Tourism impacts grade11
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  • 1. TOURISM IMPACTS grade 11
  • 3. Economic Impacts of Tourism POSITIVE 1. Foreign exchange earnings 2. Contribution to government revenues 3. Generation of employment 4. Balance of payment / trade account balance 5. Stimulation of infrastructure investment 6. Contribution to local economies NEGATIVE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Inflation Opportunity costs Dependency Seasonality Leakage Enclave tourism Seasonal character of jobs Prostitution and the underground economy
  • 4. Tourism and its Socio-Cultural Impacts Introduction to SocioCultural Impacts of Tourism • sociology and culture • the tourist culture • elements of culture
  • 6. Relevant Cultural Concepts
  • 7. Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism POSITIVE/BENEFITS • Preservation and restoration of cultural heritage • Revival of traditional arts and crafts • Cultivation of cultural pride and sense of identity • Cross-cultural exchange NEGATIVE/COSTS • Loss of cultural character • Loss of authenticity and meaning of traditional arts and crafts • Commercialization of human relationships • Potential misunderstandings and conflicts between residents and tourists
  • 10. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS 1. Environmental awareness. 2. Enhancements of local environment. 3. Protection and conservation of wildlife.
  • 11. ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Inappropriate development Loss of natural habitat and effects on wildlife Pollution Loss of spirit Overcrowding and traffic congestion Activities (affecting the natural environment)
  • 12. Inappropriate development • Tourism development may be classed as inappropriate if it fails to be sensitive to the natural environment. • Long-term planning in environment terms should be done. • Costa del Sol – had undergone a powerful colonization of modern kind, it had robbed the shore of its natural features, displaced headlands and harbors with badly made structures. • Resorts in Pattaya, Thailand – considered to be overdeveloped.
  • 13. Costa del Sol
  • 14. “Environmental Awareness Raising” • Tourism has the potential to increase public appreciation of the environment and to spread awareness of environmental problems when it brings people into closer contact with nature and the environment.
  • 15. Loss of natural habitat and effects on wildlife • Development of facilities and subsequent tourist use may result in rapid or more gradual effects on habitats. • Trampling causes disturbance to vegetation and soil. • Not unlike the Galapagos Island, 600 miles of the coast of Ecuador.
  • 16. Wildlife can be disturbed. (cheetahs in Amboseli National Park, Kenya)
  • 17. • The Loggerhead Turtle in the Greek Island of Zakynthos has become endangered. The development threatens the turtles in six ways: 1. Loss of beach nesting areas. 2. Nesting females and young turtles disoriented by artificial illumination. 3. Noise 4. Traffic 5. Pollution 6. Activities in water
  • 18. Deforestation Effect of trampling Air pollution
  • 19. Water Air POLLUTION Land (Solid Waste) Noise
  • 20. Water Pollution • Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater.
  • 21. Air Pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere.
  • 22. Noise Pollution Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human-, animal- or machinecreated sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life.
  • 23. Solid Waste Solid Waste is also referred to as rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk depending upon the type of material and the regional terminology. In living organisms, waste relates to unwanted substances or toxins that are expelled from them. (Caribbean Area)
  • 24. Overcrowding and traffic congestion • Happens when the volume of tourists exceeds the capacity of an environment. • Overcrowding poses an increased risk of environmental damage through erosion and restricts visitor appreciation of the destination. • Inappropriate parking • Congestion damages vegetation, causes erosion and adds to localized pollution.
  • 25. Effects of activities • Skiing/alpine tourism - mountain ecosystems are generally fragile but many are prone to intensive use. - many view skiing as a damaging activity because it requires associated development, such as lodges, resorts, roads and cause severe erosion and deforestation.
  • 26. Effects of activities • Ecotourism - while the premise of ecotourism is to assist in conservation and well-being of local communities, it is often the case that ecotourism-based activities lead to deterioration in environmental quality. - proper planning and management is needed
  • 27. Tourism, Global Warming and Climate Change • By 2050, tourism is expected to see its contribution to greenhouse gas emissions rise from 3 to 7%. • KYOTO Protocol, adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. (highlights the expected impacts of tourism in the environment) • Very significant because climate and temperature are important determinants of destination selection.
  • 28. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. The German tourism industry experience. Hotel Sector • installing water saving devices; • Abolishing individually wrapped food items at the breakfast buffet; • Using recycled paper and reusable bottles. Resorts • Decreasing automobile traffic in resorts, clinic and recreational zones by constructing parking areas outside of the central
  • 29. Food should be grown in an environmentally friendly way •Don‘t transport food around the world – buy local products!
  • 30. Using nature to save •Collects rain to flush the toilet
  • 31. Buying locally •Buys food from the local area
  • 32. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. • Travel Agencies - Publication of brochure offering tips and information on species protection and environmentally proper behavior to vacationers.
  • 33. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. In the house Use of solar energy -Replacing regular light bulbs for energy-saving bulbs. -Promoting bicycles for inner city transport -Use of rain water • Transportation - Use high capacity airplanes to reduce noise and emissions of pollutants and fuel consumption/trai ns. - “Garbage return initiative” LTU International Airways’ ecobag.
  • 34. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. • Cities and Towns - Use of solar energy - Replacing regular light bulbs for energy-saving bulbs. - Promoting bicycles for inner city transport - Use of rain water
  • 35. Community Dunedin City Council • DCC hand out gloves and specially marked rubbish bags to volunteers who offer to clean up their area between August 22nd and September 2nd for “Keep Dunedin beautiful”. • Offer yellow lidded wheelie bins to Dunedin households
  • 36. References Tourism impacts • By Reymarie Oohlala, Lobby Ambassador at Pan Pacific Hotel Singapore on Aug 04, 2013 Comenius 2011-Sustainable Tourism in Nuremberg • By Debreceni Bethlen Gábor Közgazdasági Szakközépiskola on Oct 02, 2013
  • 37. • Energy Efficiency Dunedin City -tourism-8889375?qid=0f2adbd0-34ea-4078-8054c05ba9653e88&v=default&b=&from_search=2 Responsible tourism • By davidson kate on Aug 17, 2011 -tourism-8889375?qid=0f2adbd0-34ea-4078-8054c05ba9653e88&v=default&b=&from_search=2