Islam And Christianity (TiS Version)
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Islam And Christianity (TiS Version) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Estranged siblings or polarized worldviews? Sumair Mirza
  • 2. Hayya' alaAllah (4x) (2x) Ash Hadu Falaah (2x) Allaahu Akbar Allaahu alas illa-Lah illa- Hayya' Akbar Laa ilaaha Salaah Ashhadu annailaaha Come to felicity. God is great. rasuulullah Come great. Lah is to none worthy of God (2x) prayer. Muhamadar There is (2x) witness that there I worship except God. bear I bear witness that none worthy of worship Muhammad is the except God. Messenger of God.
  • 3. Estranged siblings or polarized worldviews? Sumair Mirza
  • 4. Starting point... • Experience: – My story • Knowledge: – Brief overview of Islam – Fundamentals of the faith • Qur’an, God, Muhammad, Jesus • Application: – Common objections – Interesting passages
  • 5. Experience
  • 6. Knowledge Islam is relevant... Even if only by the numbers Significant populace World Population representing 1.4 billion people globally Sikhs 0.35% Jews 0.23% Anglicans Muslims Roman Catholics 1% Over half a million Atheists 21% 17% Muslims in Canada 2% Hindus alone 13% Orthodox Christian Other religions 4% Non-religious 5% of all Toronto 12% 12% population, highest Protestant concentration of Christian Muslims in any city in 6% the US or Canada Buddhists Sources: Statistics Canada and 2007 est. The CIA World Factbook 6%
  • 7. Exclusivity presents a need for a decision... A B A B A B Option 1 Option 2  A (or the reverse)   B A  B
  • 8. Knowledge Historical Brief: Islam • Birth of Muhammad • Later modifications to his birth story 570 AD • Mother dies when he is 6, father already passed away • Claims to be visited by the archangel Gabriel (Jibril) • 3 years pass of despair and contemplation of suicide 610 AD • Speaks out against idolatry and lack of care for the poor • Flight to Medina (Hijra) (622 AD), year 1 in the Muslim calendar • Islam starts to spread as Medina primed with Jewish background to accept 622 AD monotheistic call
  • 9. Knowledge Historical Brief: Islam • Mohammad wages battles resulting in 1,200-1,500 deaths • 630 AD takes over Mecca and clears Kaaba of idols 623-630 AD • Muhammad dies suddenly after short illness 632 AD
  • 10. Knowledge Historical Brief: sects • Bifurcation of Islam created two major Islam • Result of dispute over who should be the first “Caliph”/successor to Muhammad 1. Sunni 2. Shi’ite 3. Sufi (small sect) • 80% of Muslims • Successor should • Mystical • Successor should be come from bloodline • Seek personal elected of Muhammad relationship with Allah • Hadith recognized • Would have been Ali, • New age aspect of Muhammad’s cousin pantheism/monotheism and son-in-law • Potential to attain • Hadith not recognized godhood (fanna)
  • 11. Knowledge What is Islam? 5 pillars of faith 1. Faith or belief in the Oneness of God and the finality of the prophet hood of Muhammad (shahadah) 2. Establishment of the daily prayers (salat) 3. Concern for and almsgiving to the needy (zakat) 4. Self-purification through fasting (sawm) 5. Pilgrimage to Makkah for those who are able (hajj) Pillars 2 to 5 have a pagan background.
  • 12. Knowledge The Qur’an (“reading” or “reciting”) • Most sacred text and climax of faith and considered eternal word of Allah • Not arranged in chronological order, arranged from longest to shortest chapter... Has 114 chapters • Size of our new testament... • Given orally by Muhammad • Compiled soon after his death • During time of Uthman (third Caliph) Abu Bakr burns other “versions” and issues one document
  • 13. Knowledge The Qur’an (“reading” or “reciting”) • Most sacred text and climax of faith and considered The Haditheternal word of to the Qur’an to holds a 2nd place only Allah Muslims (4:59) • Not arranged in chronological order, they take • Christians worship on Sunday and Jews Saturday so arranged fromFriday as special day (not holy though) longest to shortest chapter... Has 114 chapters said pray fifty to heaven and saw Moses, Abraham, Jesus • Muhammad went up and they times a day and he wagers them down to • Size of our new testament... day) 5 (hence the Muslims praying 5 times a • Other interesting items included such as: dogs not allowing • Given orally by Muhammad angels in (Bukhari Volume 7, Book 72, #833), yawning is from the devil • Compiled soon042, #7129,ofhis Volume 4, Book 54, #509), camel urine (Shahih Muslim Book afterBukhari Muhammad showered (Bukhari vol. for medicinal use, details how death • During#266) of Uthman (third Caliph) Abu Bakr 1, 5, time burns other “versions” and issues one document
  • 14. Knowledge Triune God and Allah Allah (Islamic God) Yahweh (Christian God) "Praise be to Allah, who begets no son, God sent His Son, Jesus, to atone for the and has no partner in (His) domain.” sins of mankind (John 3:16-17) (17:111) "O People of the Book! Commit no Jesus is part of the triune God, come in excesses in your religion: Nor, say of Allah the flesh to earth for this purpose through aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son His crucifixion and resurrection. of Mary was (no more than) an apostle of (eternally loving) Allah and His Word. . .“ (4:171) "Then those whose balance (of good “know that a man is not justified by deeds) is heavy -- they will attain observing the law, but by faith in Jesus salvation. . .“ (23:102) Christ. So we, too, have put our faith in Christ Jesus that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by observing the law, because by observing the law no one will be justified.” (Gal. 2:16) Other references: Romans 5:10 & Acts 4:12 and on and on…
  • 15. Knowledge Triune God and Allah Allah (Islamic God) Yahweh (Christian God) "Praise be to Allah, who begets no son, God sent His Son, Jesus, to atone for the and has no partner in (His) domain.” sins of mankind (John 3:16-17) (17:111) "O People of the Book! Commit no Jesus is part of the triune God, come in excesses in your religion: Nor, say of Allah the flesh to earth for this purpose through aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son His crucifixion and resurrection. of Mary was (no more than) an apostle of (eternally loving) Allah and His Word. . .“ (4:171) "Then those whose balance (of good “know that a man is not justified by deeds) is heavy -- they will attain observing the law, but by faith in Jesus salvation. . .“ (23:102) Christ. So we, too, have put our faith in Christ Jesus that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by observing the law, because by observing the law no one will be justified.” (Gal. 2:16) Other references: Romans 5:10 & Acts 4:12 and on and on…
  • 16. Knowledge Triune God and Allah Allah (Islamic God) Yahweh (Christian God) "Praise be to Allah, who begets no son, God sent His Son, Jesus, to atone for the and has no partner in (His) domain.” sins of mankind (John 3:16-17) (17:111) "O People of the Book! Commit no Jesus is part of the triune God, come in excesses in your religion: Nor, say of Allah the flesh to earth for this purpose through aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son His crucifixion and resurrection. of Mary was (no more than) an apostle of (eternally loving) Allah and His Word. . .“ (4:171) "Then those whose balance (of good “know that a man is not justified by deeds) is heavy -- they will attain observing the law, but by faith in Jesus salvation. . .“ (23:102) Christ. So we, too, have put our faith in Christ Jesus that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by observing the law, because by observing the law no one will be justified.” (Gal. 2:16) Other references: Romans 5:10 & Acts 4:12 and on and on…
  • 17. Knowledge Jesus –Christian and Muslim View Christian View Son of God Muslim View Sinless (He is God Incarnate) Virgin Birth Revered Prophet Performed Miracles Saviour of the World Word of God Not the Son of God He was Crucified and Will Return Never Crucified, but was Taken Resurrected Messiah to Heaven Part of the Trinity The Messiah for the Jews Only Messiah for the Whole World
  • 18. Knowledge Jesus –Christian and Muslim View Christian View Son of God Muslim View Sinless (He is God Incarnate) Virgin Birth Revered Prophet Performed Miracles Saviour of the World Word of God Not the Son of God He was Crucified and Will Return Never Crucified, but was Taken Resurrected Messiah to Heaven Part of the Trinity The Messiah for the Jews Only Messiah for the Whole World
  • 19. Knowledge God in person of Jesus Christ and Muhammad Why should anyone give Jesus their “preference”? Especially why should people be so infatuated with Jesus that all other “great religious geniuses” are sidelined? Common Comparison VARIOUS RELIGIOUS LEADERS’ TRAITS JESUS’ TRAITS Lived in poverty Lived in poverty Rejected by majority of their contemporaries Rejected by majority of their contemporaries Followed great ideals Followed great ideals Suffered opposition and varying degrees of Suffered opposition and varying degrees of persecution persecution Passionately convinced of the message they Passionately convinced of the message they brought brought Critical of religious situation around them Critical of religious situation around them Advocated radical moral change Advocated radical moral change Hoped for a corporate future for humankind Hoped for a corporate future for humankind that was much better than the present that was much better than the present
  • 20. Knowledge God in person of Jesus Christ and MuhammadJesus their “preference”? Especially why should Why should anyone give people be so infatuated with Jesus that all other “great religious geniuses” are sidelined? Common Comparison Accurate MUHAMMAD VARIOUS RELIGIOUS LEADERS’ TRAITS J TRAITS JESUS’ESUS Lived in poverty Natural birth Lived in poverty Virgin born Sinful (prayed 70 times a day for sins) Rejected by majority of their contemporaries Rejected by majority Sinless contemporaries of their Followed great idealsfor no one Died Followed great ideals for sinners Died No miracles (he says no varying degrees of Suffered opposition andmiracles but later does Suffered opposition and miracles degrees of Performed varying persecution others said Moses and Jesus did) because persecution Passionately convincedaof the message they Only man Passionately convinced of the message they Son of God brought Not worshipped brought Worshipped Critical of religious situation around them Died and stayed dead (tomb still in medina) Critical of religious situation around them Resurrected from dead Advocated radical moralprophecies Fulfilled no change Advocated radical moral change Fulfilled OT prophecies Hoped for a corporate future Heaven Did not ascend into for humankind Hoped for a Ascended into Heaven humankind corporate future for that was much Arab (not Messiah) better than the present that was much better than the present Jewish (Messiah) – OT link Not mediator/saviour Mediator/Intercessor/Saviour No personal relationship Personal relationship No second coming Second coming (even Muslims believe) Does not give eternal life Gives eternal life
  • 21. Knowledge God in person of Jesus Christ and Muhammad Why should anyone give Jesus their “preference”? Especially why should people be so infatuated with Jesus that all other “great religious geniuses” are sidelined? Common Comparison Accurate I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people oftenMUHAMMAD Him:RAITS ready to acceptESUS’ESUS a great moral VARIOUS RELIGIOUS LEADERS’ T 'I'm say about J Jesus RAITS J T as Lived in poverty INatural birth teacher, but don't accept His claim Lived in poverty That is born one thing we to be God.' Virgin the must Sinful (prayed 70man acontemporaries Rejected by and saidtheir sort of things Rejected by majority of theirwho was merely a man majority Sinless contemporaries not say. A times day for sins) of the Followed great idealsfor no one Died Followed great ideals for sinners Died Jesus said would andmiracles but later moral teacher. He would either bedegrees of No miracles (he says Suffered opposition no notvaryinggreat does Suffered opposition and miracles a lunatic be a degrees of Performed varying - on because the level with the man who says he is a poached egg - or else he would persecution others said Moses and Jesus did) persecution Passionately convincedaof You message they your choice. Eitherofof the message they be the Devil of Hell. the must make Passionately convinced this man was, and Only man Son God brought Son of God: or else a madman or something worse. You can shut Him is, the Not worshipped brought Worshipped Critical of religious situation around them Died and stayed dead (tomb still in medina) Critical of religious situation around them Resurrected from dead up for a fool, you can spit at Him and AdvocatedasFulfilled OT change can fall at Advocated radical moralprophecies Fulfilled no change kill Him radical moral prophecies a demon; or you Hoped for a and ascend HimHeaven and God. But a Ascended intocome humankind His feet corporate future for humankind Hoped for let us not Heaven with any Did not call into Lord corporate future for patronizing better than the present being a was much better than the present not nonsense about His that was much Arab (not Messiah) that great Jewish (Messiah) – OT link has human teacher. He Not mediator/saviour left that open to us. He did not intend to. Mediator/Intercessor/Saviour No personal relationship Personal relationship - C.S. Lewis No second coming Second coming (even Muslims believe) Does not give eternal life Gives eternal life
  • 22. Application Common objections 1. Sects in Christianity 2. Bible is corrupt (e.g. single Gospel given vs. Abdollah changing Qur’anic verses) (Tahrif) 3. Jesus was a prophet never the son of God 4. The Bible points to Muhammad's coming 5. Historical accuracy 6. Pagan influence (e.g. Mithra)
  • 23. Application Interesting Passages... • Deuteronomy 18:15 – Muslims say Bible points to Mohammed but it says messiah must be a Jew...a brother of theirs • “The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own brothers. You must listen to him. For this is what you asked of the LORD your God at Horeb on the day of the assembly when you said, "Let us not hear the voice of the LORD our God nor see this great fire anymore, or we will die." The LORD said to me: "What they say is good. I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him.” • Another example is John 14:15-17 (Holy Spirit)
  • 24. Application Interesting Passages... • Qur'an 5:116-117 – Father mother, and Jesus seen as Trinity… Islam thinks Mary is in Trinity but it’s wrong how could Qur’an be wrong? • “GOD will say, “O Jesus, son of Mary, did you say to the people, `Make me and my mother idols beside GOD?’ ” He will say, “Be You glorified. I could not utter what was not right. Had I said it, You already would have known it. You know my thoughts, and I do not know Your thoughts. You know all the secrets. I told them only what You commanded me to say, that: `You shall worship GOD, my Lord and your Lord.’ I was a witness among them for as long as I lived with them. When You took me up (TAWAFFAytanee), You became the Watcher over them. You witness all things.”
  • 25. Application Interesting Passages... • Qur'an 5:73 – Misunderstand the Trinity… God isn’t a third of three.. is one and all but triune...Yusuf Ali inserts word trinity.. like he does Abraham… • “They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! Allah is the third of three; when there is no Allah save the One Allah. If they desist not from so saying a painful doom will fall on those of them who disbelieve.”
  • 26. Application Interesting Passages... • Qur'an 29:27 – prophet line to come through Isaac and Jacob but Muhammad comes from Ishmael Abraham • “We granted him [Abraham] Isaac and Jacob, we assigned to Ishmael Isaac his descendants prophethood and the scriptures, we endowed Muhammad Jacob Esau him with his due recompense in this life, and in the Hereafter he Jesus will surely be with the righteous.” *Dashes represent abbreviated genealogy
  • 27. Application 2 undeniable imperative defining facts Islamic Worldview Christian Worldview You must first love god God first loved us so that (allah) for him to love you. we may love Him. (Qur’an 3:31) (1 John 4:10) You send your sons to die if God sent his son to die for you wish assurance of us and commands we live “salvation”. as living “sacrifices” for (Qur’an 4:74; 9:111) Him. (1 John 4:9, Romans 12:1)
  • 28. Application 2 undeniable imperative defining facts Islamic Worldview Christian Worldview You must first love god God first loved us so that (allah) for him to love you. we may love Him. (Qur’an 3:31) (1 John 4:10) You send your sons to die if God sent his son to die for you wish assurance of us and commands we live “salvation”. as living “sacrifices” for (Qur’an 4:74; 9:111) Him. (1 John 4:9, Romans 12:1)
  • 29. God has decreed the faith He gave immutable and commissioned us to be “hope sharers”... Dear friends, although I was very eager to write to you about the salvation we share, I felt I had to write and urge you to contend for the faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints. Jude 1:3 But in your hearts set apart Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect, 1 Peter 3:15
  • 30. Do not let the opportunity pass to share the Gospel message with Muslims around you. This photograph showing a starving Sudanese child being stalked by a vulture won Kevin Carter the 1994 Pulitzer Prize for feature photography.
  • 31. thank you.
  • 32. www.theologyinsneakers.com sumair@theologyinsneakers.com
  • 33. Appendix
  • 34. Knowledge The Kaaba and Al-Haram Mosque Kaaba • Islamic tradition asserts that Abraham and Ishmael built the Kaaba as a copy of God's house in heaven • 50 feet high and made of gray stone and marble • Early history is unclear, Muhammad conquered Makkah in 630, he destroyed pagan idols inside • Inside is empty, except for three pillars that hold up the roof and some hanging lamps of silver and gold • On arrival, the pilgrim must walk around the Kaaba seven times asking forgiveness Al-Haram Mosque • During the holy month population increases by a million people • Contains 1.7 million square feet of space • It can hold 300,000 people at one time.
  • 35. Application Islamic worldview vs. Christian worldview • Nationalism Society Family Individual Finances Politics Dress Etc.
  • 36. Application Islamic worldview vs. Christian worldview • Nationalism Society Family • Islamic worldview is Individual defined explicitly Finances • Shares exclusive aspect Politics of Christianity Dress Etc.
  • 37. Application Other interesting facts… In the least allows for violence to be fostered… • Sura 47:4 - Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; At length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or ransom: Until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (are ye commanded): but if it had been God's Will, He could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself); but (He lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are slain in the Way of God, - He will never let their deeds be lost. • Sura 3:195 - And their Lord hath accepted of them, and answered them: "Never will I suffer to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female: Ye are members, one of another: Those who have left their homes, or been driven out therefrom, or suffered harm in My Cause, or fought or been slain, - verily, I will blot out from them their iniquities, and admit them into Gardens with rivers flowing beneath; - A reward from the presence of God, and from His presence is the best of rewards.“ • Sura 4:244 - Then fight in the cause of God, and know that God Heareth and knoweth all things. • Sura 4:95 - Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of God with their goods and their persons. God hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). Unto all (in Faith) Hath God promised good: But those who strive and fight Hath He distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a special reward, It is okay to lie… Muhammad did… God said it was okay? • Sura 66:2 - God has already ordained for you, (O men), the dissolution of your oaths (in some cases): and God is your Protector, and He is Full of Knowledge and Wisdom. (cf 2:217)
  • 38. Other interesting facts… Cannot pass gas while praying • Allah's Apostle said, "The prayer of a person who does ,Hadath (passes, urine, stool or wind) is not accepted till he performs (repeats) the ablution." A person from Hadaramout asked Abu Huraira, "What is 'Hadath'?" Abu Huraira replied, " 'Hadath' means the passing of wind from the anus." (Volume 1, Book 4, Number 137: Narrated Abu Huraira) • My uncle asked Allah's Apostle about a person who imagined to have passed wind during the prayer. Allah' Apostle replied: "He should not leave his prayers unless he hears sound or smells something." (Volume 1, Book 4, Number 139: Narrated 'Abbas bin Tamim) When you have to go you gotta go… but wait… • Allah's Apostle said, "If anyone of you goes to an open space for answering the call of nature he should neither face nor turn his back towards the Qibla; he should either face the east or the west." (Volume 1, Book 4, Number 146: Narrated Abu Aiyub Al-Ansari) • The Prophet went out to answer the call of nature and asked me to bring three stones. I found two stones and searched for the third but could not find it. So took a dried piece of dung and brought it to him. He took the two stones and threw away the dung and said, "This is a filthy thing." (Volume 1, Book 4, Number 158: Narrated 'Abdullah)
  • 39. Application Interesting Passages... • Deuteronomy 18:15 – Muslims say Bible points to Mohammed but it says messiah must be a Jew...a brother of theirs • “The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own brothers. You must listen to him. For this is what you asked of the LORD your God at Horeb on the day of the assembly when you said, "Let us not hear the voice of the LORD our God nor see this great fire anymore, or we will die." The LORD said to me: "What they say is good. I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him.”
  • 40. Application Interesting Passages... • John 14:15-17 says the Spirit of truth will come and it will be in you… but can’t be Mohammed … how can he be “in you” or with you “forever”? • “If you love me, you will obey what I command. And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor to be with you forever— the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you.”
  • 41. Application Interesting Passages... • Qur'an 3:19 – “religion in sight of Allah is Islam” shows exclusivity… Muslims can’t say they are more tolerant than Christianity • “The only religion approved by GOD is "Submission." Ironically, those who have received the scripture are the ones who dispute this fact, despite the knowledge they have received, due to jealousy. For such rejectors of GOD's revelations, GOD is most strict in reckoning.”
  • 42. Application Interesting Passages... • Qur'an 4:34 – men are higher, scourge woman who don’t obey • “The men are made responsible for the women, and GOD has endowed them with certain qualities, and made them the bread earners. The righteous women will cheerfully accept this arrangement, since it is GOD's commandment, and honor their husbands during their absence. If you experience rebellion from the women, you shall first talk to them, then (you may use negative incentives like) deserting them in bed, then you may (as a last alternative) beat them. If they obey you, you are not permitted to transgress against them. GOD is Most High, Supreme.”
  • 43. Application Interesting Passages... • Qur'an 5:116-117 – Father mother, and Jesus seen as Trinity… Islam thinks Mary is in Trinity but it’s wrong how could Qur’an be wrong? • “GOD will say, “O Jesus, son of Mary, did you say to the people, `Make me and my mother idols beside GOD?’ ” He will say, “Be You glorified. I could not utter what was not right. Had I said it, You already would have known it. You know my thoughts, and I do not know Your thoughts. You know all the secrets. I told them only what You commanded me to say, that: `You shall worship GOD, my Lord and your Lord.’ I was a witness among them for as long as I lived with them. When You took me up (TAWAFFAytanee), You became the Watcher over them. You witness all things.”
  • 44. Application Interesting Passages... • Qur'an 5:73 – Misunderstand the Trinity… God isn’t a third of three.. is one and all but triune...Yusuf Ali inserts word trinity.. like he does Abraham… • “They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! Allah is the third of three; when there is no Allah save the One Allah. If they desist not from so saying a painful doom will fall on those of them who disbelieve.”
  • 45. Not so happy with non-Muslims... • Sura (8:55) - Surely the vilest of animals in Allah's sight are those who disbelieve • Sura (48:29) - Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. And those with him are hard (ruthless) against the disbelievers and merciful among themselves • Sura (9:30) - And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah... Allah (Himself) fights against them. How perverse are they! • Sura (8:12) - I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them • Sura (9:123) - O you who believe! Fight those of the unbelievers who are near to you and let them find in you hardness • Sura (5:33) - But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war); but if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practise regular charity, then open the way for them: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
  • 46. Knowledge What is Islam? Terminology: 1. Islam – The religion revealed to Muhammad, meaning “submission” (to the will of Allah) 2. Muslim – “one who submits” (to God), a follower of Muhammad 3. Allah – Arabic word for God, used by Jews and Christians as well 4. Muhammad – The founder of Islam, 570-632 AD. He is considered by Muslims to be the last and final prophet of God through whom God gave the revelations in the Qur’an. 5. Qur’an (Koran) – Believed by Muslims to be the full and final revelation of God to mankind, conveyed to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel over a 23 year period and corresponds to the eternal origin in Heaven. 6. Hadith – “a story”, an oral tradition later written down of what the prophet supposedly said (sunna), did, or approved of – something said or done in his presence 7. Jihad – Sacred struggle with word or sword in the cause of Allah; a holy war 8. Fatwa – A expert legal opinion of Qur’anic law 9. Shirk – Association, in particular the association of any other God, so as to impugn his absolute uniqueness
  • 47. Miscellaneous notes... • Not necessarily the most eloquent… – 105, 109, 111 • Reward for martyrdom Sunan al-Tirmidhi Hadith number 2562, Qur’an 37:40-48, 55:70-78, 56:12-39 • Validate against the Torah and Bible? 10:94 - If thou wert in doubt as to what We have revealed unto thee, then ask those who have been reading the Book from before thee: the Truth hath indeed come to thee from thy Lord: so be in no wise of those in doubt. "In the holy month of Ramadan, no Muslim can act in this way, these people are not Muslims," he said. "I appeal to all democratic nations to help us get rid of this menace.“ - Newly elected Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari
  • 48. Other interesting facts… Muhammad • He had 12 wives… receives exception from Allah (33:51) • Can choose who he wishes to “Bed” with not regular rotation • Was sinful even though some scholars say he wasn’t (48:2) – (Sahih Al-Bukhari in Vol. 8 Hadith # 319) Narrated by Abu Huraira: “I heard Allah Apostle saying: ‘By Allah I ask for forgiveness from Allah and turn to him in repentance more then 70 times a day.’ ”) – "Narrated Abu Huraira: ... What do you say in the pause between Takbir and recitation? The Prophet said, ... O Allah! Set me apart from my sins (faults) as the East and West are set apart from each other and clean me from sins as a white garment is cleaned of dirt (after thorough washing). O Allah! Wash off my sins with water, snow and hail." Bukhari vol.1 book 12 (Characteristics of Prayer) ch.8 no.711 p.398. See also Sura 40:55) • Doesn’t know if he will be saved – (Sahih Al-Bukhari volume 5 Hadith # 266) Narrated by Um Al-Ala, an Ansari women said: “Uthman Bin Maz’un fell ill and I nursed him till he died. Then the prophet came to us and I said, ‘O Abu As-Sa’ib, may Allah’s Mercy be on you! I bear witness that Allah has honored you.’ On that the prophet said, ‘How do you know that Allah has honored him? As to him, by Allah, death has overtaken him, and I hope the best for him. By Allah, though I am the apostle of Allah, yet I do not know what Allah will do to me. By Allah, I will never assert the piety of anyone after him’ ” • Committed cruel acts – Last Jewish tribe, all men killed and women and children sold into slavery – He authorized acts like the killing of Abu ‘Afk while she was nursing a child (haykal) Women and Men • Men have “a degree of advantage” over women (2:228) • Men may beat women (4:34) (one translator adds word “lightly” after “beat”)
  • 49. Killing of Abu ‘Afk • Before the victory of Badr the Muslims used to fear the Madinese non-Muslims, for they were still too weak to return any aggression inflicted upon them. But when they returned victorious from Badr, Salim ibn ‘Umayr took upon himself the job of getting rid of Abu ‘Afk, a tribesman of Banu ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf. The latter was a poet who composed verses disparaging Muhammad and the Muslims and inciting his own tribe to rise against them. Even after Badr, Abu ‘Afk still composed and disseminated abusive verse. Salim attacked Abu ‘Afk in his sleep in his own yard and killed him. Likewise, ‘Asma', daughter of Marwan, of the tribe of Banu Umayyah ibn Zayd, used to insult Islam and the Prophet by encouraging bad feeling against the Muslims. The Battle of Badr did not make her reconsider. One day, ‘Umayr ibn ‘Awf attacked her during the night while she was surrounded by her children, one of whom she was nursing. ‘Umayr was weak of sight and had to grope for her. After removing the child from his victim, he killed her; he then proceeded to the Prophet and informed him of what he had done. When her relatives returned from the funeral, they asked him whether he had killed her. "Indeed so," said ‘Umayr, "You may fight me if you wish. By Him Who dominates my soul, if you should deny that she composed her abusive poetry, I would fight you until either you or I fall." It was this courage of ‘Umayr that caused the Banu Khutmah, the tribe of ‘Asma's husband, to turn to Islam. Having converted to Islam but fearing persecution at the hand of their fellow tribesmen, some of them had hidden their conversion. Henceforth, they no longer did so. (Muhammad Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad, tran. Isma'il Raji al-Faruqi [American Trust Publications, USA 1976; Malaysian edition by Islamic Book Trust], p. 243; source)
  • 50. Response to killing of Abu ‘Afk • So therefore there was nothing wrong in what was done, and the sources show that these 2 were not killed for simple mockery and insulting comments. However what is amusing is that Christians have no problems with the pagans and the Jews who incited murder against Muslims, they think it is okay, and they also have no problems with the fact that Jews and pagans killed many Muslims, the Christian has no problem with this and you will never hear a single of them saying it was wrong. So therefore this reveals something further, it reveals that our opponents have no problems when Muslims get killed or threatened with murder, and that says it all doesn't it? • And Allah Knows Best!