2. What is LASER BEAM ?• The term laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.• A laser beam is a powerful, narrow, monochromatic and directional beam of electromagnetic radiation.• Often, these beams are within the visible spectrum of light.• A laser device excites the atoms in a lasing medium. The electrons of these atoms move to a higher orbit, then release photons, creating a laser beam.
3. Properties of LASER• A LASER beam is highly intense in nature.• LASER beam is having strictly monochromatic.• LASER light is highly powerful and capable of propagating over long distance & are not easily absorbed by water.• LASER beam is also said to be highly directional.• This beam is coherent with the wave train in phase with each other.
4. History of laserIn 1957, a Columbia University student named Gordon Gould designed the first laser device. His mentor, Charles Townes, had designed and built a device called the maser, which used microwaves, rather then light, to produce a coherent beam of electromagneticradiation. Townes had also designed an optical maser, and thus many people have credited him with the invention of the laser as well. Gould began a patent war, which lasted until 1977, when he finally won his first laser patent .
5. Types of laser• Types of lasers include gas, liquid and solid. Gas lasers excite the electrons in gases, such as helium, neon, cadmium, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Liquid lasers include the dye laser, which uses organic dye molecules in liquid form to produce a wavelength of radiation that can be tuned. Solid lasers include the ruby laser, which uses a precious stone to produce a beam of red light.
6. Function of laser• Laser beams are most commonly used in CD and DVD devices, optical scanners, computer mice, laser printers and pointers. They are also used to produce holograms. Laser beams are used in industry to cut and weld metal and to survey land and construct buildings. In scientific research, theyre used in laser spectroscopy and chemical analysis. They are used in medical procedures such as eye, cancer and heart surgery, as well as in cosmetic procedures. Dental applications include cavity treatment, nerve regeneration and reshaping gum tissue.
7. Benefits of laser• Laser beams can store and play back high-quality still pictures, video and audio, as well as to store computer data. They can measure distances with a high degree of accuracy. Laser scanners in grocery stores save time in pricing products and in processing the customers purchase. In industry, laser cutting and welding are faster and more precise than other methods. In medical and dental procedures, lasers do less damage than scalpels and drills. Scientific research using lasers has led to real-world advances, such as the use of fiber optics in telephone communications and computer networking.
8. Effects of laserThe advances in laser technology have resulted in laser beams becoming commonplace. We use lasers every day, often without realizing were doing so. Future advances in laser technology will undoubtedly produce improvements in the areas of entertainment, medicine, dentistry, computing, defense and telecommunications. Lasers may also be used to produce energy in times to come.
9. Laser welding process• When overlaying with a laser an optical arrangement is used to focus the laser beam on the work piece and heat it. Simultaneously hardfacing material in the form of powder is introduced into the laser beam and melted. Due to the narrow heat affected zone and the fast cooling rate the heat input is low, thereby producing an almost stress free overlay.
10. Laser welding
11. Industrial laser welding
12. Benefits of laser welding• Low heat input• Fast cooling• Almost stress free overlays• High hardness• Fine microstructure
13. Laser welding • Laser welding is a commercial process used to weld a wide range of materials. The beam is focused towards the joint which causes the materials to change from solid to liquid state. Upon cooling it returns to a solid state.
14. Iridium tough laser welding • The 0.4mm iridium tip that generates the high performance of the IRIDIUM TOUGH is an alloy with a very high melting point. Therefore, ordinary resistance welding cannot be used because the iridium does not melt enough and an adequate weld strength cannot be guaranteed. "360° laser welding", which employs a high-energy laser, is used in the IRIDIUM TOUGH to melt and weld all around welding points. Because all area to be welded is completely melted, the welding point is extremely reliable, thus ensuring stable and quality response without changes in the electrode, even under heavy driving conditions.
15. Holographic laser display• Holographic laser light shows can split a single Solid State (DPSS) laser beam by passing the beam through a passive diffractive holographic optical element, which in turn passes through a circular periodicity electromechanical spinning wheel. This spinning disk splits the laser beam into over 1 million individual beams. Diffractive holographic optical elements work by breaking up the incoming wave of light which recombine to form numerous new light waves. This process turns the conventional ‘laser pattern’ into a random and seamless laser show, each new laser beam is scattered and dispersed over large area .
16. Laser lighting display • Laser light is useful in entertainment because the coherent nature of laser light allows a narrow beam to be produced, which allows the use of optical scanning to draw patterns or images on walls, ceilings or other surfaces including theatrical smoke and fog without refocusing for the differences in distance, as is common with video projection. This inherently more focused beam is also extremely visible, and is often used as an effect. Sometimes the beams are "bounced" to different positions with mirrors to create laser sculptures.
17. Safety• Some lasers have the potential to cause eye damage if aimed directly into the eye, or if someone were to stare directly into a stationary laser beam. Some high-power lasers used in entertainment applications can also cause burns or skin damage if enough energy (typically a stationary beam) is directed onto the human body and at a close enough range.
18. Retina damaged due to laser
19. Laser cutting• A computer controlled high power laser beam is focused on the work piece and the resulting heat energy melts or vaporizes the material. Any resulting molten material is blown way by pressurized gas during the cutting process creating a high quality edge.
20. Materials made by laser cutting
21. Laser Cutting Specs• Max Cut Size 3mm X 1.5mm X 16mm Thick.• Max Cut Size 3mm X 1.5mm X 16mm Thick.
22. Advantages of laser cutting• No physical contact with work piece.• Small heat affected zone ( less than plasma )• Minimal material warping.• Precision cutting .• Complex contours.• Intrcateshapes• Quiet• Clean edges• Narrow kerf• Part nesting• No tool wear
23. Materials used for laser cutting• Steel• Aluminum• plastic