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Dietary Impact on Global Warming

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Dietary impact on global warming

Dietary impact on global warming

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  • 1. Dietary Impacts on Global Warming Geoff Russell 20th May, 2007 Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 1 / 39
  • 2. Overview Who am I? Maths/Computing/Animal Liberation/Ethics Gratuitous Bool Lagoon picture Main Theorem Which is worse? CSIRO diet or a 2 tonne 4WD? Red meat emissions compared with light globes Climate forcings Non-Carbon forcings Methane locally/globally Diet Again Australia’s Woolly Kyoto targets Global Issues — China and Rice Paddies CSIRO diet and water Conclusions and Summary Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 2 / 39
  • 3. Magic at Bool Lagoon Wetlands are the biggest source of natural methane Methane is more than double its preindustrial level People have been draining wetlands for at least 200 years The wetlands of the south east used to be bigger than Kakadu The northern peat lands are a net carbon sink (Frolking) Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 3 / 39
  • 4. Magic at Bool Lagoon Wetlands are the biggest source of natural methane Methane is more than double its preindustrial level People have been draining wetlands for at least 200 years The wetlands of the south east used to be bigger than Kakadu The northern peat lands are a net carbon sink (Frolking) Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 3 / 39
  • 5. Magic at Bool Lagoon Wetlands are the biggest source of natural methane Methane is more than double its preindustrial level People have been draining wetlands for at least 200 years The wetlands of the south east used to be bigger than Kakadu The northern peat lands are a net carbon sink (Frolking) Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 3 / 39
  • 6. Magic at Bool Lagoon Wetlands are the biggest source of natural methane Methane is more than double its preindustrial level People have been draining wetlands for at least 200 years The wetlands of the south east used to be bigger than Kakadu The northern peat lands are a net carbon sink (Frolking) Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 3 / 39
  • 7. Magic at Bool Lagoon Wetlands are the biggest source of natural methane Methane is more than double its preindustrial level People have been draining wetlands for at least 200 years The wetlands of the south east used to be bigger than Kakadu The northern peat lands are a net carbon sink (Frolking) Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 3 / 39
  • 8. Huge Theorem Main Claim the greenhouse emissions of Australia’s livestock last year will have a bigger impact on global climate over the next 20 years than all of the greenhouse emissions from all of our coal fired power stations last year. Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 4 / 39
  • 9. Motivation — Celebrity Shopping How do food emissions compare with transport emissions? 1 Celebrities Kevin Rudd Tim Flannery Mark Parnell 2 Transport Ford Territory Toyota Prius Bicycle 3 Construction Emissions (tonnes) 34 22 0.14 4 Weekly Shopping List (kg) beef 4 beef/roo 3/1 pasta/rice 10 Source (Construction Emissions): Ben Rose, http://www.carbonneutral.com.au/ rose bj 2006. ghg-energy-calc background paper august 2006.pdf Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 5 / 39
  • 10. Motivation — Celebrity Shopping How do food emissions compare with transport emissions? 1 Celebrities Kevin Rudd Tim Flannery Mark Parnell 2 Transport Ford Territory Toyota Prius Bicycle 3 Construction Emissions (tonnes) 34 22 0.14 4 Weekly Shopping List (kg) beef 4 beef/roo 3/1 pasta/rice 10 Source (Construction Emissions): Ben Rose, http://www.carbonneutral.com.au/ rose bj 2006. ghg-energy-calc background paper august 2006.pdf Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 5 / 39
  • 11. Motivation — Celebrity Shopping How do food emissions compare with transport emissions? 1 Celebrities Kevin Rudd Tim Flannery Mark Parnell 2 Transport Ford Territory Toyota Prius Bicycle 3 Construction Emissions (tonnes) 34 22 0.14 4 Weekly Shopping List (kg) beef 4 beef/roo 3/1 pasta/rice 10 Source (Construction Emissions): Ben Rose, http://www.carbonneutral.com.au/ rose bj 2006. ghg-energy-calc background paper august 2006.pdf Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 5 / 39
  • 12. Motivation — Celebrity Shopping How do food emissions compare with transport emissions? 1 Celebrities Kevin Rudd Tim Flannery Mark Parnell 2 Transport Ford Territory Toyota Prius Bicycle 3 Construction Emissions (tonnes) 34 22 0.14 4 Weekly Shopping List (kg) beef 4 beef/roo 3/1 pasta/rice 10 Source (Construction Emissions): Ben Rose, http://www.carbonneutral.com.au/ rose bj 2006. ghg-energy-calc background paper august 2006.pdf Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 5 / 39
  • 13. Celebrity Shopping 1 Transport Operating Emissions per week (200kms) Kg 0.3 × 200 = 60 0.1 × 200 = 20 ? 2 Each kg of beef generates 50kg of greenhouse emissions. Hence: Food Emission per week (kg) 200 150 4 3 Time for food emissions to exceed transport emissions (weeks) 242 161 35 This is calculated, for example by solving 200x = 60x + 34000 where x is the number of weeks. Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 6 / 39
  • 14. Celebrity Shopping 1 Transport Operating Emissions per week (200kms) Kg 0.3 × 200 = 60 0.1 × 200 = 20 ? 2 Each kg of beef generates 50kg of greenhouse emissions. Hence: Food Emission per week (kg) 200 150 4 3 Time for food emissions to exceed transport emissions (weeks) 242 161 35 This is calculated, for example by solving 200x = 60x + 34000 where x is the number of weeks. Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 6 / 39
  • 15. Celebrity Shopping 1 Transport Operating Emissions per week (200kms) Kg 0.3 × 200 = 60 0.1 × 200 = 20 ? 2 Each kg of beef generates 50kg of greenhouse emissions. Hence: Food Emission per week (kg) 200 150 4 3 Time for food emissions to exceed transport emissions (weeks) 242 161 35 This is calculated, for example by solving 200x = 60x + 34000 where x is the number of weeks. Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 6 / 39
  • 16. Greenhouse Intensity of Beef Source: AGO – End Use Allocation of Emissions Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 7 / 39
  • 17. Red Meat Emissions 1999 — 130 Mt What are the components of red meat emissions? 1 Methane — enteric fermentation — 61 Mt 2 Manure management — 2.3 Mt 3 Deposition on pasture— 4.3 Mt (excrement on pasture) 4 Soil disturbance — 3.5 Mt 5 Land Clearing — 55 Mt 6 Savanna burning — 7.7 Mt 7 Pasture improvement — (Good!) -3.4 Mt 8 N.B. Most of Australia’s fertiliser goes on pasture. 9 and that’s just the start. Compare: Turnbull says lightglobe “initiative” will save 0.8 Mt. Source: AGO – End Use Allocation of Emissions Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 8 / 39
  • 18. Red Meat Emissions 1999 — 130 Mt What are the components of red meat emissions? 1 Methane — enteric fermentation — 61 Mt 2 Manure management — 2.3 Mt 3 Deposition on pasture— 4.3 Mt (excrement on pasture) 4 Soil disturbance — 3.5 Mt 5 Land Clearing — 55 Mt 6 Savanna burning — 7.7 Mt 7 Pasture improvement — (Good!) -3.4 Mt 8 N.B. Most of Australia’s fertiliser goes on pasture. 9 and that’s just the start. Compare: Turnbull says lightglobe “initiative” will save 0.8 Mt. Source: AGO – End Use Allocation of Emissions Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 8 / 39
  • 19. Red Meat Emissions 1999 — 130 Mt What are the components of red meat emissions? 1 Methane — enteric fermentation — 61 Mt 2 Manure management — 2.3 Mt 3 Deposition on pasture— 4.3 Mt (excrement on pasture) 4 Soil disturbance — 3.5 Mt 5 Land Clearing — 55 Mt 6 Savanna burning — 7.7 Mt 7 Pasture improvement — (Good!) -3.4 Mt 8 N.B. Most of Australia’s fertiliser goes on pasture. 9 and that’s just the start. Compare: Turnbull says lightglobe “initiative” will save 0.8 Mt. Source: AGO – End Use Allocation of Emissions Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 8 / 39
  • 20. Red Meat Emissions 1999 — 130 Mt What are the components of red meat emissions? 1 Methane — enteric fermentation — 61 Mt 2 Manure management — 2.3 Mt 3 Deposition on pasture— 4.3 Mt (excrement on pasture) 4 Soil disturbance — 3.5 Mt 5 Land Clearing — 55 Mt 6 Savanna burning — 7.7 Mt 7 Pasture improvement — (Good!) -3.4 Mt 8 N.B. Most of Australia’s fertiliser goes on pasture. 9 and that’s just the start. Compare: Turnbull says lightglobe “initiative” will save 0.8 Mt. Source: AGO – End Use Allocation of Emissions Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 8 / 39
  • 21. Red Meat Emissions 1999 — 130 Mt What are the components of red meat emissions? 1 Methane — enteric fermentation — 61 Mt 2 Manure management — 2.3 Mt 3 Deposition on pasture— 4.3 Mt (excrement on pasture) 4 Soil disturbance — 3.5 Mt 5 Land Clearing — 55 Mt 6 Savanna burning — 7.7 Mt 7 Pasture improvement — (Good!) -3.4 Mt 8 N.B. Most of Australia’s fertiliser goes on pasture. 9 and that’s just the start. Compare: Turnbull says lightglobe “initiative” will save 0.8 Mt. Source: AGO – End Use Allocation of Emissions Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 8 / 39
  • 22. Red Meat Emissions 1999 — 130 Mt What are the components of red meat emissions? 1 Methane — enteric fermentation — 61 Mt 2 Manure management — 2.3 Mt 3 Deposition on pasture— 4.3 Mt (excrement on pasture) 4 Soil disturbance — 3.5 Mt 5 Land Clearing — 55 Mt 6 Savanna burning — 7.7 Mt 7 Pasture improvement — (Good!) -3.4 Mt 8 N.B. Most of Australia’s fertiliser goes on pasture. 9 and that’s just the start. Compare: Turnbull says lightglobe “initiative” will save 0.8 Mt. Source: AGO – End Use Allocation of Emissions Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 8 / 39
  • 23. Red Meat Emissions 1999 — 130 Mt What are the components of red meat emissions? 1 Methane — enteric fermentation — 61 Mt 2 Manure management — 2.3 Mt 3 Deposition on pasture— 4.3 Mt (excrement on pasture) 4 Soil disturbance — 3.5 Mt 5 Land Clearing — 55 Mt 6 Savanna burning — 7.7 Mt 7 Pasture improvement — (Good!) -3.4 Mt 8 N.B. Most of Australia’s fertiliser goes on pasture. 9 and that’s just the start. Compare: Turnbull says lightglobe “initiative” will save 0.8 Mt. Source: AGO – End Use Allocation of Emissions Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 8 / 39
  • 24. Red Meat Emissions 1999 — 130 Mt What are the components of red meat emissions? 1 Methane — enteric fermentation — 61 Mt 2 Manure management — 2.3 Mt 3 Deposition on pasture— 4.3 Mt (excrement on pasture) 4 Soil disturbance — 3.5 Mt 5 Land Clearing — 55 Mt 6 Savanna burning — 7.7 Mt 7 Pasture improvement — (Good!) -3.4 Mt 8 N.B. Most of Australia’s fertiliser goes on pasture. 9 and that’s just the start. Compare: Turnbull says lightglobe “initiative” will save 0.8 Mt. Source: AGO – End Use Allocation of Emissions Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 8 / 39
  • 25. What is Global Warming Potential? 1 GWP is impact averaged over some time horizon 2 GWPs add and subtract 3 CO2 — COeq 2 4 Methane has 21 times the impact of CO2 ? 5 Over what time period? Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 9 / 39
  • 26. What is Global Warming Potential? 1 GWP is impact averaged over some time horizon 2 GWPs add and subtract 3 CO2 — COeq 2 4 Methane has 21 times the impact of CO2 ? 5 Over what time period? Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 9 / 39
  • 27. GWP — Global Warming Potential Source: IPCC AR4 Technical Summary 2007. Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 10 / 39
  • 28. What is Radiative Forcing? 1 Forcing is measured in (watts per square metre) 2 Energy in — energy out 3 Forcing is instantaneous impact on radiation budget 4 why is “radiative forcing” a useful concept? 5 Forcings are proportional to temperature change 6 Forcings add and subtract 7 Some forcings are easier to change than others Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 11 / 39
  • 29. Radiative Forcings Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 12 / 39
  • 30. Climate forcings – Direct Effects 1 Methane increases ozone O3 in the troposphere 2 Methane increases water vapour in the stratosphere Source: Hansen et al, Efficacy of Climate Forcings Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 13 / 39
  • 31. Climate forcings – Direct Effects 1 Methane increases ozone O3 in the troposphere 2 Methane increases water vapour in the stratosphere Source: Hansen et al, Efficacy of Climate Forcings Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 13 / 39
  • 32. Climate forcings – Direct Effects 1 Methane increases ozone O3 in the troposphere 2 Methane increases water vapour in the stratosphere Source: Hansen et al, Efficacy of Climate Forcings Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 13 / 39
  • 33. Climate forcings – InDirect Effects 1 CO2 concentration 370 ppm 2 CH4 concentration 1.75 ppm (note 1.75 × 2 = 3.50, about 1% of CO2 ) Source: Hansen et al, Efficacy of Climate Forcings Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 14 / 39
  • 34. Climate forcings – InDirect Effects 1 CO2 concentration 370 ppm 2 CH4 concentration 1.75 ppm (note 1.75 × 2 = 3.50, about 1% of CO2 ) Source: Hansen et al, Efficacy of Climate Forcings Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 14 / 39
  • 35. Deodorant forcings 1 Can we reduce forcings otherthan by CO2 reductions? 2 Montreal has saved the atmosphere about 9–12 Gt of Carbon 3 Kyoto may save 2 Gt of Carbon Source: Hansen and Sato, Greenhouse Gas Growth Rates Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 15 / 39
  • 36. Why is Methane critical locally? 1 Cattle and sheep produce 3 Mt CH4 anually. 2 Coal fired power stations produce about 180 Mt CO2 annually. 3 3 × 72 = 216 and 216 > 180. Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 16 / 39
  • 37. Why is Methane critical? – Globally 1 Oceans are a huge flywheel and reductions of CO2 will have no impact for decades 2 What is a fly wheel? 3 Methane reductions are effective almost immediately 4 James Hansen (Alt) called for deep methane cuts in 2001, 30%. 5 Hansen again in 2004, 40%. 6 Hansen in 2010, ??? 7 This isn’t either CO2 or CH4 , its both 8 CH4 to stabilise temperature quickly 9 CO2 to lock it in 10 About 2/3 of global methane emissions are anthropogenic Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 17 / 39
  • 38. Why is Methane critical? – Globally 1 Oceans are a huge flywheel and reductions of CO2 will have no impact for decades 2 What is a fly wheel? 3 Methane reductions are effective almost immediately 4 James Hansen (Alt) called for deep methane cuts in 2001, 30%. 5 Hansen again in 2004, 40%. 6 Hansen in 2010, ??? 7 This isn’t either CO2 or CH4 , its both 8 CH4 to stabilise temperature quickly 9 CO2 to lock it in 10 About 2/3 of global methane emissions are anthropogenic Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 17 / 39
  • 39. Why is Methane critical? – Globally 1 Oceans are a huge flywheel and reductions of CO2 will have no impact for decades 2 What is a fly wheel? 3 Methane reductions are effective almost immediately 4 James Hansen (Alt) called for deep methane cuts in 2001, 30%. 5 Hansen again in 2004, 40%. 6 Hansen in 2010, ??? 7 This isn’t either CO2 or CH4 , its both 8 CH4 to stabilise temperature quickly 9 CO2 to lock it in 10 About 2/3 of global methane emissions are anthropogenic Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 17 / 39
  • 40. Why is Methane critical? – Globally 1 Oceans are a huge flywheel and reductions of CO2 will have no impact for decades 2 What is a fly wheel? 3 Methane reductions are effective almost immediately 4 James Hansen (Alt) called for deep methane cuts in 2001, 30%. 5 Hansen again in 2004, 40%. 6 Hansen in 2010, ??? 7 This isn’t either CO2 or CH4 , its both 8 CH4 to stabilise temperature quickly 9 CO2 to lock it in 10 About 2/3 of global methane emissions are anthropogenic Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 17 / 39
  • 41. Why is Methane critical? – Globally 1 Oceans are a huge flywheel and reductions of CO2 will have no impact for decades 2 What is a fly wheel? 3 Methane reductions are effective almost immediately 4 James Hansen (Alt) called for deep methane cuts in 2001, 30%. 5 Hansen again in 2004, 40%. 6 Hansen in 2010, ??? 7 This isn’t either CO2 or CH4 , its both 8 CH4 to stabilise temperature quickly 9 CO2 to lock it in 10 About 2/3 of global methane emissions are anthropogenic Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 17 / 39
  • 42. Hansen’s 1988 Projections Hansen quit his job to work on Global Warming in 1975 Ace modeller — got a gulf stream with a 1000km cell model Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 18 / 39
  • 43. Global Anthropogenic Methane (Megatonnes/annum) World's Biggest Methane Emitters United States (USA) Russian Federation Mexico Rest Human Waste Coal Gas Indonesia Rice Landfill Enteric Ferm./Manure India China Brazil Australia 0 5 10 15 Methane Emissions (mega tonnes) Source: Edgar V32FT2000 Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 19 / 39
  • 44. Global Anthropogenic Methane (Megatonnes/annum) World's Second biggest Methane Emitters Vietnam Ukraine Thailand Sudan Saudi Arabia Poland Pakistan Nigeria Iran, Islamic Republic of Germany (united) Rest Human Waste Canada Coal Gas Rice Bangladesh Landfill Enteric Ferm./Manure Argentina 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Methane Emissions (mega tonnes): Edgar V32FT2000 Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 20 / 39
  • 45. Diet and Emissions — Sydney University Eco-Calculator 1 14 serves of red meat per week (80gms per serve) Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 21 / 39
  • 46. Diet and Emissions — Results CSIRO Diet CSIRO Diet: 11.9 tonnes of emissions and 7.2 ha land disturbance Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 22 / 39
  • 47. Diet and Emissions — Results Vegan Diet Plant based diet: — 6.2 tonnes of emissions and 2.7 ha land disturbance Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 23 / 39
  • 48. Effects of Different Lifecycle Changes Savings in Greenhouse Emissions tonnes per year Switch from high red meat diet to vegetarian Reduce petrol from $100/month to $20/month Slash electricity use from $360 to $180 per quarter 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 24 / 39
  • 49. Australia’s Kyoto Performance Source AGO: Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 25 / 39
  • 50. Australia’s Kyoto Performance Source: AGO National Inventory by Economic Sector 2004 Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 26 / 39
  • 51. Land-use Between 1990 and 2004 Australia’s sheep population plunged from 170 million to 101 million. The Australian Greenhouse Office allocated about 90% of emissions from all land cleared between 1990 and 1999 to beef production 28 160 27 26 Sheep 'million Cattle 'million 140 25 24 120 23 100 22 1980 1990 2000 1980 1990 2000 Source: AGO – End Use Allocation of Emissions Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 27 / 39
  • 52. Australia’s Kyoto Performance All down to sheep? Can you stop land clearing twice? Source: AGO National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Analysis of recent trends and Greenhouse Indicators 1990 to 2004 Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 28 / 39
  • 53. Fudging the numbers Agriculture 98.4 Mt (2000 AGO Inventory) Sheep and Cattle 130 Mt (1999 — AGO End Use Report (2004)) Source: AGO – End Use Allocation of Emissions Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 29 / 39
  • 54. Land Clearing Source: SOE 2006 Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 30 / 39
  • 55. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 56. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 57. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 58. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 59. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 60. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 61. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 62. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 63. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 64. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 65. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 66. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 67. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 68. Global Issues — Livestock’s Long Shadow Livestock account for 20% of the total terrestrial animal biomass Livestock occupy 30% of the land surface Livestock is the major driver of deforestation Livestock is a leading factor in: biodiversity reduction land degradation pollution climate change overfishing coastal sedimentation Global deforestation produces 25% of all greenhouse emissions then add cattle and methane then add more refrigeration Source: UN 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow, Global Canopy Program Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 31 / 39
  • 69. Global Issues — China’s Rice Paddies Wouldn’t it be great to get rid of all those methane producing rice paddies in China? Global Production Methane Production Calories per person Megatonnes per day Beef Enteric Sheep Fermentation Rice Rice 0 200 400 600 0 20 60 100 Source: FAOStat/Houghton Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 32 / 39
  • 70. China has a taste for beef Coal may not be the biggest problem. 200 110 Cattle 'million (China) Cattle 'million (Brazil) 100 180 90 160 80 70 140 60 Source: FAOstat 120 50 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Source: FAOStat Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 33 / 39
  • 71. Types of water Free water — you don’t pay for it but it has a cost Extracted water — taken from rivers, big dams On farm dams — complicated Recycled water Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 34 / 39
  • 72. Types of water Free water — you don’t pay for it but it has a cost Extracted water — taken from rivers, big dams On farm dams — complicated Recycled water Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 34 / 39
  • 73. Types of water Free water — you don’t pay for it but it has a cost Extracted water — taken from rivers, big dams On farm dams — complicated Recycled water Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 34 / 39
  • 74. Types of water Free water — you don’t pay for it but it has a cost Extracted water — taken from rivers, big dams On farm dams — complicated Recycled water Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 34 / 39
  • 75. Types of water Free water — you don’t pay for it but it has a cost Extracted water — taken from rivers, big dams On farm dams — complicated Recycled water Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 34 / 39
  • 76. Where does Australia’s water go? Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 35 / 39
  • 77. Where does Australia’s water go? Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 35 / 39
  • 78. Irrigation Water in Australia Irrigation Water Use in Australia (giga litres) Pastures – Grazing Cotton Sugar Cane Mining and Manufacturing Cereal crops – grain,seed Pastures – hay,silage Fruit Trees, nuts, plantations Rice Grapevines Vegetables – human use Pastures – Seed Cereal crops – hay Cereal crops not grain,seed Other broadacre crops Nurseries,flowers,turf 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Source: ABS Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 36 / 39
  • 79. Total Extracted Water Use Major Water Users (giga litres) Dairy Beef Cotton Household Rice Fruit and Veg Sugar Sheep and Wool Grapes 1000 2000 3000 Source: CSIRO 2005 Balancing Act Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 37 / 39
  • 80. MDB Water Use But Balancing Act was based on 1995 data, what’s happening now? Between 1996/7 and 2000/1 in the MDB Dairy — 2,500 to 4,200 giga litres ($93/ML) Cotton — 2,100 to 2,900 giga litres ($258/ML) Rice — 1,600 to 1,900 giga litres ($52/ML) Beef+Sheep — 1,700 to 1,200 giga litres ($-20/ML) Source: CSIRO Bryan and Marvanek Nov.2004 Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 38 / 39
  • 81. Conclusion 1 Red meat is destroying the Amazon 2 Red meat has deforested millions of hectares of Australia 3 Livestock are the biggest source of anthropogenic methane 4 Rumour has it that farmers produce them only because people eat meat 5 CSIRO is unarguably biggest greenhouse vandal in Australia — and is a world player. Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 39 / 39
  • 82. Conclusion 1 Red meat is destroying the Amazon 2 Red meat has deforested millions of hectares of Australia 3 Livestock are the biggest source of anthropogenic methane 4 Rumour has it that farmers produce them only because people eat meat 5 CSIRO is unarguably biggest greenhouse vandal in Australia — and is a world player. Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 39 / 39
  • 83. Conclusion 1 Red meat is destroying the Amazon 2 Red meat has deforested millions of hectares of Australia 3 Livestock are the biggest source of anthropogenic methane 4 Rumour has it that farmers produce them only because people eat meat 5 CSIRO is unarguably biggest greenhouse vandal in Australia — and is a world player. Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 39 / 39
  • 84. Conclusion 1 Red meat is destroying the Amazon 2 Red meat has deforested millions of hectares of Australia 3 Livestock are the biggest source of anthropogenic methane 4 Rumour has it that farmers produce them only because people eat meat 5 CSIRO is unarguably biggest greenhouse vandal in Australia — and is a world player. Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 39 / 39
  • 85. Conclusion 1 Red meat is destroying the Amazon 2 Red meat has deforested millions of hectares of Australia 3 Livestock are the biggest source of anthropogenic methane 4 Rumour has it that farmers produce them only because people eat meat 5 CSIRO is unarguably biggest greenhouse vandal in Australia — and is a world player. Geoff Russell () Dietary Impacts on Global Warming 20th May, 2007 39 / 39