IPM , Pesticide management

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  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) The primary focus of FIFRA was to provide federal control of pesticide distribution, sale, and use. EPA was given authority under FIFRA not only to study the consequences of pesticide usage but also to require users (farmers, utility companies, and others) to register when purchasing pesticides. The EPA is required to make instructional materials concerning integrated pest management (IPM) techniques available to individuals at their request in accordance with the provisions of section 23(c) of this Act.
  • FIFRA has been codified in 40 CFR Parts 150—189. 40 CFR 170 addresses Worker Protection Standard. IPM is not addressed specifically in any regulations. However, as you will see, IPM is the best management practices for pesticides.
  • What are pests? Pests are plants and animals in undesirable locations according to man’s liking. Common pests are insects, mites, snails, birds, weeds, nematodes, and pathogens. If left untreated, pests can create a complex set of problems. Pests can cause health problems, including malaria, hantavirus and plague from mosquitoes, fleas and rodents. Insect bites can result in increased worker’s compensation claims and lost time. Overgrown or dry brush is both a site obstruction and fire hazard. Insects, rodents and weeds can also cause structural damage to buildings, roads and landscape.
  • The Problem with Pesticides Traditional pest management plans that rely heavily on pesticides encounter several problems. The high cost of pesticides, increased health risks due to pesticide exposure and a less than optimum effectiveness in controlling pests are the major problems. Specifically these include: * Lack of complete health and safety data on many pesticides currently in use readily available to the pesticide applicator. * Possible adverse short- and long-term health effects from acute and low-level long term exposure to pesticides. * Health care professionals not recognizing the exposure symptoms of the 25,000 registered pesticides. * Contamination to the surrounding environment including waterways and food web. * Pest resurgence due to resistance to toxic chemicals. * Inconsistencies in the regulation of pesticide applications.
  • What Is IPM? Integrated Pest Management, or IPM, is an approach to pest control that utilizes a combination of preventive measures, maintains a regular monitoring program and employs a variety of control techniques. IPM’s goal is to suppress pests by the least toxic measures. IPM does not exclude the use of chemical pesticides, but utilizes them sparingly and only as a last resort.
  • What is IPM? IPM seeks to solve the problems of traditional pest management by utilizing the following criteria: * Using pesticides whose health and safety data are known. * Using very low toxic pesticides to minimize acute and chronic effects of both short and long term pesticide exposure. * Limiting the number of pesticides used to aid physicians in identifying any effects of exposure to pesticides. * Using preventative measures when at all possible and when using chemical pesticides limiting their use to avoid runoff to waterways and introduction into the food chain. * Using methods which are not easily resisted by pests through the mutation process. * Using the least toxic method should always stay within the bounds of all pesticide regulations and laws.
  • Benefits of IPM There are at least four benefits of using Integrated Pest Management rather than relying on just pesticides. The benefits include: Economic Safety Effectiveness Environmental
  • Benefits - Economic Pesticides, fertilizers and irrigation are costly. By applying IPM techniques, you can reduce costs by only applying the right chemicals at the right times. The costs associated with hazardous waste disposal and reporting are also averted by IPM. Health risks and health monitoring are also reduced by using IPM rather than traditional pesticides.
  • Benefits - Safety IPM reduces risk. IPM results in fewer pesticide applications, at reduced rates, using the safest possible materials. This minimizes the dangers associated with pesticide applications, including accidents, drift, and toxic effects on non-target organisms and wildlife. In many cases, the handling of hazardous pesticides is eliminated altogether.
  • Benefits - Effectiveness IPM delays pest resistance. Applying the same pesticide over and over again results in insect, disease and weed pests that are no longer killed by the formerly fatal pesticide. Genetic resistance is one of the most serious problems facing pesticide users. Certain pesticides have become ineffective against their target pests in as little as three years. In agriculture, seventy-five percent of the most serious insect pests have shown partial or complete resistance to one or more chemical. IPM does not rely solely on chemical controls, therefore genetic resistance is less likely to occur. By choosing from all possible control methods, including biological pesticides, beneficial organisms, and rotating pest control methods, resistance can be delayed or prevented. Preserving the effectiveness of existing pesticides helps reduce costs for everyone.
  • Benefits - Environmental IPM preserves the environment. Indiscriminate pesticide and fertilizer use can reduce populations of beneficial plants, insects, fish, animals and other organisms. Limiting pesticide applications to essential uses — while using the least toxic materials whenever possible — helps preserve the environment.
  • Pesticide Toxicity Categories All pesticides are classified into three categories using the following signal words: Danger – the most toxic Warning – less toxic than “Danger” pesticides Caution – the least toxic pesticides Your goal should be to use pesticides only from the “Caution” category. Toxicity is measured by: Oral ingestion (LD50 means lethal dose to 50% of the human population) Inhalation (LC50 means lethal concentration to 50% of the human population) Dermal exposure And the effects of the pesticide on eyes and skin
  • In the remaining part of this course, we will look at the three components of IPM – Prevention, Monitoring, and Control Techniques – as they apply to an urban or structural setting. There are many fine resources for agricultural IPM listed at the end of this course. Prevention Preventive measures are an important step because they eliminate the pest by disturbing a potential habitat. Prevention means planning for a potential pest and taking the necessary steps aimed at disturbing the pest’s habitat in such ways as erecting a physical barrier, eliminating food or water, or introducing a predator. The choice of pest-resistant varieties of species that are well adapted to local conditions precludes pest infestation. Weed problems can often be eliminated by optimum landscape design, proper preparation of the soil before planting, and a healthy plant selection. Taking action after a pest infestation occurs could be too late to save landscape or buildings. Planning for possible problems before they occur is the most economical way to prevent pest damage. This requires learning about potential pest problems and monitoring areas for the appearance of pests.
  • Urban/Structural IPM Pest control operators and facilities managers face tough challenges in solving pest problems. Pesticide use around infants and children, hospital patients, food, or other sensitive environments can create real or perceived risks. IPM principles for urban environments are the same as those for crops and ornamental plants: inspect regularly and thoroughly, identify problems accurately, act only when the expense is justified by the benefit, consider all possible management options, and choose the least toxic approach. The benefits are clear. Alternatives to pesticides, such as exclusion or sanitation, can sometimes provide permanent solutions to otherwise chronic problems. The following slides will give specific recommendations to different areas of buildings to prevent pest infestation.
  • Entryways: (door-ways, overhead doors, windows, holes in exterior walls, openings around pipes, electrical fixtures, or ducts):  Keep doors shut when not in use.  Place weather stripping on doors.  Caulk and seal openings in walls.  Install or repair screens.  Install air curtains.  Keep vegetation, shrubs, and wood mulch at least 1 foot away from structures.
  • Classrooms and Offices (classrooms, laboratories, administrative offices, auditoriums, gymnasiums, and hallways):  Allow food and beverages only in designated areas.    If indoor plants are present, keep them healthy. When small insect infestations appear, remove them manually.    Keep areas as dry as possible by removing standing water and water damaged or wet materials    In science labs, store animal foods in tightly sealed containers and regularly clean cages. In all areas, remove dust and debris.    Routinely clean closets, lockers and desks.    Frequently vacuum carpeted areas.    If anyone contracts head lice, consult with your local health department.
  • Food Preparation and Serving Areas (dining room, main kitchen, teachers' lounge, home economics kitchen, snack area, vending machines, and food storage rooms):    Store food and waste in containers that are inaccessible to pests. Containers must have tight lids and be made of plastic, glass, or metal. Waste should be removed at the end of each day.    Place screens on vents, windows, and floordrains to prevent cockroaches and other pests from using unscreened ducts or vents as pathways.    Create inhospitable living conditions for pests by reducing availability of food and water--remove food debris, sweep up all crumbs, fix dripping faucets and leaks, and dry out wet areas.    Improve cleaning practices, including promptly cleaning food preparation equipment after use and removing grease accumulation from vents, ovens, and stoves. Use caulk or paint to seal cracks and crevices.
  • Rooms and Areas With Extensive Plumbing (bathrooms, rooms with sinks, locker rooms, dishwasher rooms, home economics classrooms, science laboratories, swimming pools, and greenhouses):    Promptly repair leaks and correct other plumbing problems to deny pests access to water.    Routinely clean floor drains, strainers, and grates. Seal pipe chases.    Keep areas dry. Avoid conditions that allow formation of condensation. Areas that never dry out are conducive to molds and fungi. Increasing ventilation may be necessary.    Store paper products or cardboard boxes away from moist areas and direct contact with the floor or the walls. This practice also allows for ease in inspection.
  • Maintenance Areas (boiler room, mechanical room, janitorial-housekeeping areas, and pipechases):    After use, promptly clean mops and mop buckets; dry mop buckets and hang mops vertically on rack above floor drain.    Allow eating only in designated eating areas.    Clean trash cans regularly, use plastic liners in trash cans, and use secure lids. This includes trash cans and dumpsters stored outdoors.    Keep areas clean and as dry as possible, and remove debris.
  • Monitoring Monitoring or the regular inspection of your facilities is key to IPM. Monitoring must be systematic and regular to be effective. Setting up a good monitoring program is a cost-effective way to get started in IPM. Proper identification of pests and the problems they potentially pose is essential in selecting the correct control methods. Often, symptoms look similar for different pests and are controlled in an altogether different manner. It is important to know the pests that can thrive in your area.
  • Monitoring B enefits of monitoring include:  a greater awareness of pest activity, including changes in pest populations  up-to-date information on the health of your facilities and landscape  data that can be used to compare pest outbreaks from season to season  early detection of pest problems, resulting in the availability of more management options An effective monitoring program can save you money by giving you the information you need to determine exactly when, where and how often to spray if spraying pesticide is necessary
  • Monitoring Knowing your pests is the first step in monitoring for them. Ask these questions when developing this first step of your monitoring program: What pests have affected my facilities in the past? What other pests can possibly for my facilities? What are the hazards if this pest remains unchecked? When is the pest most active? (Know its lifecycle from birth to death) Where is this pest’s habitat preferences? (i.e. moist areas, dark areas, etc.) What does the pest look like at different times of its lifecycle? (i.e. insects look different as a pupa than as an adult) Are there any benefits to the pest? (i.e. weeds may not be normally desirable, but if they help stabilize a hillside against mudslides they are then beneficial) How can you prevent a pest appearing? How can you control a pest once it is established?
  • What to look for The Pest – it is important to be able to recognize the pest in all of its life cycle stages. For insects this includes egg, larva, pupa, and adult. For weeds this includes seeds, prior to flowering and flowering. Damage - If you are looking for termites, the first indication may be pin-hole borings in wood with tiny piles or wood shavings near the holes. For mice, it may be the appearance of shredded paper used for a nest. For insects, it may be the damage of leaves or fruit on plants. Droppings – the indication of mice droppings or other animal scat is an indication of its presence. Tracks and traces – mice and rats leave distinctive footprints. For other animals bits of fur may indicate their presence. Hosts – the appearance of a host animal could indicate the appearance of a pest. For example, if lady bugs in your area only appear when aphids are present and you spot a lady bug, you can speculate that aphids are in the area.
  • Where to look Where has pest damage occurred in the past? Start your monitoring in those areas. What areas might the pest be found? What are areas that provide good habitat (food and shelter) for the pest? Ask a pest professional for ideas where to monitor for pests.
  • When to look Weather conditions are right. It is important to note current weather conditions and check past recordings of weather as they apply to your pest. If your pest begins appearing when the temperature is in the 60’s and the winter was unusually mild, your pest may appear earlier than normal. How soon after applying pesticides, fertilizers or water. Note when pesticides were last applied an area, and when other practices such as fertilization or irrigation took place. These can all determine how soon a pest can reappear in the area.
  • Thresholds Know your action thresholds. Those who practice IPM understand that the mere presence of a pest is not enough reason to apply a control measure. The number of pests must be sufficient to cause enough harm to pay for the control measure. The number of pests required to justify a control measure is called the "action threshold." IPM means treating only when pests reach or exceed the action threshold. This threshold may be a certain number of damaged plants, insects in a trap, or weeds in a field.
  • Monitoring When monitoring for pests, make use of IPM "checklists.“ This should help you systematize your search for pests. During problem times, such as spring, some areas may have to be visited weekly or more often, looking for pest infestation. Results should be compared to previous findings to determine trends. Records should have dates, temperature, specific location, host plant or area of infestation, pest(s), and natural enemies present, sampling done with a description of the procedure for sampling, and any counts. Records should also document any use of control measures taken. After comparing previous recordings to the observed condition, one must decide if a threshold has been reached to apply a control measure. If a certain amount of damage can be tolerated and the pest has not overstepped that level, no action should be taken.
  • Monitoring Trapping can be an effective method of monitoring in addition to spot monitoring. Traps can be used on insects, rodents, or animals. Here is how insect trapping can help you: Insect traps can often indicate if a spray is economically justified. Example: If a certain insect will do $5 worth of damage in a store room but it costs you $15 to spray the store room, does it make sense to spray? Traps often target adult stages of pests. These appear long before the caterpillars or grubs that feed on your plants — giving you an early warning. Trapping is a useful timing tool. It helps indicate the best possible time to spray for maximum effectiveness.
  • Monitoring (Trapping advantages continued) Traps are at work 24 hours a day. Even if you monitor for insects each day, you won't see nocturnal insects that may be damaging your facility or landscape.    Traps can indicate problem areas, or hot spots, requiring corrective action or spot treatments without having to treat all areas.    Trapping may help you reduce your use of pesticides. This, in turn, will help lower your operating costs, and reduce health risks and liability from potential exposure of employees, consumers or neighbors to pesticides.    A well-run trapping program gives you information on which to base and document your decisions. This reduces your guesswork, increases your peace of mind, and improves your product.
  • Control Techniques Once it has been determined that a control method is necessary, guidelines are required to select the least toxic manner. Below is a helpful decision-making criteria for selecting the proper control/ combined control strategy: 1. Proven Efficacy 2. Lowest Environmental Impact 3. Operational Feasible 4. Cost-Effective
  • Control Techniques The primary control methods used in IPM are cultural, mechanical, physical, biological, and chemical. It is important to think through the effects of the control on the pest and every other aspect of the environment, including landscape, buildings and animals, before employing the control method. Some control methods may also kill off potential predators of the pest and exacerbate the pest problem. The following slides summarize each control method.
  • Control Techniques - Cultural These controls are modifications of normal facility or plant care activities that reduce or avoid pest problems. These include landscape maintenance such as proper fertilizing and watering. Eliminating ponding for potential mosquitoes and reducing trash for insects and vectors are also examples of cultural controls.
  • Control Techniques – Mechanical These controls involve labor, not including the application of chemical pesticides. Controlling weeds by hand-pulling, weed eaters or mulching are examples. Application of sticky traps, bird netting and hand-picking insects are all mechanical controls.
  • Control Techniques – Physical These controls are environmental manipulations that indirectly control or prevent pests by altering temperature, light or humidity. The addition of the product Aquashade to a pond darkens a pond and limits the amount of sunlight needed for algae growth. Certain foliar diseases are controlled by thinning the plant canopy, which improves air circulation and reduces humidity. The use of diluted white latex paint applied to trees to reduce sun scald is also a physical control.
  • Control Techniques – Biological These control methods use beneficial organisms to control unwanted organisms. The introduction of lady beetles to a garden area or beneficial nematodes to a lawn are examples of biological control.
  • Control Techniques – Chemical Pesticides have been the control of choice for the last fifty years. These include insecticides (for insects), fungicides (for fungi), rodenticides (for rodents), aviacides (for birds) and herbicides (for weeds). Pesticides are classified by toxicity. All pesticides fall into one of the three classes: Class I is Danger, Class II is Warning, and Class III is Caution. If a pesticide is warranted, use the least toxic pesticide to be effective in controlling the pest.
  • This slide and the following twelve slides will discuss 13 specific control methods you may want to choose in your IPM program. This is not an exhaustive listing, rather it is to give the student an idea of least toxic methods available to control pests. AQUASHADE Properties. Aquashade is a commercially registered aqua-blue dye used to filter out sunlight prohibiting algae and plant growth in ponds. Safety. The dyes used in Aquashade are safe for animals and humans. The chemicals in the dye are nontoxic to plants. Uses and Application. Aquashade is used in ponds to prevent the growth of algae and submerged weeds. It is nontoxic and uses its filtering of sunlight preventing the growth of algae, cattails and submersed weeds and controlling established algae and submersed weeds.
  • BORAX Properties. Borax is a compound of boron, used commonly in drugs and pharmaceuticals. Borax, or sodium tetraborate, is a combination of boron, sodium and oxygen and is mined from the soil in its crude form. Safety. Borax is safe around plants and mammals and displays an oral LD50 in rats of 6,000 mg/kg. Uses and Application. Borax is effective against most insects and it is recommended that wood be treated with borax to prevent termite damage.
  • CARBON DIOXIDE Properties. Carbon dioxide is the bi-product from animal respiration. Bottled carbon dioxide, CO2, is commercially available from welding supply companies. Safety. Carbon dioxide is a poison to all animals, but it does occur naturally in the atmosphere. By raising the carbon dioxide level in an enclosed space, it will kill unwanted pests. Venting to the atmosphere should occur prior to entry into the space. Uses and Application. Since carbon dioxide is considered a poison with no lingering effects on the environment being treated, it can be used on any animal pest. Care should be used that the applicator does not inhale too much Carbon dioxide. Pests that are trapped in a confined space when the carbon dioxide is applied may rot in that space. Carbon dioxide may be the control of choice when faced against large numbers of cockroaches, and pantry moths, beetles and weevils. Dry ice, its frozen form, is recommended for the control of fleas.
  • DIATOMAEOUS EARTH Properties. Diatomaeous earth is mined from fossilized shells of colonized algae known as diatoms. It has abrasive and absorptive qualities. Safety. Diatomaeous earth is virtually nontoxic to mammals. The oral LD50 in rats is 8,000 mg/kg. Diatomaeous earth used for insecticide is a different grade than the swimming pool filter diatomaeous earth. Swimming pool diatomaeous earth is partially melted and chemically treated and should not be used for insecticide. Diatomaeous earth also contains sand, crystalline silica, and therefore may cause a mild irritation to the eyes and skin. Uses and Application. Diatomaeous earth has microscopic jagged edges, though harmless to mammals, are very effective against insects. The diatomaeous earth cuts into the shells of insects and they die by drying up. Diatomaeous earth is very effective against insects that crawl such as ants, beetles, cockroaches, earwigs, fleas, pantry weevils, silverfish, termites, cutworms, and mealybugs.
  • ELECTRO-GUN Properties. The electro-gun is a patented invention which directs 90,000 volts of electricity at 60,000 cycles per second. Termite exterminators are the prime users of the electro-gun. Safety. The electro-gun is non-toxic and one of the most effective, proven methods for exterminating termites. The high voltage of the electro-gun makes it a safety concern. Electro-guns are leased from the manufacturer and the operator must adhere to all safety precautions. Uses and Application. The electro-gun is effective at exterminating termites, carpenter ants or any other wood burrowing insect. It is to be used on structures only.
  • GARLIC OIL Properties. The strong scent of garlic oil contains the volatile oil alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfer-oxide). It is derived from crushing wet garlic bulbs. Safety. Though safe around humans, garlic oil can be toxic to pest and beneficial insects. Garlic oil biodegrades relatively quickly. Uses and Applications. Garlic oil should be used on plants and shrubs to repel insects. Non-scented garlic oil is available.
  • INSECTICIDAL SOAPS Properties. Insecticidal soaps contain either sodium or potassium hydroxide on a fat. The fat, when it touches the insect's cuticle, has the fatty acids permeate to the insects body. The result is the insect dehydrates and dies. Safety. Insecticidal soaps have an oral LD50 of 16,500 mg/kg in rats. This very low toxic insecticide is recommended for slow moving insects and will not effect bees or wasps. Uses and Applications. Insecticidal soap should be used on outdoor plants to protect against outdoor ants, aphids, mealybugs, and scales. Insecticidal soaps will kill beneficial lady beetles. Insecticidal soaps should be added to a wet vacuum to ensure insects vacuumed up using that control method are killed.
  • LADY BEETLES Properties. Lady beetles are a carnivorous beetle, feeding upon many pest insects. Safety. Lady beetles are completely safe and do not harm plants or animals. Uses and Application. Lady beetles can be purchased commercially and released safely in trees or garden areas. It is recommended that a commercially purchased lure for lady beetles be placed in the desired area to keep the lady beetles from migrating. Lady beetles should be released in areas where aphids, mealybugs, and scales are a pest.
  • NEEM OIL Properties. Neem oil is an extract from the neem tree, a widely grown ornamental tree found in Africa and Asia. The oil is a complex mixture which has a bitter taste and strong odor. The principal active ingredient is azadirachtinol which acts as an insect deterrent, a feeding inhibitor and a sterilant. Safety. Neem oil has a very low toxicity in mammals with an oral LD50 of 13,500 mg/kg in rats. The active ingredients biodegrade within a few weeks. In some rare cases, neem oil is irritating to human skin. Uses and Applications. Neem oil has been shown effective against 170 insect species including aphids, cockroaches, beetles, moths, mites, locust, nematodes, cutworms, mealybugs, mosquitoes, lady beetles and fruit flies. In a high concentration it can be used against brown patch, pink snow mold, pythium and summer patch fungi. Because of its smell, it should be used for outdoor application only.
  • NEMATODES Properties. Beneficial nematodes are considered to be two different strains of nematodes, the Steinermema feltiae (SF) and Hetererhabditis heliothedis (HH) . The SF is a shallow soil digging nematode and the HH digs to 5 to 6 inches deep into the soil. Microscopic in size, these beneficial nematodes invade the bodies of pest larvae and release a deadly bacteria which kills within 48 hours. Safety. Beneficial nematodes are nontoxic and are harmless to plants, earthworms and higher organisms. Uses and Applications. Beneficial nematodes are effective against 250 varieties of pest larvae including cutworms. Beneficial nematodes are mixed with water and sprayed on when soil temperatures reach 55 degrees F. For best results, beneficial nematodes should be applied in spring in order to reproduce in the lawn. It should be noted that neem oil described above will kill beneficial nematodes.
  • TRAPS Properties. Traps are used to capture and kill unwanted pests. They differ in technique and form, but all are designed to lure, with the aid of bait, the pest into its grasp. Safety. Traps do not have any toxicity, though care should be used when setting any traps. Uses and Application. Live traps should be used to capture cats, pigeons, seagulls, skunks, and squirrels. Traps that kill the pest should be used for flies, pantry moths, mice, rats, and pocket gophers.
  • WASP-STOPPER AEROSOL Properties. Wasp-Stopper is an aerosol that contains the active ingredients pyrethrin and rotenome, as well as highly evaporative substances that freeze the bees, wasps or hornets. Safety. Wasp-Stopper is the least toxic, commercially available, control for bees, hornets and wasps. It is completely safe around electrical equipment. Uses and Application. Wasp-Stopper is designed to be sprayed six to eight feet away from a hive and it first freezes, then poisons the bees, wasps or hornets.
  • WET VACUUM Properties. A wet vacuum, or "shop vac", with an extremely fine filter is an excellent insect killer. Shop vacs have a greater vacuuming power than dry vacuums and the combination of water and dust swirling in the chamber often kills insects quickly. Safety. Shop vacs are completely safe, leaving no adverse environmental effects. Uses and Application. The shop vacuum can be used indoors or outdoors against insects. If an infestation is being vacuumed up, water and or diatomaeous earth can also be vacuumed up to help kill the insects quicker inside the chamber. It is also recommended that insecticidal soap be added to the chamber's contents before disposal. Wet vacuums are effective against indoor ants, beetles, cockroaches, earwigs, fleas, pantry moths and weevils, silverfish, bees, wasps and hornets.
  • Educating IPM Participants All facility occupants should understand the basic concepts of IPM and who to contact with questions or problems. Educating and training staff to function within an IPM context is important to the success of an in-house IPM program. Educating the staff has several benefits. All personnel can be useful in monitoring for specific pests and reporting their presence to staff pest control personnel. All personnel are also helpful in reporting the efficacy of a particular control method.
  • IPM is a dynamic process that brings both success and failure. One can not focus only on the success or failure of individual methods employed, but rather is the process continuing to seek better pest control methods. Research, experimentation and documentation are ongoing in IPM. It can not be underscored that the field staff must be involved in the decision making process. Their “practicality check” is invaluable in selecting the correct pest control strategy. The field staff are the ones who will make IPM work. They must believe in the process. They must be willing to be weaned from the chemical dependency of pesticides to other control methods. The following IPM Guidelines are helpful in designing a program: 1. Preventative measures should be explored fully as early as possible. 2. No control method is to be taken until/unless a problem is observed and verified. 3. The problem must exceed the “acceptable level of damage.” 4. Evaluate available alternative methods of control. 5. Select the method that is most effective/cost-effective and has the lowest impact on the environment. 6. Time control action for maximum effectiveness and safety. 7. Follow-up and monitor results, keeping accurate records. 8. Evaluate and modify the program as necessary.
  • Resources Books: Common-Sense Pest Control by William Olkowski, Sheila Daar and Helga Olkowski Pests of Landscape, Trees and Shrubs by the University of California Websites: National IPM Network http://www.reeusda.gov/agsys/nipmn/index.htm UC IPM Online http://axp.ipm.ucdavis.edu/
  • 82 100 100 88 Remember, You Control Your Facility or Area! Do not let contractors violate the law on your property. Take time to review procedures with them before they begin the job. Ensure they are properly trained and know how to follow your businesses Best Management Practices. Before you hire them, investigate their environmental compliance record. Enforcement agencies normally will disclose violators. Before the job begins, find out who is in charge and hold them accountable for maintaining environmental compliance. Before any job begins, determine how the work will affect your facility’s environmental compliance!
  • 83 101 101 89 A Successful Integrated Pest Management Program takes work. A successful program incorporates these elements: DETAILED WRITTEN IPM INSPECTION GUIDELINES. 2. DETAILED WRITTEN IPM BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES. 3. EXTENSIVE EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAMS 4. PERIODIC REINFORCEMENT OF TRAINING 5. SUFFICIENT DISCIPLINE REGARDING IMPLEMENTATION 6. PERIODIC FOLLOW-UP
  • 84 102 102 90 In closing, it is important to remember the words of Carol Browner, EPA Administrator during the Clinton Administration. She said: “I would ask all of us to remember that protecting our environment is about protecting where we live and how we live. Let us join together to protect our health, our economy, and our communities -- so all of us and our children and our grandchildren can enjoy a healthy and a prosperous life.”
  • IPM , Pesticide management

    1. 1. WELCOME INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT CUSTOMIZED ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING
    2. 2. INSTRUCTOR Insert Instructor Name Here
    3. 3. <ul><li>Define Pest and Integrated Pest Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the Benefits of IPM. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss IPM Prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss IPM Monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss IPM Control Techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Specific Control Techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Educating Others in IPM. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss IPM Guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Use of Contractors. </li></ul>OBJECTIVES
    4. 4. <ul><li>Understand the Definition of Pest and Integrated Pest Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the Benefits of IPM. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand IPM Prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand IPM Monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand IPM Control Techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Be Familiar with Specific Control Techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the Importance of Educating Others in IPM. </li></ul><ul><li>Be Familiar with IPM Guidelines. </li></ul>GOALS
    5. 5. BACKGROUND <ul><li>In 1972, 2.8 million tons of pesticide were used worldwide, by 1990, the amount had grown to 46 million tons worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Annually in the U.S., there are more than 22,000 people poisoned from pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently there are 25,000 pesticides registered for use in the United States. However, 19,000 of them have not been reregistered since 1972 when legislation required testing for carcinogenic effects . </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Department Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Building Occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Process Specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental and Safety Committees </li></ul>LEARNERS
    7. 7. The goal of this course is to provide supervisors with the tools needed to institute an integrated pest management program on their facility. It recommends practical, actions that can be carried out by facility management, maintenance personnel and building occupants. The course will help you to integrate good integrated pest management activities into your existing organization and identify which of your staff have the necessary skills to carry out those activities. OVERVIEW
    8. 8. WHAT THIS COURSE DOES NOT DO The course is not intended to become a pest advisor or to be a pesticide applicator. These specialties required training beyond the intended scope of this course. Where this expertise is needed, outside assistance should be solicited.
    9. 9. FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT (FIFRA) <ul><li>The primary focus of FIFRA was to provide federal control of pesticide distribution, sale, and use </li></ul><ul><li>EPA was given authority under FIFRA not only to study the consequences of pesticide usage but also to require users to register when purchasing pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>EPA is required to make instructional materials concerning integrated pest management (IPM) techniques available to individuals at their request </li></ul>
    10. 10. FEDERAL REGULATIONS <ul><li>Pertinent Regulations: </li></ul><ul><li>FIFRA has been codified in 40 CFR Parts 150—189 </li></ul><ul><li>40 CFR 170 addresses Worker Protection Standard </li></ul><ul><li>IPM is not addressed specifically in any regulations, however, as you will see, IPM is the best management practices for pesticides </li></ul>
    11. 11. WHAT ARE PESTS? <ul><li>Pests are plants and animals in undesirable locations according to man’s liking </li></ul><ul><li>Common pests are insects, mites, snails, birds, weeds, nematodes, and pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Pests can cause health problems, including malaria, hantavirus and plague from mosquitoes, fleas and rodents </li></ul><ul><li>Insects, rodents and weeds can also cause structural damage to buildings, roads and landscape </li></ul>
    12. 12. THE PROBLEM WITH PESTICIDES <ul><li>Specifically these include: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of complete health and safety data on many pesticides currently in use </li></ul><ul><li>Possible adverse short- and long-term health effects from acute and low-level long term exposure to pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Health care professionals not recognizing the exposure symptoms of the 25,000 registered pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination to the surrounding environment including waterways and food web </li></ul><ul><li>Pest resurgence due to resistance to toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistencies in the regulation of pesticide applications </li></ul>
    13. 13. WHAT IS IPM? <ul><li>IPM utilizes a combination of: </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive measures </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Control techniques </li></ul><ul><li>IPM’s goal is to suppress pests by the least toxic measures </li></ul><ul><li>IPM does not exclude the use of chemical pesticides, but utilizes them sparingly and only as a last resort </li></ul>
    14. 14. WHAT IS IPM? <ul><li>IPM uses the following criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Using pesticides whose health and safety data are known </li></ul><ul><li>Using very low toxic pesticides to minimize acute and chronic effects of pesticide exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting the number of pesticides used to aid physicians in identifying any effects of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Using preventative measures when at all possible and when using chemical pesticides limiting their use </li></ul><ul><li>Using methods which are not easily resisted by pests </li></ul><ul><li>Using the least toxic method should always stay within the bounds of all pesticide regulations and laws </li></ul>
    15. 15. BENEFITS OF IPM <ul><li>The benefits include: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul>
    16. 16. BENEFITS OF IPM <ul><li>Benefits - Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides, fertilizers and irrigation are costly </li></ul><ul><li>The costs associated with hazardous waste disposal and reporting are also averted </li></ul><ul><li>Health risks and health monitoring are also reduced by using IPM </li></ul>
    17. 17. BENEFITS OF IPM <ul><li>Benefits - Safety </li></ul><ul><li>IPM reduces risk </li></ul><ul><li>IPM results in fewer pesticide applications, at reduced rates, using the safest possible materials </li></ul><ul><li>In many cases, the handling of hazardous pesticides is eliminated altogether </li></ul>
    18. 18. BENEFITS OF IPM <ul><li>Benefits - Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>IPM delays pest resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic resistance is one of the most serious problems facing pesticide users </li></ul><ul><li>IPM does not rely solely on chemical controls, therefore genetic resistance is less likely to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving the effectiveness of existing pesticides helps reduce costs for everyone </li></ul>
    19. 19. BENEFITS OF IPM <ul><li>Benefits - Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>IPM preserves the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Indiscriminate pesticide and fertilizer use can reduce populations of beneficial plants, insects, fish, animals and other organisms </li></ul>
    20. 20. PESTICIDE TOXICITY CATEGORIES Moderate irritation Severe irritation Corrosive Skin Effects Reversible irritation Persistent irritation Corrosive Eye Effects > 2,000 mg/kg 200-2000 mg/kg Up to 200 mg/kg Dermal LD50 >2 mg/L .2-2 mg/kg Up to .2 mg/kg Inhalation LC50 >500 mg/kg 50-500 mg/kg Up to 50 mg/kg Oral LD50 3. - Caution 2. - Warning 1. - Danger Hazard Indicator
    21. 21. PREVENTION <ul><li>Preventive measures are an important step because they eliminate the pest by disturbing a potential habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention means planning for a potential pest and taking the necessary steps aimed at disturbing the pest’s habitat in such ways as erecting a physical barrier, eliminating food or water, or introducing a predator </li></ul><ul><li>The choice of pest-resistant varieties of species that are well adapted to local conditions precludes pest infestation </li></ul><ul><li>Taking action after a pest infestation occurs could be too late to save landscape or buildings </li></ul>
    22. 22. PREVENTION <ul><li>Urban/Structural IPM </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticide use around infants and children, hospital patients, food, or other sensitive environments can create real or perceived risks </li></ul><ul><li>IPM principles for urban environments are the same as those for crops and ornamental plants </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to pesticides, such as exclusion or sanitation, can sometimes provide permanent solutions to otherwise chronic problems </li></ul>
    23. 23. PREVENTION <ul><li>Entryways </li></ul><ul><li>Keep doors shut when not in use </li></ul><ul><li>Place weather stripping on doors </li></ul><ul><li>Caulk and seal openings in walls </li></ul><ul><li>Install or repair screens </li></ul><ul><li>Install air curtains </li></ul><ul><li>Keep vegetation, shrubs, and wood mulch at least 1 foot away from structures </li></ul>
    24. 24. PREVENTION <ul><li>Classrooms and Offices </li></ul><ul><li>Allow food and beverages only in designated areas </li></ul><ul><li>If indoor plants are present, keep them healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Keep areas as dry as possible by removing standing water and water damaged or wet materials </li></ul><ul><li>In science labs, store animal foods in tightly sealed containers and regularly clean cages </li></ul><ul><li>In all areas, remove dust and debris </li></ul><ul><li>Routinely clean closets, lockers and desks </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently vacuum carpeted areas </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with your local health department if head lice is present </li></ul>
    25. 25. PREVENTION <ul><li>Food Preparation and Serving Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Store food and waste in containers that are inaccessible to pests </li></ul><ul><li>Containers must have tight lids and be made of plastic, glass, or metal </li></ul><ul><li>  Place screens on vents, windows, and floordrains to prevent cockroaches and other pests from using unscreened ducts or vents as pathways </li></ul><ul><li>Improve cleaning practices, including promptly cleaning food preparation equipment after use and removing grease accumulation from vents, ovens, and stoves </li></ul><ul><li>Use caulk or paint to seal cracks and crevices </li></ul>
    26. 26. PREVENTION <ul><li>Rooms and Areas With Extensive Plumbing </li></ul><ul><li>Promptly repair leaks and correct other plumbing problems to deny pests access to water </li></ul><ul><li>Routinely clean floor drains, strainers, and grates </li></ul><ul><li>Seal pipe chases </li></ul><ul><li>Keep areas dry </li></ul><ul><li>Increase ventilation when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Store paper products or cardboard boxes away from moist areas </li></ul>
    27. 27. PREVENTION <ul><li>Maintenance Areas </li></ul><ul><li>After use, promptly clean mops and mop buckets </li></ul><ul><li>Allow eating only in designated eating areas </li></ul><ul><li>Clean trash cans regularly, use plastic liners in trash cans, and use secure lids </li></ul><ul><li>Keep areas clean and as dry as possible, and remove debris </li></ul>
    28. 28. MONITORING <ul><li>Monitoring or the regular inspection of your facilities is key to IPM </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring must be systematic and regular to be effective </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up a good monitoring program is a cost-effective way to get started in IPM </li></ul><ul><li>Proper identification of pests and the problems they pose is essential in selecting control methods </li></ul><ul><li>Often, symptoms look similar for different pests </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to know the pests that can thrive in your area </li></ul>
    29. 29. MONITORING <ul><li>B enefits of monitoring include: </li></ul><ul><li>A greater awareness of pest activity, including changes in pest populations </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date information on the health of your facilities and landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Data that can be used to compare pest outbreaks from season to season </li></ul><ul><li>Early detection of pest problems resulting more management options </li></ul><ul><li>An effective monitoring program can save you money </li></ul>
    30. 30. MONITORING <ul><li>Knowing your pests: </li></ul><ul><li>What pests have affected my facilities in the past? </li></ul><ul><li>What other pests can possibly for my facilities? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the hazards if the pest remains unchecked? </li></ul><ul><li>When is the pest most active? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is this pest’s habitat preferences? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the pest look like at different times of its lifecycle? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any benefits to the pest? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you prevent a pest appearing? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you control a pest once it is established? </li></ul>
    31. 31. MONITORING <ul><li>What to look for </li></ul><ul><li>The Pest </li></ul><ul><li>Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Droppings </li></ul><ul><li>Tracks and traces </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts </li></ul>
    32. 32. MONITORING <ul><li>Where to look </li></ul><ul><li>Where has pest damage occurred in the past? </li></ul><ul><li>What areas might the pest find food and shelter? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a pest professional for ideas where to monitor for pests </li></ul>
    33. 33. MONITORING <ul><li>When to look </li></ul><ul><li>Factors include: </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><li>How soon after applying pesticides, fertilizers or water pests reappear </li></ul>
    34. 34. MONITORING <ul><li>Thresholds </li></ul><ul><li>Know your action thresholds </li></ul><ul><li>The mere presence of a pest is not enough reason to apply a control measure </li></ul><ul><li>The number of pests must be sufficient to cause enough harm to pay for the control measure </li></ul><ul><li>The number of pests required to justify a control measure is called the &quot;action threshold&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>This threshold may be a certain number of damaged plants, insects in a trap, or weeds in a field </li></ul>
    35. 35. MONITORING <ul><li>Use IPM checklists </li></ul><ul><li>During problem times, such as spring, some areas may have to be visited weekly or more often, looking for pest infestation </li></ul><ul><li>Results should be compared to previous findings to determine trends </li></ul><ul><li>Records should have dates, temperature, specific location, host plant or area of infestation, pest(s), and natural enemies present, sampling done with a description of the procedure for sampling, and any counts </li></ul><ul><li>Records should also document any use of control measures taken </li></ul>
    36. 36. MONITORING <ul><li>Trapping can be an effective method of monitoring in addition to spot monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Traps can be used on insects, rodents, or animals </li></ul><ul><li>Here is how insect trapping can help you: </li></ul><ul><li>Insect traps can often indicate if a spray is economically justified </li></ul><ul><li>Traps often target adult stages of pests </li></ul><ul><li>Trapping is a useful timing tool </li></ul>
    37. 37. MONITORING <ul><li>Traps are at work 24 hours a day </li></ul><ul><li>  Traps can indicate problem areas, or hot spots, requiring corrective action or spot treatments without having to treat all areas </li></ul><ul><li>Trapping may help you reduce your use of pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>A well-run trapping program gives you information on which to base and document your decisions </li></ul>
    38. 38. CONTROL TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Helpful decision-making criteria for selecting the proper control/combined control strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Proven Efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>2. Lowest Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>3. Operational Feasible </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cost-Effective. </li></ul>
    39. 39. CONTROL TECHNIQUES <ul><li>The primary control methods used in IPM are: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Some control methods may also kill off potential predators of the pest and exacerbate the pest problem </li></ul>
    40. 40. CONTROL TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>These controls are modifications of normal facility or plant care activities that reduce or avoid pest problems </li></ul><ul><li>These include landscape maintenance such as proper fertilizing and watering </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminating ponding for potential mosquitoes and reducing trash for insects and vectors are also examples of cultural controls </li></ul>
    41. 41. CONTROL TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>These controls involve labor, not including the application of chemical pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling weeds by hand-pulling, weed eaters or mulching are examples </li></ul><ul><li>Application of sticky traps, bird netting and hand-picking insects are all mechanical controls </li></ul>
    42. 42. CONTROL TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>These controls are environmental manipulations that indirectly control or prevent pests by altering temperature, light or humidity </li></ul><ul><li>The addition of the product Aquashade to a pond darkens a pond and limits the amount of sunlight needed for algae growth </li></ul><ul><li>Certain foliar diseases are controlled by thinning the plant canopy, which improves air circulation and reduces humidity </li></ul><ul><li>The use of diluted white latex paint applied to trees to reduce sun scald is also a physical control </li></ul>
    43. 43. CONTROL TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>These control methods use beneficial organisms to control unwanted organisms </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of lady beetles to a garden area or beneficial nematodes to a lawn are examples of biological control </li></ul>
    44. 44. CONTROL TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides include insecticides (for insects), fungicides (for fungi), rodenticides (for rodents), aviacides (for birds) and herbicides (for weeds) </li></ul><ul><li>All pesticides fall into one of the three classes: Class I is Danger, Class II is Warning, and Class III is Caution </li></ul><ul><li>If a pesticide is warranted, use the least toxic pesticide to be effective in controlling the pest </li></ul>
    45. 45. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>AQUASHADE </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: Aquashade is a commercially registered aqua-blue dye used to filter out sunlight prohibiting algae and plant growth in ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: The dyes used in Aquashade are safe for animals and humans and are nontoxic to plants </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Application: Aquashade is used in ponds to prevent the growth of algae and submerged weeds </li></ul>
    46. 46. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>BORAX </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: Borax, or sodium tetraborate, is a combination of boron, sodium and oxygen and is mined from the soil in its crude form </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Borax is safe around plants and mammals and displays an oral LD50 in rats of 6,000 mg/kg </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Application: Borax is effective against most insects and it is recommended that wood be treated with borax to prevent termite damage </li></ul>
    47. 47. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>CARBON DIOXIDE </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: Carbon dioxide is the bi-product from animal respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Carbon dioxide is a poison to all animals, but it does occur naturally in the atmosphere and is best used in an enclosed space, it will kill unwanted pests </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Application. Carbon dioxide may be the control of choice when faced against large numbers of cockroaches, and pantry moths, beetles and weevils </li></ul>
    48. 48. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>DIATOMAEOUS EARTH </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: Diatomaeous earth is mined from fossilized shells of colonized algae known as diatoms and has abrasive and absorptive qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Diatomaeous earth is virtually nontoxic to mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Application: Diatomaeous earth has microscopic jagged edges, though harmless to mammals, are very effective against insects such as ants, beetles, cockroaches, earwigs, fleas, pantry weevils, silverfish, termites, cutworms, and mealybugs </li></ul>
    49. 49. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>ELECTRO-GUN </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: The electro-gun is a patented invention which directs 90,000 volts of electricity at 60,000 cycles per second and is used primarily by termite exterminators </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: The electro-gun is non-toxic and one of the most effective, proven methods for exterminating termites, though the high voltage of the electro-gun makes it a safety concern </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Application: The electro-gun is effective at exterminating termites, carpenter ants or any other wood burrowing insect </li></ul>
    50. 50. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>GARLIC OIL </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: The strong scent of garlic oil contains the volatile oil alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfer-oxide) </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Though safe around humans, garlic oil can be toxic to pest and beneficial insects </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Applications: Garlic oil should be used on plants and shrubs to repel insects </li></ul>
    51. 51. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>INSECTICIDAL SOAPS </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: Insecticidal soaps contain either sodium or potassium hydroxide on a fat, the result is the insect dehydrates and dies </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Insecticidal soaps have an oral LD50 of 16,500 mg/kg in rats </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Applications: Insecticidal soap should be used on outdoor plants to protect against outdoor ants, aphids, mealy bugs, and scales </li></ul>
    52. 52. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>LADY BEETLES </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: Lady beetles are a carnivorous beetle, feeding upon many pest insects </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Lady beetles are completely safe and do not harm plants or animals </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Application: Lady beetles can be purchased commercially and released safely in trees or garden areas where aphids, mealy bugs, and scales are a pest </li></ul>
    53. 53. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>NEEM OIL </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: Neem oil is an extract from the neem tree, a widely grown ornamental tree found in Africa and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Neem oil has a very low toxicity in mammals with an oral LD50 of 13,500 mg/kg in rats, with only rare cases does the oil irritate human skin </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Applications: Neem oil has been shown effective against 170 insect species including aphids, cockroaches, beetles, moths, mites, locust, nematodes, cutworms, mealy bugs, mosquitoes, lady beetles and fruit flies; and it can be used against brown patch, pink snow mold, pythium and summer patch fungi </li></ul>
    54. 54. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>NEMATODES </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: Beneficial nematodes are microscopic in size and invade the bodies of pest larvae and release a deadly bacteria which kills within 48 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Beneficial nematodes are nontoxic and are harmless to plants, earthworms and higher organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Applications: Beneficial nematodes are effective against 250 varieties of pest larvae including cutworms </li></ul>
    55. 55. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>TRAPS </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: Traps are used to capture and kill unwanted pests and differ in technique and form, but all are designed to lure, with the aid of bait, the pest into its grasp </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Traps do not have any toxicity, though care should be used when setting any traps </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Application: Live traps should be used to capture cats, pigeons, seagulls, skunks, and squirrels; traps that kill the pest should be used for flies, pantry moths, mice, rats, and pocket gophers </li></ul>
    56. 56. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>WASP-STOPPER AEROSOL </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: Wasp-Stopper is an aerosol that contains the active ingredients pyrethrin and rotenome, as well as highly evaporative substances that freeze the bees, wasps or hornets </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Wasp-Stopper is the least toxic, commercially available, control for bees, hornets and wasps </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Application: Wasp-Stopper is designed to be sprayed six to eight feet away from a hive and it first freezes, then poisons the bees, wasps or hornets </li></ul>
    57. 57. SPECIFIC CONTROL METHODS <ul><li>WET VACUUM </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: A wet vacuum, or &quot;shop vac&quot;, with an extremely fine filter is an excellent insect killer </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: Shop vacs are completely safe, leaving no adverse environmental effects </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Application: The shop vacuum can be used indoors or outdoors against insects </li></ul>
    58. 58. EDUCATING OTHERS <ul><li>All facility occupants should understand the basic concepts of IPM and who to contact with questions or problems </li></ul><ul><li>Educating and training staff to function within an IPM context is important to the success of an in-house IPM program </li></ul><ul><li>Educating the staff has several benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>All personnel can be useful in monitoring for specific pests and reporting their presence to staff pest control personnel </li></ul><ul><li>All personnel are also helpful in reporting the efficacy of a particular control method </li></ul>
    59. 59. IPM GUIDELINES <ul><li>IPM Guidelines that are helpful in designing a program: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Preventative measures should be explored early </li></ul><ul><li>2. No control method is to be taken until/unless a problem is observed and verified </li></ul><ul><li>3. The problem must exceed the “acceptable level of damage” </li></ul><ul><li>4. Evaluate available alternative methods of control </li></ul><ul><li>5. Select the method that is most effective/cost-effective and has the lowest impact on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>6. Time control action for effectiveness and safety </li></ul><ul><li>7. Follow-up and monitor results, keep records </li></ul><ul><li>8. Evaluate and modify the program as necessary </li></ul>
    60. 60. RESOURCES <ul><li>Books: </li></ul><ul><li>Common-Sense Pest Control by William Olkowski, Sheila Daar and Helga Olkowski </li></ul><ul><li>Pests of Landscape, Trees and Shrubs by the University of California </li></ul><ul><li>Websites: </li></ul><ul><li>National IPM Network </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.reeusda.gov/agsys/nipmn/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>UC IPM Online </li></ul><ul><li>http://axp.ipm.ucdavis.edu/ </li></ul>
    61. 61. <ul><li>Remember, You Control Your Facility or Area! </li></ul><ul><li>Review Procedures With Them Before Starting the Job! </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure They Are Properly Trained! </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Their Environmental Compliance Record! </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Who Is in Charge of Their People! </li></ul><ul><li>Determine How They Will Affect Your Facility’s Environmental Compliance ! </li></ul>TIPS FOR USING CONTRACTORS
    62. 62. ELEMENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL IPM PROGRAM <ul><li>DETAILED WRITTEN IPM INSPECTION GUIDELINES. </li></ul><ul><li>2. DETAILED WRITTEN IPM BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES. </li></ul><ul><li>3. EXTENSIVE EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><li>4. PERIODIC REINFORCEMENT OF TRAINING </li></ul><ul><li>5. SUFFICIENT DISCIPLINE REGARDING IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>6. PERIODIC FOLLOW-UP </li></ul>
    63. 63. THE IMPORTANCE OF A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT “ I would ask all of us to remember that protecting our environment is about protecting where we live and how we live. Let us join together to protect our health, our economy, and our communities -- so all of us and our children and our grandchildren can enjoy a healthy and a prosperous life.” Carol Browner Former EPA Administrator

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