STARTED IN 1300 BC – POTTER’S marks were used in POTTERY in CHINA, GREECE, ROME and INDIA. (identification of ownership and quality)H 1200’s – PRINTERS used WATERMARKS. GOLDSMITHS AND BREADMAKERS put their marks on goods.I Later- SPIRIT makers also marked to indicate the origins of liquor. 1600-1800 – CRIMINALS and SLAVES were brandedS 1800 (LATER)- PATENT MEDICINES and TOBACCO branded their productsT MID 1800 – P & G started branding the consumer productsO 1950’s – BRAND PERSONALITYR 1980’S – BRAND EQUITY LATER 1990’S – BRANDING EMERGED AS A SIGIFICANT AREA OF EMPHASIS.Y
Before answering the question what is a BRANDLets define what is not a BRAND
What is a BRAND? What is ...a set of mental associations, held by the consumer, which add to the perceived value of a product or service.” -Kevin Lane Keller(1998)
What is a BRAND? “A brand is more than a name or a logo – it is a promise and a contract with every customer with whom you are dealing. And if people feel that the offering does not live up to what they expect from the brand, they will decide to stop buying” - Richard Branson
What is a BRAND? “Apple opposes, IBM solves, Nike exhorts, Virgin enlightens, Sony dreams, Benetton protests. … Brands are not nouns but verbs.” Jean-Marie Dru, Disruption
WHY IS BRANDING SO HOT?1.People have too many choices and too little time 2.Most offerings have similar quality and features3.We tend to base our buying choices on trust
What do brands do?They remind us of a past product/service experience.They communicate how we seeourselves.Brands are fantasy.
NEWSLOGOS ARE DEAD. LONG LIVE ICONS AND AVATARS ! FLASH!
An ICON is a name and visual symbolthat suggests a market position.
EXAMPLE:CBS- The network for “eye-popping” television.
An AVATAR is a brand icon thatcan move, change, and operatefreely in various media.
EXAMPLE:VODAFONE: The “self-expression” cellular service.
Elements of BRANDDistinguish the product from competitive brandsNegative or offensive references should be avoidedMemorable and easy to pronounceEasy to say, spell and pronounceIt should allude to the product
Evoke positive mental imageEvoke positive emotional reactionBe unique Possibly, translate well inother languages tooSimpleSound appropriate
It is possible to brand everythingA physical good (Nestle soup, Pantene shampoo or Maruti SwiftA service (Kingfisher Airlines, TATA AIG medical insurance),A store (Big Bazaar, BATA stores),A place (The state of Kerala),An event ( Mela)A person (Shahrukh Khan, Sachin Tendulkar, Tiger Woods, Roger Federer)An organization (UNICEF or BCCI)