Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
13 b shukla
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

13 b shukla

352

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
352
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
25
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. High Pressure and efficient Boilers for Cogeneration applications
    • By
    • B. Shukla
    • MD and Chief Consultant,
    • WHITE POWERCON
    • #2082,1stmain 4 th cross Judicial Layout,
    • GKVK Post
    • BANGALORE-560065
  • 2.
    • What is CO-GENERATION?
    • This is a combined / integrated System of production of Electrical power and useful heat by sequential use of energy from a common fuel source generally bagasse).
    • To generate surplus power
    • For Best Utilization of resources
    • . To have Independency in power and steam
  • 3. The Major advantage of Co- Gen power is ;-
    • A-Most techno- commercial viable Projects with short pay back.
    • B-Cost of power production is very cheap compare to that of
    • purchase power.
    • C-Dependability and reliability with quality of power.
    • D-Quick return on investments.
    • E-Restore ecological imbalance.
    • F-Ability to use Bio-Mass and organic matters like wood, grass and
    • agro wastes and also municipal wastes.
    • G-Availability of power between Nov. to May when Hydel power availability less.
    • H-provides ecmomical and timeluy solution of Power problems.
  • 4. CO-GENERATION in SUGAR MILLS
  • 5. How Cogeneration Saves Energy
  • 6. COGENERATION PLANT LAYOUT Feed water PRDS BOILER ALTERNATOR TURBINE TO PROCESS TO PROCESS Fuel Air TO POWER SUPPLY CONDENSER TO COOLING TOWER
  • 7.
    • Better Power Quality
    • Improved Reliability and run ability
    • Lower Energy Costs
    • Reduction CO2 in the environment
    • Conserve Natural Resources
    • Support Grid Infrastructure
      • Fewer T&D Constraints
      • Defer Costly Grid Upgrades
      • Price Stability
    Benefits of cogeneration
  • 8. Steps for conservation 1.Government of India enforced the energy conservation act 2001 with effect from 1.3.2002. 2.The initial phase of 5 years would be implementation of the act . 3.The act provides mainly for efficient use of energy and its conservation. 4.Industry using
  • 9. Mandatory Requirement of Act
    • Those unit having connected load of 5000 KWh are called as ‘ Designated Energy Consumer’.
    • As per the act it is mandatory for all designated Energy Consumers to get Energy Audit conducted by an Accredited Energy Auditor. And to designate or appoint an Energy Manager.
  • 10. Energy Saving potential areas in sugar industries 1.Convertion from low Pressure to HP Boilers 2.Steam Boilers (Reducing moisture percentage in Bagasse) 3.Crushing section 4.Evaporator section
  • 11.
      • Energy auditing
      • Technical Analysis
      • Inception
    • Implementation Planning
    • Financing
    • Operation and maintenance
    FEASIBILITY STUDY (TYPICAL STEPS)
  • 12. CASE STUDIES
    • A-IMPROVEMENT PROJECT By
    • I-BY RETROFITTING
    • II- -RENOVATION &TECHNOLOGICAL UPGRADATION
    • B-INITIATING NEW PROJECTS
  • 13. RETROFITTING
    • Replacement of old 18/21Kgs/cm to HP >100bars boilers
    • A-Provision of Better control system.
    • B-Efficiency improvement by Automation
    • C-Reduction of unaccountable losses by
    • providing dust extraction system
    • D-Reduction of Boiler & TG down time &
    • efficiency improvement by water & steam
    • quality control
  • 14. Case Studies
    • Introducing New HP Boiler without affecting Present Existing System
  • 15. Comparison of performance during various seasns from 1998 to 2002 40.7 4.84 7.06 11.9 11.9 8.96 11.23 10.3 7.06 % Lost % on Available Hours 14 53.7 59.3 51.08 110 51-05 110-25 109-25 97-15 97-10 Hrs-Mts   General Cleaning 13 94.3 66 4 70 70-00 24-25 4.-00 53-55 11.-10 Hrs-Mts   Electrical 12 97.5 176 4.5 181 180-45 24-55 4.-30 59-30 64-35 Hrs-Mts   Mechanical 11         204-10 154-55 142-15 57-50 6.-00 Hrs-Mts   No Cane 10 Rs 51.57 lakhs per season                     DOWN TIME ANALYSIS   4.19 1.08 24.68 25.8     25.18 25.46 24.68 KWH   Power / Ton of Cane 9         49.74 49.45 48.75 50.71 48.76 %   Steam % Cane 8 2.32 1.19 50.11 51.3 51.3 50.4 50.11 50.56 50.66 %   Bagasse Moisture 7         8.187 9.23 9.758 9.11 9.51 %   Recovery 6         3918.42 4247.98 4063.22 3857 4217.33 MT   Crop Day Average 5         4614.77 4783.32 4576.34 4311.12 4541.39 MT   Crushing Rate/24 hours 4         4230.29 4385.11 4194.98 3951 4162.95 MT   Crushing Rate/22 hours 3         188 165 159 191 173     No. of Crop Days 2         736663 700916 646051 736838 729598 MT   Cane Crushed 1         Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual UOM   PARTICULARS SL NO. % Saving scope Diff Min Max 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03      
  • 16. Coomparison of performance with best two seasons       6173-40 3816-33 4148-39 HRS Total Available Hours 15         80-120 90to130 % Sugar quality ICUMSA 14       1.73 1.78 1.86 % Pol % Bagasse 13       50.52 50.11 50.66 % Bagasse Moisture 12           78.18 % Cane Preparatory Index 11       31.22 30.32 29.56 % Bagasse % Cane 10       4.415 4.449 4.52 % Molasses % Cane 9       0.037 0.049 0.1 % d)Unknown Loss         0.99 1.211 1.27 % c)Final Molasses         0.05 0.07 0.08 % b)Filter Cake         0.54 0.541 0.55 % a)Bagasse         1.617 1.871 2 % Total Losses 8       10.963 11.618 11.5 % Pol in Cane 7       9.357 9.758 9.51 %   Recovery 6       2796.416 4063.216 4217.3 MT Crop Day Average 5       3076.152 4576.344 4541.4 MT Crushing Rate / 24 hours 4       2819.806 4149.982 4162.9 MT Crushing Rate / 22 hours 3       258 159 173   No. of Crop Days 2       721475.5 646051.4 729598 MT Cane Crushed 1                           2500 5000 5000 MT Plant Sanctioned Capacity                       %saving scope Min Max 1994-95 2000-01 2002-03 UOM   PARTICULAR SL NO
  • 17.   Possible increased in crushing of cane per season= 24220 MT/season   Remarks:Possible saving of running hours =128 hours     128 hours 213.8 341.8                     694.65 1477.49 2325 Qtls   Process Stock-Brown Sugar 30       8.82 11.23 7.06 %   Lost % on Avaible Hours 29 33.17 112.166 167.83 168-45 167-50 112-10 HRS   Others 28 11.2 97.16 109.416 164-00 109-25 97-10 HRS   General Cleaning 27       5.-30 4.-00 11.-10 HRS   Electrical 26 93 4.5 64.58 152-15 4.-30 64-35 HRS   Mechanical 25       54-15 142-15 6.-00 HRS   No Cane 24                 DOWN TIME ANALYSIS         9.83 9.923 9.68 % Peak Period Recovery 23 Rs 21.62 lakhs/season       25.18 24.68 KWH Power / Ton of Cane 22 2.77 47.41 48.76 47.41 48.75 48.76 % Steam % Cane 21       93.43 91.66 91.27 % Reduced B.House Extraction 20       95.89 96.02 95.73 % Reduced Mill Extraction 19       3.69 3.78 4.12   Milling Loss 18       295.62 293.58 259.14 % Imbibition% Fiber 17       544-45 428-25 292-55 HRS Down Time Hours 16
  • 18.       75-45 10.-20 21-35 12.-40 20-45 5.-55 5.-00 0-00 HRs b)Engineering(Mech&Elec)         6.-00 0-00 0-00 0-00 0-00 0-00 6.-00 0-00 HRs a)Want of Cane         292-55 19-35 51-50 43-45 38-15 35-25 102-20 1.-45 HRs Stoppage Hours 8       3855-44 172-28 692-10 676-15 705-45 636-35 641-40 330-51 HRs Total Working Hours 7       4148-39 192-03 744-00 720-00 744-00 672-00 744-00 332-36 HRs Total Available Hours 6       167 8 31 29 31 27 27 14 Days Season Days-Crushing Day 5       173 8 31 30 31 28 31 14 Days Season Days-Crop Day 4       696220 25397 114975 13123.3 14747 13227.5 113875 3100 Qtls Sugar Production 3       9.61 6.68 8.75 10.14 10.66 10.06 8.84 8.05 %   Recovery 2       729598 21860 128072.4 127097 140288 134980 128742 48558.3 MT Cane Crushed 1                               %saving Min Max TOTAL JUNE.03 MAY.03 APL.03 MAR.03 FEB.03 JAN.03 DEC.02 UOM   PARTICULARS SL NO ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE FOR THE SEASON 2002-2003(MONTH WISE)
  • 19. Remarks: Saving of power in terms of money will be Rs 77.15 lakhs /month. @Rs 5.00/KWH 32.2 23.27 34.3 24.63 34.3 25.57 25.13 24.69 23.27 23.61 23.61 Units Power per Ton of Cane 23       48.76 70.91 48.18 47.96 48.37 47.62 47.69 49.47 % Steam % Cane 22       4.52 4.93 4.85 4.66 4.61 4.37 4.17 4.26 % Molasses % Cane 21       31.35 34.15 31.55 31.51 31.71 30.99 30.45 29.6 % Final Molasses Purity 20       29.56 31.63 30.75 30.19 29.42 29.06 28.82 27.53 % Bagasse % Cane 19       1.86 1.9 1.84 1.84 1.85 1.86 1.88 1.89 % Pol % Bagasse 18       91.27 90.46 91.14 91.19 91.15 91.39 91.49 91.66 % Reduced BH. Extraction 17       95.73 94.48 95.64 96.02 96.12 95.88 95.31 94.79 % Reduced Mill Extraction 16       0.1 0.288 0.263 0.06 0.058 0.057 0.062 0.069 % d)Unknown         0.08 0.105 0.087 0.08 0.084 0.083 0.081 0.08 % c)Filter Cake         0.55 0.6 0.57 0.56 0.545 0.54 0.543 0.521 % b)Bagasse         1.27 1.45 1.369 1.31 1.306 1.218 1.143 1.13 % a)Final Molasses         2 2.443 2.284 2.01 1.993 1.898 1.828 1.8 % Total Losses 15       11.5 9.11 11.025 12.14 12.627 11.947 10.656 9.844 % Pol % Cane 14       4368.85 2732.5 4131.368 4382.66 4525.41 4999.27 4768.2 3468.45 MTs Crushing Day Average 13       4217.33 2732.5 4131.368 4236.57 4525.41 4820.73 4153 3468.45 MTs Crop Day Average 12       4541.39 2731.8 5037.504 4510.66 4771 5088.96 4815.3 3522.43 MTs Crushing Rate / 24 hours 11       4162.95 2504.2 4617.712 4134.77 4373.12 4664.88 4414 3228.9 MTs Crushing Rate / 22 hours 10       7.06 10.-20 6.97 6.08 5.14 5.27 13.75 0.53 % Down Time % Available 9       112-10 9.-15 30.15 1.-50 17-00 3.-15 48-50 1.-45 HRs   e)Others         97-10 0-00 0-00 29-15 0-00 26-15 41-40 0-00 HRs d)General Cleaning         1.-20 0-00 0-00 0-00 0-30 0-00 0-50 0-00 HRs   c)Process  
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. BY Technological Up gradation
    • A-Replacement of old low pressure Boilers to High pressure to get the benefits
    • improved cycle efficiency.
    • B-Providing Topping up TG Set to optimize expenses on Electrical system.
    • C-Better environments by Providing
    • Emission monitoring.
  • 24. Acquire Best Available Technology in New Projects
    • A-Select Most modern and reliable
    • equipments
    • B-Design Tailor make System.
    • C-Select Flexible System for Better
    • utilization of resources and Better economy.
  • 25. KCP Boiler 70 TPH, 43.4ata & 400 ºC TBW Boiler 70 TPH, 67ata & 485 ºC 9.74 MW, 70 tph TG Comparison Prevailing System Proposed System Multi fuel Boiler 105ata, 525 º C, 88% Topping up TG set 18.6 MW, 61 tph TG GEC Turbine SIEMENS Turbine C C 11 KV BUS 9.74 MW, 70 tph TG 18.6 MW, 61 tph TG C C GEC Turbine SIEMENS Turbine 67ata & 485 ºC 42ata & 400 ºC
  • 26. Actual Thermal Efficiency of existing power plant on date Heat value of KPC boiler ≈ 767 Kcal/kg (from steam table) (at 43.4 ata and 400ºC) Then net heat value of KPC boiler ≈ 767 – 105 ≈ 662 Kcal/kg. Thermal efficiency of KPC boiler = η th = (Net heat value * Total Steam generation) / (CV of the bagasse * total bagasse consumption) η th = (662 * 122759) / (2277 * 61672) = 57.99% ≈ 58% ( against 69% of design) Heat value of TBW boiler = 807.7 Kcal/kg (From steam table) (at 67 ata and 485 ºC) Then net heat value of TBW boiler ≈ 807.7 – 105 ≈ 702.7 Kcal/kg GCV of coal = (CV of coal * total coal consumption) / Total fuel consumption = (5500 * 4622) / 56213 = 452.22 Kcal/kg GCV of Bagasse = (CV of bagasse * total bagasse consumption) / Total fuel consumption = (2277 * 51591) / 56213 = 2089.77 Kcal/kg Then net GCV = 452.22 + 2089.77 = 2542 Kcal/kg
  • 27. Then net heat gain = heat gain * steam required for cane * efficiency of Topping TG set = 13.8 * 125*10 3 * 0.9 = 1552.5 Kcal/kg Total power generation = 1552.5/860 = 1.8 MW Transfer rate = 1800 * 24 * 330 * 1.96 = 2.79 crore.
  • 28. Thermal efficiency of TBW boiler = η th = (Net heat value * Total Steam generation) / (Net GCV * total fuel consumption) = (702.7 * 129399) * 100 / (2542 * 56213) η th = 63 % (against 71.75 % of design) Average thermal efficiency of KPC & TBW boiler = (58+63) / 2 = 60.5 %
  • 29. Expected direct efficiency of multifuel boiler = 84% Then fuel saving = 84 – 60.5 = 23.5% Cost of fuel saving = Actual cane crushed * % of fuel caned * % fuel save for 02-03 = 729598 * 0.3 * 0.235 = Rs. 51436.65 Then total saving of bagasse = 51437 * 500 = Rs. 2,57,815 = 2.57 crore Net gain in power = 2.79 crore Net gain in fuel save = 2.57 crore Then total gain = 2.79+2.57 = 5.36 crore
  • 30. Heat value of AFBC boiler = 821.5 Kcal/kg (from steam table) (at 515 º C and 105 kg/cm 2 ) Then net heat gain = 821.5 – 807.7 = 13.8 Kcal/kg From data Budgeted crane crushed/year = 775000 M.T Actual crane crushed/year = 72598.401 M.T No. of crop days = 170 days % Steam required for crane = 48% % of bagasse in cane = 30% Then steam required for cane/hr. = (budgeted cane crushed * %steam reqd. for cane) / (No. of days * 24) = (775000 * 0.48) / (170*24) = 91.176 tph ≈ 100 tph For maximum efficiency steam required for cane/hr = 100/0.80 = 125 tph
  • 31. The Major advantage of Co- Gen power is ;-
    • A-Most techno- commercial viable Projects with short pay back.
    • B-Cost of power production is very cheap compare to that of purchase power.
    • C-Dependability and reliability with quality of power.
    • D-Quick return on investments.
    • E-Restore ecological imbalance.
    • F-Ability to use Bio-Mass and organic matters like wood, grass and agro and
    • municipal wastes.
    • G-Availability of power between Nov. to May when Hydel power availability
    • less.
    • Continue---
    • H-provides ecmomical and timeluy solution of Power problems.
  • 32. STEPS FOOR SAVINGS
    • !-Saving of Bagasse by adopting high technology HP Boilers
    • 2-Reduction of moisture in bagasse 50 to 45% by improving Milling Technique.
    • 3-Reduction in Process steam consumptions in evaporator and Prime movers
    • BLTFF evaporators
    • 4- Reduction in live s team consumption by using multi stage reaction Turbines.
    • 5- Reduction in over consumptions of power TCH using new technique of
    • Variable drives and high efficient auxiliaries.
    • 6-improve crushing rate by having quality power

×