Putting ideas into practice A rough and ready guide and a few answers. (what you might/can/should do, communication and learning networks) 'The core competency of universities is not transferring knowledge, but developing it, and that's done within intricate and robust networks and communities.' Brown and Duguid, 1996
What are we trying to do anyway?
Can we effectively use large classes
Utilize small group teaching
And how effective is this for certain types of instructional work (labs, field)
The 'numbers' problem; leading to
The 'tail' problem
The provision of independent learning in a diverse student population
Instructional Position Mix (Further Education Unit, 1981; Good 2000*)
Deficiency model - 'we're here to put something right that went wrong earlier'
Competence model - 'we're here to teach people some specific competence and skills'
Socialization model - 'we're here to help learners fit into society'
Counselling model - 'we're here to help our learners work through the key issues and crises'
Guided discovery - 'we're here to help learners discover things for themselves'
Fostering autonomy - 'we're here to help learners become autonomous and self-sufficient'
The level of technology
Many teachers steer clear of engaging with technology - they leave it to the technologists and get on with the business of teaching' (Good, 2001)
Is this You? If so,
'Don't Panic' (D. Adams)
[I love deadlines. I love the sound of them whooshing past!]
For me , we have to attempt to:
Achieve an appropriate mix of the previous approaches and
Reach more students, effectively
Allow for student problems (jobs, Access etc)
Use the technology available with our individual skills and aptitudes
'Blend' learning as an approach (embedded/involved)
Within the usual constraints of time and cost etc
BUT - we try to do this anyway!
What does the 'e-' add?
Technology is an answer, not the answer, how can we make it more effective?
Identify our own skills and aptitudes and reflect on them
See what others have been doing
Knowing how to use the technology imaginatively
Making student-centred choices
'And the problem is not the technology. The true problem in education is helping students to learn.' (Freeman and Capper, 1999)*
A student-centred view of learning (after **Freeman and Capper 1999) Student Chooses best learning Method. Motivated to objectives Workbook Extra Q & A Lectures Tutorials Staff office Phone Students WWW CBL Text Plus, linkages between these
Overall, I believe we can
Hand opportunities to students
Enhance learning opportunities
Provide freedom from (some) time constraints (I.e. towards distance learning)
Enhance feedback opportunities
Provide better 'Socratic' approaches
Go from mass communication to become more personal
Learning and Understanding = Education
How to get to learning
as a change in personal reality
Encouraging active learning (strategies)
Giving opportunities to practice skills
Giving opportunities to consolidate learning
Posing problems which develop critical thinking
Allow Socratic approaches to learning
Assessment (Much assessment simply fails to engage students with appropriate types of learning - Gibbs and Simpson 2003*)
Better frameworks of assessment (style, timing, frequency, submission etc)
Allows conveying of high expectations (examples, feedback)
Allows more concentration and engagement on the tasks (experiment design, problem solving, developing analytical skills)
And of course we can add a variety of on-line systems for assessment such as MCQs
(Aside from the relative weighting of exams vs coursework the above relate primarily to coursework.)
A few more words from: Educational Innovation: Hvpe, Heresies and Hopes (Freeman and Capper*)
1. We must understand the learning context.
2. We must carefully choose a curriculum that accommodates learners' previous knowledge and experiences and sets them on a course of improved understandings.
3. We must design learning activities that achieve learning outcomes that accommodate learners' contexts. This requires carefully selecting and supporting the appropriate human, print and electronic learning resources.
4. We must integrate assessment with the desired learning outcomes to maximize the likelihood of focused effort.
5. We must track the extent to which learning outcomes are achieved at a formative and summative level, and ensure such feedback is individualised and responsive.
6. We must change the way we see our roles as teachers, from expert content providers to people who can create and support learning communities, both with our students and among our peers.
Clarke and the Medievalists…
'[she] argued that we should get back to a medieval concept of the university as a community of scholars unfettered by difficulties of the wider society.'
Sage on the stage from this; the lecture?
Traveling scholar and student
(Name of the Rose - Ecco)
Traveling masters and their apprentices
(Was this medieval situation as elitist as has been made out?
We now have the chance to broaden the scope, access and allow 'elitism for all'.
The Hitch-Hikers Guide to surviving in the e-mediated age
You can use what you already know and do
You can find new skills without too much problem
You can get students to provide mutual support
You can get departmental/institutional help (with luck) by using common applications and systems
You can find ideas, aids, examples etc. ready tried
i.e. hitching a ride, and don't forget your towel .
Impediments - being honest
More time and
Perhaps more skills
Patience and enthusiasm……
And a bit more time (but don't be put off!)
Task 4 (2 minutes) Making a start
Please list the skills you have:
1 as a teacher
2 as an academic using computers
Write them down (2 minutes) in a column for each and then we'll list them on the board.
Face to Face (f2f)
O-L discussion group
WWW - browsing
How can we bring some of these existing skills together and develop others?
First of all, looking at some pedagogic issues
Looking at the skills we have and
The tools to provide better reflection and inter-activity
Technical fearlessness (*Good 2001)
Level 1: competent in a few tools that are used in everyday working, e.g. w/p
Level 2: competent in a wider range of tools to a higher level (e.g advanced w/p tools for productivity) use a conference area - but still a victim of the many problems that will happen and dependent on others to solve them
Level 3: autonomous explorer - engaged with technology and able to solve own problems and look for opportunities as things change and develop
Level 4: expert
What we might do what we're not attempting
Use what we know
Adapt the tools we know
Think about the methods we use to teach
Help the students in their learning experience
Full distance learning
Technology for the sake of it
Trying to re-invent the wheel
Needing investment of masses of time
Putting 'notes on the web'
How to add both technology and value
Looking at the pedagogy
Looking at what we do and how we do it
Linking these to student needs
Seeing if there are some general aids
A possible introductory model of operation
Use a delivery system
Use a presentational system
Provide a query system
Provide a feedback system
Provide a support system
Provide an instructive system
WWW PowerPoint E-mail Web - E-mail WWW E-libraries / WWW All within a VLE - WebCT You almost certainly know how to use all of these
Death by Bullet Point? or, how to do it by PowerPoint
You don't have to be 'whizz-bang'
But it will deliver lots of things that you want
And that your students like
It's easier than web pages
It's easy to adapt and deliver
It's a multi-media package (surprised?)
It's amazing value for money
Even if it is from Microsoft!
Task 5 (10 minutes) with a colleague of like specialism - use a large sheet of paper
Sketch (Storyboard) about 6-8 scenes/slides on a topic that you know students find 'difficult'
Put bullet points of text - phrases are fine
This can be done on simple ppt
Then , include any static visuals that might help (35mm slides, graphs)
Then, include any video shots
Then, include any audio that might help
Then, consider what you might want to elaborate upon - this could be placed in the 'Notes' section*.
Delivery systems and things you have to consider
You can show it, how do students get to it?
Web delivery (ftp for the techie bit)
Student downloading and printing
Pitfalls: size of file and place (site/server)
IPR and copyright
(this can be a serious problem)
Other considerations of security
Asynchronous Learning additions to make networks
Communication to, from and between students and staff using:
video conferencing (centralized/distributed)
Some notes on the use of web pages
Every module should have a home page!
It doesn't have to be fancy or elaborate or comprehensive
It should be a point of reference and a means of finding and linking to basic information and module materials
This is where your PowerPoints should go
However - 'The notes are on the web'
Is a minimum response (as web pages) and
Is a rather lazy way out (if it's only notes)
Denies the power of the web
Is probably less useful than putting PPT there
Is less easy than putting on PPT
Means you have to know something about HTML - Don't use the 'Save as HTML' option
Things to go on module websites
All the 'official' bits (pre-session)
Module reviews and evaluations ('Advertisements')
Time tables/assessment dates/changes
Extras for the module (e.g. current events)
Latest news, assignments, f-trip reminders
Feedback; specific, general
Pointers to resources, skills pages
Links to departmental 'how to' pages
Results of posters, web pages,
Tests, MCQ, quizzes etc
Lab sheets, instructions, safety documents
Building your website
Don't bother if you don't want to - Bare Bones
This will allow you pretty much all you want to do for many purposes
Add what you want to and when
Update when you want
Use the interactive facilities
Use links to your (module) e-mail address
Other things to consider:
assuming assessment drives most things
Question Mark etc - web version MCQ
Essay and project submission on line
Question: What assessments do you want to run on line?
'Current assessment procedures in higher education are long overdue for a rethink. They are particularly ill suited to the digital age in which using information is more important than remembering it, and where reusing material is a skill to be encouraged, not as academic plagiarism to be despised.' Robin Mason 1998
A quick note about CMC (Computer Mediated Communication)
VLEs and MLEs
Tutor implications and concerns Changed role Workload Group size Activities Assessment
Changing role suggestions via Stephen Brown
Sage on the stage……………... …………… .. guide on the side I feel this is pretty radical - and many of us would fight shy of this, it requires too many things to do it well. Salmon suggests E-tutors must be trained specifically.
Involvement - summary of possibilities
Remote access and experimentation
Distributed synchronous communications
Asynchronous collaborative learning
Access to resources (libraries, WWW etc)
Manipulating visualisations (learning styles, disabled students and staff)
Simulations, models, laboratories, results
'Virtual' fieldwork (even true virtuality one day)
Aids and prosthetics (e.g. dyslexia testing)
Professional tools (applications, scenarios)
On demand learning and assessment
Managed learning environments (student tracking, students at risk)
Task 6 - individually - 5 minutes max
Now (I hope) that you have some ideas about ALNs and general methods of
e-learning: communication moderation, etc, E-nhancement in general
Can you write, in a priority order, three things that you might want to try using some form of E-nhancement
Please don't be afraid of writing 'none'!
Then (5 minutes) discuss your choice with 3-4 colleagues: is there any common ground?
Other things,……looking onward
Video of lectures
Synchronous via video-conferencing
Asynchronous, video on demand
Intelligent agents ('knowbots')
Interactive TV capability
Bluetooth capability; 3GN phones
Better not forget the students! (phones and laptops etc….) More on this in technology.ppt
At the end of this section, I hope that:
You will be able to see what could go 'e'
At least some of your skills could be 'e'
There's plenty before the rigours of distance learning
A basic application like PowerPoint will do a great deal to help you on your way
Even a little 'e-activity' may help
Asynchronous Learning Networks are useful
There are good pedagogic reasons for 'e-stuff'
It's not all that difficult
Students appreciate it.
Leading on to The wonders of PowerPoint Ooops, I got carried away - it doesn't have to be like that!
A couple of quotes ( i.e. it's not just me!)
We must change the way we see our roles as teachers, from expert content providers to people who can create and support learning communities, both with our students and among our peers.
Freeman and Capper 1999
Electronic resources therefore can play just as influential a role as other resources, in that they support "people's deep urges to learn and to teach. ……. information technology should provide easy paths connecting people with information, teaching, learning and educational institutions...and with each other"
Freeman and Capper 1999 and Biggs 1993
It will help your students (and all that entails)
It will, help you teach better (as soon as you embark)
A little can go a long way
You don't have to do it all in one go
It's mutually beneficial in the department/university (or should be)
Quality and enhancement should go hand in hand
It may/will/should help promotion (if not, why not?)
I hope I have shown you some ways to use e-learning
That the opportunities are as diverse as you wish
That many of the things you may want to done can be done in PPT
The utility of an ALN for embedding materials
The importance of a set of techniques which really will help students