GURU NANAK COLLEGE OF ARTS,SCIENCE & COMMERCE F.Y.BMM
GROUP MEMBERS SUMIT AMEESH MILAN VALMIKI IZAZ ANSARI SUDHIR
INTRODUCTION Two self governing countries legally came into existence at the stroke of midnight on 15 August1947. The ceremonies for the transfer of power were held a day earlier in Karachi, at the time the capital of the new state of Pakistan, so that the last British Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma, could attend both the ceremony in Karachi and the ceremony in Delhi. However another reason for this arrangement was to avoid the appearance that Pakistan was seceding from a sovereign India. Therefore Pakistan celebrates Independence Day on August 14, while India celebrates it on August 15.
ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE
The All India Muslim League (AIML) was formed in Dhaka in 1906 by Muslims who were suspicious of the Hindu-majority Indian National Congress. They complained that Muslim members did not have the same rights as Hindu members.
The AllamaIqbal was the writer/philosopher who make demand for a separate state, in his presidential address to the 1930 convention of the Muslim League said that a separate nation for Muslims was essential in an otherwise Hindu-dominated subcontinent. The Sindh Assembly passed a resolution making it a demand in 1935.
Iqbal, Jouhar and others then worked hard to draft Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who had till then worked for Hindu-Muslim unity, to lead the movement for this new nation. By 1930, Jinnah had begun to despair of the fate of minority communities in a united India and had begun to argue that mainstream parties such as the Congress, of which he was once a member, were insensitive to Muslim interests. The 1932 communal award which seemed to threaten the position of Muslims in Hindu-majority provinces catalysed the resurgence of the Muslim League, with Jinnah as its leader. However, the League did not do well in the 1937 provincial elections, demonstrating the hold of the conservative and local forces at the time.
THE BUILDING STAGE 1932-1942 M.A.Jinnah’s statement in 1940. Veer Savarkar and Hindu Mahasabha. Gandhiji’s perspective on partition. Direct Action Day in Calcutta in year 1946.
JINNAH’S REAL VISION Jinnah intended to gain more independence for Muslim’s. Jinnah’s real vision was for extended Pakistan. The Princely states. British Colonial administration-Secretary of state for India, India Office, Governor-General of India, Indian Civil Service.
INDIAN POLITICAL PARTIES All India Muslim League, Communist Party of India, Hindu Mahasabha, Indian National Congress, Khaksar Tehrik, Unionist Muslim League(mainly in Punjab).
THE PARTITION 1947
JUNE 3rd, PLAN OR MOUNTBATTEN PLAN The Radcliffe Line-named after Sir Cyril Radcliffe. July 18, 1947-Indian Independence Act. Government of India Act 1935. Membership in United Nations-(India since 1945 as Successor state). The 625 Princely state.
THE RADCLIFFE LINE It was named after Sir Cyril Radcliffe. Punjab and Bengal commission consisted of two muslim and non muslim judges each, with Sir Cyril Radcliffe as chair Punjab was divided on the basis of Muslims and non-Muslims.
INDEPENDENCE AND POPULATION EXCHANGE Massive population exchanges. Near about 14.5 million people crossed the border. Acc. To 1951 census 7,226,000 Muslims And 7,249,000 Hindus & Sikhs moved. 11.2 million or 78% population exchange in west.
5.3 million Muslims moved from Ind to Pak. 3.2 million Hindus & Sikhs moved from Pak to Ind. Governments were unequipped. Massive violence & slaughter occurred. Death range nearly 5,00,000.
State of Punjab was created in 1947. Violence between Hindus & Muslims. Lahore & Amritsar. Lahore, Rawalpindi, Multan, had large Sikh population & was attacked by Muslims. Amritsar, Ludhiana & Gurdaspur were attacked by Sikhs.
Bengal was divided into East Bengal & West Bengal. West Bengal to India & East Bengal to Pakistan. East Bengal renamed East Pakistan in 1955. Later became independent as Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation war of 1971.
Lord Mountbatten accused of rushing the process. Complete breakdown of Law & Order. Historian Lawrence James concurs that in 1947 Mountbatten was left with no option but to cut and run.
DELHI-PUNJABI REFUGEES 25 million Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs crossed the borders. 12 million were forced to move from Punjab & North Western Frontier Province following the Rawalpindi violence. Delhi received the largest number of refugees. From 1941-1951 population grew 1 million to 2 million in Delhi.
refugees were housed in historical and military locations. Camp sites were later converted into permanent housing. Schemes were provided for the refugees.
REFUGEES SETELED IN INDIA Hindus from East Pakistan settled across Eastern India. Many end up in West Bengal, Assam & Tripura. Some were sent to Andaman Islands. Refugee camps were set up for Hindu Sindhis.
. Photo of a railway station in Punjab. A refugee train on its way to Punjab, Pakistan
REFUGEES SETTLED IN PAKISTAN 7,226,000 Muslims came to Pakistan from India. refugees settled in Punjab Pakistan came from Indian Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir & Rajasthan. Refugees in Sindh came from, Uttar Pradesh,Bihar,Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat & Rajasthan via Wahga & Munabao border.
Train to Pakistan steaming out of New Delhi Railway Station, 1947
People who wished to go to India were visited by M.A.Jinnah. In Karachi population grew from 400,000 in 1947urnedmore than 1.3 millions in 1953.
Old Fort (Purana Qila) in Delhi Muslim refugees waiting to be transported to Pakistan. Manchester Guardian, 27 September 1947.
a young refugee sits on the walls of Purana Qila
Two Muslim men carrying an old woman in a makeshift doli or palanquin 1947.
Muslim couple and their grand children sitting by the roadside
Viceroy Lord Mountbatten of Burma with a countdown calendar to the Transfer of Power in the background
Rural Sikhs in a long ox-cart train headed towards India 1947.
An old Sikh man carrying his wife
Train to Pakistan being given a warm send-off New Delhi railway station, 1947