and pharmaceutical sciences • By going through classification of biology and the subjects closely related to biology, it is observed that various disciplines intimately associated with pharmaceutical sciences have liaison (link) with each other. • Pharmacy or pharmaceutical sciences deals with study of drugs. Drugs may be obtained from animal, mineral or synthetic sources. The two earlier sources are part and parcel of biology. • By cumulative study of all disciplines of biology, we can study plants and animals in most respects. Approximately 90 % of drugs are obtained from plants or animals. • Thus biological studies helps us to understand plant or animal drugs properly. The scientific knowledge of plant habitat and cultivation provide us various methods of cultivating medicinal plants with better yield.
  • 30. • Studies of non-living contents of cells under cytology tells us about the chemical constituents which are present in plants and animals, due to which they are used as curative substances. • Several plants of fungal origin like penicillium, ergot and algal growth like agar and chondrous have provided several antibiotics, alkaloids and pharmaceutical aids, respectively. • Pathological plant products like gum, resins and excretory products tannins, latices, essential oils have given us high valuable drugs. • It is due to Phytochemistry that we are able to get many compounds having high therapeutic potential like glycosides, steroids, enzymes etc.
  • 31. • Relevance of animals to pharmaceutical sciences is not inferior to any extent as compared to plants. • Insects have offered numerous pharmaceutical aids like shellac, honey, bees-wax and and colouring agents (cochineal). • Many organs of animals are used for extraction of hormones & other biological products viz. adrenaline, insulin, thyroid, liver –oils, etc. • Apart from that, several animals as whole or their organs are utilized for pharmacological standardization, evaluation & experimental trials of drugs.