READING SKILLSWHAT ARE READING SKILLS?Introduction Reading skills enable readers to turn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of independence, comprehension, and fluency.Definition Reading skills are specific abilities which enable a reader: to read the written form as meaningful language to read anything written with independence, comprehension and fluency, and to mentally interact with the message.Kinds Here are some kinds of reading skills: Word attack skills let the reader figure out new words. Comprehension skills help the reader predict the next word, phrase, or sentence quickly enough to speed recognition. Fluency skills help the readers see larger segments, phrases, and groups of words as wholes. Critical reading skills help the reader see the relationship of ideas and use these in
reading with meaning and fluency.HOW TO IMPROVE READING SKILLSOrientation vs Project ReadingIn school, the purpose of reading is usually to help you pass a test or complete an assignment. Inbusiness, it is usually either to orient yourself to new material or to help you solve a problem.Orientation reading involves reading as a wandering generality. In this mode, you are looking forthe unexpected. Orientation reading is also useful for building vocabulary and acquiring basicconcepts useful for communicating with team members.Since there is no feedback loop to tell you when you are done, it is important to set time limitswhen reading in orientation mode. In several industries today, there is far more information intrade journals and books than most people have time to read. To spend too much time readinggeneral trade information is to risk not getting anything done.On the other hand, if you are reading to solve a problem, you know its time to stop reading whenthe problem has been solved--when youve gathered enough information to take the necessaryactions to solve the problem, or complete the project you are working on.Orientation mode is where high level scanning is most useful. A thorough survey of theinfoscape will help you zero in on the most useful sources of information when you begin tosolve a specific problem.In summary, both styles of reading are useful. The difference is in how you schedule your time.Orientation reading is done for specific fixed periods of time. Project reading is done only whenthe problem is solved, and sometimes it is difficult to know how long that will take.Reading Groups of Words at Each GlanceIt turns out that our eyes can only take in information when they are stopped. What feels likecontinuous motion is actually move-stop-read-move-stop-read, etc. You can easily verify this bysitting face to face with a partner, holding up a book and watching their eyes as they read. Thekey is to minimize the number of stops by maximizing the number of words you see at each stopas shown in Figure 6.1.
The person who uses the first eye movement pattern is actually looking at every word, one at atime. The person who uses the second is still looking at every word, but in groups. The personwho uses the third eye movement pattern "notices" only a few key words and does so by readingboth horizontally and vertically at the same time."But the first reader is going to comprehend the material much better than the third!" you may bethinking. Possibly, is my reply. If the third reader actually uses all three eye movement patterns,using the slower patterns very selectively, then he has a better chance of investing his mentalenergies on the material of most relevance to him.Figure 6.1. Three eye movement patterns."The art of becoming wise is the art of knowing what to overlook." William JamesThe smart reader is one who uses the third technique to scan the entire book (overview) orchapter (preview), and then comes back and uses some combination of the first two techniques tofurther explore the sections of most relevance.Getting to both the second and third levels requires a visual reading strategy. You must silencesubvocalization and learn to "trust your eyes". This involves shifting your mental reading processfrom "see->say->understand" to just "see->understand". One way to make this leap is to build upyour visualization muscle using the exercises suggested in Chapter 3 and later on in this chapter.One way to stop subvocalizing (saying words in your head while reading) is to increase the rateat which your eyes move across the page to the point where it is impossible to subvocalize. Thismeans switching your reading strategy to a point whereby you notice gulps of words at each eyeresting point. These gulps sometimes involve pulling words from multiple lines. When I did thisrecently, I noticed that I was still understanding what I was reading but in a different way. I
caught myself thinking: "But now Im not really reading." In other words, part of my mind stillbelieved that the definition of reading was to look at every word and sound it out in my mind.Reading More SelectivelyThe underlying principle is this:As the amount of information increases in a given area, there is an increasing need for the abilityto scan that information at a high level and to be highly selective of the areas you choose to studyin detail.When I read anything, my objective is not to look at every word and picture as fast as I can.Rather, it is to identify and understand useful ideas as efficiently as possible, and then to eithertransfer this information to long term memory or note it for future reference.Imagine arriving at a large lake and being told that somewhere in the water there is a buriedtreasure. To find that treasure, you could either put on your trunks and go for a swim, or jump ina high speed boat with radar programmed to detect the presence of anything resembling thetreasure. This would allow you to do a fairly quick pass over the entire lake, noting areas thatlook promising, and then go back to each promising location, drop anchor, and go for a dive.You are much more likely to find the treasure because you will have eliminated huge portions ofthe lake very quickly.When it comes to reading, your subconscious mind is your radar, and it is "programmed" whenyou invest time "self-communicating" the outcome you are trying to create.Of course, when it comes to reading selectively, the most important thing is to make sure you areswimming in the right lake! Any time Im presented with an information rich environment, suchas a bookstore or a trade convention like COMDEX, I invest time up front getting clear on mygoals, and then do some high speed scans over the entire terrain before diving into a single bookor booth. It often takes discipline to finish the complete scan before stopping at an extremelypromising location. Ray Dolby, inventor of Dolby noise reduction, encourages would-beinventors not to jump at the first solution because sometimes the really elegant solution is rightaround the corner.I have just described a rather left-brain approach to reading. Its complementary opposite is toallocate some time looking for the unexpected. The key to this strategy is to set a specific timelimit, since we tend to ignore time when operating in right-brain mode. My experience suggeststhat without the discipline of setting specific time limits for "right-brain" mode activities, there isa tendency to avoid them in order to maintain personal ecology.
Layered ReadingIn addition to using your subconscious mental radar, you can read books more selectively byusing a layered reading approach. Here are four phases that commonly show up in layeredreading strategies: Overview: Look over the entire book at the rate of 1 second per page to determine its organization, structure and tone. Try to finish the overview in 5 minutes. Preview: Should you decide to read further, preview the first chapter at the rate of 4 seconds per page. Pay particular attention to beginnings and endings such as the introduction and conclusion, and the first sentences of paragraphs and sections. Mark key sections with Post-it tabs or a yellow marker. Read: If any part of the chapter warrants closer attention, go back and read it at whatever speed seems appropriate. Review: As discussed in the following section on memory, doing short reviews periodically after reading new ideas can significantly increase the amount of detailed information that makes it into long term memory.There are several advantages to having seen every page of a document. It partially eliminates theintimidation of the unknown. It is also much easier to comprehend material at rapid speeds whenyour eyes have already seen the material twice, even if only briefly. And lastly, your right brainis a lot happier about the whole situation because it has at least some idea of the context oroverall picture in which the material is being presented.Saying that someone has one reading speed is like having a car that only goes one speed.Different material calls for different speeds. Layered reading is about being flexible in thestrategy you use to extract useful ideas from written material.Here are some additional suggestions for reading more selectively: Focus on key words and ignore filler words. As discussed in the previous chapter, most of the meaning in sentences is transferred by a few key words. Many times it is unnecessary to read all the "iss" and "thes". Skip what you already know. As you transfer more and more knowledge from an area into long term memory, the sections you can skip will become larger and thus accelerate your journey along the compound learning curve. Skip material that doesnt apply to you. Skip material that seems particularly confusing and come back to it if necessary after reading other sections. Books are linear while their subject matter is often multi-
dimensional. As Hannah Arendt put it, "Nothing we use or hear or touch can be expressed in words that equal what we are given by the senses." It may be far easier to understand the material in light of information that follows. Giving your subconscious time to incubate the material might help as well.CRITICAL READING STRATEGIES1. Previewing: Learning about a text before really reading it.Previewing enables readers to get a sense of what the text is about and how it is organized beforereading it closely. This simple strategy includes seeing what you can learn from the headnotes orother introductory material, skimming to get an overview of the content and organization, andidentifying the rhetorical situation.2. Contextualizing: Placing a text in its historical, biographical, and cultural contexts.When you read a text, you read it through the lens of your own experience. Your understandingof the words on the page and their significance is informed by what you have come to know andvalue from living in a particular time and place. But the texts you read were all written in thepast, sometimes in a radically different time and place. To read critically, you need tocontextualize, to recognize the differences between your contemporary values and attitudes andthose represented in the text.3. Questioning to understand and remember: Asking questions about the content.As students, you are accustomed to teachers asking you questions about your reading. Thesequestions are designed to help you understand a reading and respond to it more fully, and oftenthis technique works. When you need to understand and use new information though it is mostbeneficial if you write the questions, as you read the text for the first time. With this strategy,you can write questions any time, but in difficult academic readings, you will understand thematerial better and remember it longer if you write a question for every paragraph or briefsection. Each question should focus on a main idea, not on illustrations or details, and eachshould be expressed in your own words, not just copied from parts of the paragraph.4. Reflecting on challenges to your beliefs and values: Examining your personal responses.The reading that you do for this class might challenge your attitudes, your unconsciously heldbeliefs, or your positions on current issues. As you read a text for the first time, mark an X in themargin at each point where you feel a personal challenge to your attitudes, beliefs, or status.Make a brief note in the margin about what you feel or about what in the text created the
challenge. Now look again at the places you marked in the text where you felt personallychallenged. What patterns do you see?5. Outlining and summarizing: Identifying the main ideas and restating them in your ownwords.Outlining and summarizing are especially helpful strategies for understanding the content andstructure of a reading selection. Whereas outlining reveals the basic structure of the text,summarizing synopsizes a selections main argument in brief. Outlining may be part of theannotating process, or it may be done separately. The key to both outlining and summarizing isbeing able to distinguish between the main ideas and the supporting ideas and examples. Themain ideas form the backbone, the strand that holds the various parts and pieces of the texttogether. Outlining the main ideas helps you to discover this structure. When you make anoutline, dont use the texts exact words.Summarizing begins with outlining, but instead of merely listing the main ideas, a summaryrecomposes them to form a new text. Whereas outlining depends on a close analysis of eachparagraph, summarizing also requires creative synthesis. Putting ideas together again -- in yourown words and in a condensed form- shows how reading critically can lead to deeperunderstanding of any text.6. Evaluating an argument: Testing the logic of a text as well as its credibility and emotionalimpact.All writers make assertions that they want you to accept as true. As a critical reader, you shouldnot accept anything on face value but to recognize every assertion as an argument that must becarefully evaluated. An argument has two essential parts: a claim and support. The claim assertsa conclusion -- an idea, an opinion, a judgment, or a point of view -- that the writer wants you toaccept. The support includes reasons (shared beliefs, assumptions, and values) and evidence(facts, examples, statistics, and authorities) that give readers the basis for accepting theconclusion. When you assess an argument, you are concerned with the process of reasoning aswell as its truthfulness (these are not the same thing). At the most basic level, in order for anargument to be acceptable, the support must be appropriate to the claim and the statements mustbe consistent with one another.7. Comparing and contrasting related readings: Exploring likenesses and differences betweentexts to understand them better.Many of the authors we read are concerned with the same issues or questions, but approach howto discuss them in different ways. Fitting a text into an ongoing dialectic helps increaseunderstanding of why an author approached a particular issue or question in the way he or shedid.
THE IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE READINGSKILLSReading skills serve as a foundation for writing. Developed and mastered, effective reading skillsgive people the opportunity to learn new information about the world, people, events, and places,enrich their vocabularies, and improve their writing skills. Reading enriches the inner world of a person, improves grammar and spelling. Through reading people learn to understand different ways of thinking and feelings of other people, become more flexible and open-minded. Avid readers not only read and write better than those who read less, but also process information faster. The research presented by the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology proves that poor readers have poorer short-memory functions. As a result, avid readers have a broader outlook, are quicker to analyze facts and find connections between seemingly unrelated ideas. A reader has better skills for comprehending, analyzing, understanding, responding, and, finally, learning from what he or she reads.As a result, it is easier for good readers to get used to new and unfamiliar circumstances or ideas.They are easier to communicate with, and have higher chances to succeed in both professionaland personal life.HOW TO ENCOURAGE READING SKILLSAs every parent knows, reading is an important skill that all children should develop in order tohave a bright future. We use reading in almost every aspect of our daily life and even withoutusing it, reading opens up a world of possibilities for everyone.It can be a world that is filled with colorful characters, amazing vocabulary and spectacularwhimsies and it can be a world that encourages learning, and creativity. Reading is so important
that many parents are often worried about reading skills before their child has even reached theage of reading.Surprisingly, reading skills are one of the few developmental skills that can occur over a largerange of age groups. At one time, we tended to focus on reading development occurring duringthe first few years of formal school education. Sure, children enjoyed a good story but theyweren’t ready to read, were they? The answer is that some children are more than ready to readat ages as young as three while others tend to wait until they are about 7.Another important part of that answer is that although formal reading education begins duringthe early years of school, the foundation for reading occurs from the time your baby is born untilthat fateful day when she picks up a book and reads it.So what are some ways that you can encourage reading in your child? Experts throughout theyears have had tons of advice on encouraging reading skills and although many of the steps thatthey promote do work, parents should not have to feel overwhelmed when it comes toencouraging reading in their children. Instead, they should just focus on the three steps outlinedbelow and if they desire, they can build from there. After all, everything needs a strongfoundation to be successful.Provide the material:One of the best ways to encourage reading is to actually provide the material. A home thatdoesn’t have books is not going to send a message to the children residing in it that reading is animportant part of life. Make sure you have lots of books available to your children and makemost of them age appropriate; however, make sure you have a few that are just above theircurrent reading ability and age level. This aspires a continual growth in both interests and skillsand your child won’t plateau as much as he would with only age appropriate materials beingoffered.When you provide the material, it is important to take the time to actually offer it. Make a habitof reading with your child for about 15 minutes per day. This can be a story at bed time but it canalso be a story during unplanned periods of time. An impromptu story time makes reading into afun and leisure activity that can be enjoyed whenever the mood hits. Make sure that you startreading to your child in infancy to ensure a lifetime love of reading. If you are reading to yourchild, try your hand at some chapter books. This helps increase attention spans and keeps notonly your child but yourself interested in reading.Read:One of the best ways to encourage reading in your child is to read yourself. This does not meanreading only magazines and newspapers but it should also mean opening up a novel or two amonth. If your child sees you reading, he or she is more likely to emulate you and begin reading
as well. It is very important for boys to see their father reading since a love of reading issomething that is rarer in boys than it is in girls.Pursue topics of interest:Lastly, when you are encouraging reading in your child, it is important to really pursue topics ofinterest. Children thrive when they are learning and there is no limitations towards cracking opena book to discover new facts about a subject. This also teaches your child many other skills, suchas cross referencing, vocabulary building, and researching skills that will aid them in school.When you are pursuing topics of interest, give and take conversations, especially about factsfound in books, will help in raising the interest and this will lead to more research. And we allknow what more research means; more reading.Encouraging your child to read is not always an easy task but if you start at a young age, you willfeel confident that your child will have a life time filled with reading.