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The word biology is the combination of two greek words i.e. bios: Life
and logos: disclosure. Thus biology is science dealing with the study of
Living things have four characteristics. They can grow, respire,
reproduce and have property of autonomic movements.
Livings things may be found from plant or animal origin. Thus the
branch dealing with plants known as botany(Gk botane: plant) and the
branch dealing with animals (Gk zoon: animal) known zoology.
General biology includes study of plants, animals,
Bacteria & viruses,
their life processes.
Microscopic 0.2mm or less
Economic importance-Useful aspect
Products in our day to day life are the result of
Economic importance-Harmful aspect
Diseases in human being
Tuberculosis - M c o ba c te rium tube rc ulo s is
Syphilis- Try p o ne m a p a llid um
Gonorrhoea- N is s e ria g o nno rho e a
Diphtheria- Co ry ne ba c te rium d ip hthe ria e
Tetanus- Clo s trid ium te ta ni
Whooping cough- Bo rd e te lla p e rtus s is
Anthrax-Ba c illus a nthra c is
Food poisoning (Botulism)Clo s trid ium bo tulinum
Diseases in plants
Citrus canker- Xa ntho m o na s
Causes diseases only in plants &
In humans -e.g. cough & cold
(caused by 100 different
viruses), measles, mumps, AIDS
In plants- e.g. yellow vein mosaic
of bhindi, Papaya mosaic, leaf
roll of papaya etc
Non green plants
Grow on dead & decaying organic matter and absorb
food from it
Microscopic form to large ones with big fruiting bodies
Common example is mushroom
Forms which you have seen
Poisonous mushroom like toadstool
Bread mould-A p e rg illus , Pe nic illium , M o r etc
On the leaves of sarso, muli etc as black rounded
Yeast -baking, brewing (bread, beer, wine)
Antibiotics- Penicillin & Cephalosporin
Cheese- Roquefort & Camembert
Economic importance- useful aspect
In market different
forms of mushroom are
available which are
Packed button mushroom
Economic importance- useful aspect
G a no d e rm a luc id um
tea, powder, tooth paste
Used in cancer treatment
Economic importance- harmful aspec
Crop diseases- e.g.
potato blight (cause of
irish famine in 1845)
Dandruff in human
beings-M la s s e z ia furfur
Economic importance- harmful aspec
Athelets foot-Tric ho p hy to n sp.
Ring worm-Tric ho p hy to n sp.
Largest producer of
Range from microscopic
to giant forms
Some forms are edible
like Ulva (sea lettuce)
Agar agar extracted
from algae G e lid ium used as a solidifying
agent in culture medium
of sea & snow
shows the colour of
(Cha m y d o m o na s
niva lis )
Causes water bloom
(Forms a layer on the
surface of dirty water)
Grows on land
as well as water
Grows in moist and
Ly c o p o d ium
Do not produce flowers but
Seeds are naked. Fruits not
E.g. Cy c a s , Pinus , Ep he d ra
Terpentine oil is extracted from
Chilgoza is the seed of Pinus
g e ra rd ia na
Cy c a s (sago palm) is a source
Ep he d ra is a source of medicine
Produce seeds in fruit
The study of botany has paramount importance as human being
totally depends upon the living world for his food, clothing and
Food is basic need of life without which no one can survive. Food
may be plant or animal origin like pulses, cereals, vegetables, eggs,
Increased population creates food problem because the
population increases in a geometric ratio while food increases
• Biology is such a very vast subject and is intimately
connected with several other sciences.
BRANCHES OF BOTANY
1. Morphology: (Gk morphe: form) structure of an organ
or organism as whole which includes
a) External morphology: external structures of plant and
mainly dealing with size and shape.
b) Internal morphology which includes:
i. Cytology or cell biology: This deals with study of
ii. Histology: This deals with structure and
arrangement of tissues.
iii.Anatomy: This deals with internal gross structure of
plants and animals.
2. Physiology: This branch deals with life
processes of growth, respiration, excretion,
nutrition etc. in animals and plants.
3. Ecology: deals with the study distribution and
abundance of plants, the interactions among and
between members of plant species and their
interaction with their environment.
4. Genetics: deals with studies of heredity and
variation in plants.
science that finds, describes,
classifies, identifies, and names plants on the
basis of external features, internal features &
6. Palaeontology: This deals with study of ancient
organisms through animals or plant fossils.
• Biology is closely related with the following under
a) Biochemistry: it involves study of chemistry of living
b) Biophysics: It deals with study of principles of
physics as seen in organism and has applications in
the field of space biology, soil sciences and radiation
c) Biometry: This deals with study of collection and
analysis of biological data, available in genetics and
d) Aerobiology: This deals with the scientific and mutidisclipinary approach focused on transport of
organism and biologically significant materials and
also with their sources, release in atmosphere and
• Applied Biology: Application of biological knowledge
practically for the human welfare is known as Applied
• Applied biology is divided in following subclasses.
1. Agriculture: Dealing with cultivation of crop plants for
2. Horticulture : Dealing with cultivation of flower and
fruits yielding plants.
3. Fisheries: Dealing with the study of culture,
development and propagation of fishes as foods.
4. Forestry: Dealing with the study of exploration and
conservation of forests.
5. Medicine: Dealing with the study of causes and cures
• Applied Botany/ Economic Botany: This deals with
the study of economically valuable plants and their
products, wherein botanical knowledge is utilized for
the well being of mankind.
• Plants are known to constitute the environment right
from the dawn of human race. Human beings at the
most primitive stage of their development were totally
dependant on plants as their main source of food,
cloth and shelter.
• With the increased complexity of civilization human
life has become more dependant on plants as will
revealed by the superficial study of economically
• It is needless to say that human life has become more
comfortable, secure and healthy to great extent due to
• Applied botany has been divided into
1. Pharmaceutical botany: it is botanical study of drugs,
spices and poisonous plants.
2. Plant pathology : Deals with diseases of plants, along
with their diagnosis, cure and prevention.
3. Plant breeding: Deals with hybridization of
crossbreeding of plants, produce new or improved
varieties of plants.
4. Pharmacognosy: Dealing with the study of crude
drug mainly of plant origin, with special reference to
their cultivation, collection preparation for market,
standardization and storage.
5. Bacteriology: A branch of microbiology dealing with
study of bacteria.
6. Agricultural botany or agronomy: it is botanical
study of the plants of agricultural importance.
Relevance of Biology and pharmaceutical sciences
• By going through classification of biology and the
subjects closely related to biology, it is observed that
pharmaceutical sciences have liaison (link) with each
• Pharmacy or pharmaceutical sciences deals with study
of drugs. Drugs may be obtained from animal, mineral or
synthetic sources. The two earlier sources are part and
parcel of biology.
• By cumulative study of all disciplines of biology, we can
study plants and animals in most respects.
Approximately 90 % of drugs are obtained from plants or
• Thus biological studies helps us to understand plant or
animal drugs properly. The scientific knowledge of plant
habitat and cultivation provide us various methods of
cultivating medicinal plants with better yield.
• Studies of non-living contents of cells under
constituents which are present in plants and
animals, due to which they are used as curative
• Several plants of fungal origin like penicillium,
ergot and algal growth like agar and chondrous
have provided several antibiotics, alkaloids and
pharmaceutical aids, respectively.
• Pathological plant products like gum, resins
and excretory products tannins, latices,
essential oils have given us high valuable drugs.
• It is due to Phytochemistry that we are able to
get many compounds having high therapeutic
potential like glycosides, steroids, enzymes etc.
• Relevance of animals to pharmaceutical
sciences is not inferior to any extent as
compared to plants.
• Insects have offered numerous pharmaceutical
aids like shellac, honey, bees-wax and and
colouring agents (cochineal).
• Many organs of animals are used for extraction
of hormones & other biological products viz.
adrenaline, insulin, thyroid, liver –oils, etc.
• Apart from that, several animals as whole or
their organs are utilized for pharmacological
standardization, evaluation & experimental
trials of drugs.