My Dog is Broken!<br />Suma Gondi and Kathryn Addabbo<br />
General Information<br />First messenger: nitric oxide<br />Second messenger: cGMP<br />The arrows increase in size becaus...
Cell Signaling Pathway<br />
Cell Signaling Pathway Process<br />Nitroglycerin is converted to nitric oxide<br />Nitric oxide activates GuanylylCyclase...
ED Signaling Pathway<br />
PDE5 Functioning<br />The normal function of PDE5 is to decrease cGMPlevels by breaking it down<br />If PDE5 is inhibited,...
What does Viagra do?<br />Inhibits PDE5 in the muscle cells<br />Prevents breakdown of cGMP<br />Allows normal cellular pa...
What does Ginseng do?<br />An herbal plant that increases nitric oxide concentrations in cell<br />More activated guanylyl...
Other Possible Problems<br />PKG and K+ close calcium ion channel<br />Prevents flow of calcium into cell, allowing muscle...
Other Problems<br />PKG inhibits IP3 receptors<br />Allows calcium ions leave the ER and enter the cytosol, causing relaxa...
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My Dog is Broken

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My Dog is Broken

  1. 1. My Dog is Broken!<br />Suma Gondi and Kathryn Addabbo<br />
  2. 2. General Information<br />First messenger: nitric oxide<br />Second messenger: cGMP<br />The arrows increase in size because the signal is amplified<br /> The receptor is most likely on the cell membrane because it is an enzyme-liked receptor, meaning it has both an extracellular and intracellular domain<br />
  3. 3. Cell Signaling Pathway<br />
  4. 4. Cell Signaling Pathway Process<br />Nitroglycerin is converted to nitric oxide<br />Nitric oxide activates GuanylylCyclase, a enzyme-linked receptor<br />GuanylylCyclase converts GTP to cGMP<br />cGMP activates PKG<br />PKG phosphorolates proteins<br />Phospho-proteins lowers Ca2+ concentration<br />Cell membrane is desensitized to Ca2+<br />Relaxation occurs <br />
  5. 5. ED Signaling Pathway<br />
  6. 6. PDE5 Functioning<br />The normal function of PDE5 is to decrease cGMPlevels by breaking it down<br />If PDE5 is inhibited, then cGMP levels increase, increasing the activation of PKG, decreasing calcium ion levels, and ultimately causing an increase in relaxation<br />If PKG is inhibited, then calcium levels will increase, causing contraction<br />
  7. 7. What does Viagra do?<br />Inhibits PDE5 in the muscle cells<br />Prevents breakdown of cGMP<br />Allows normal cellular pathway to continue<br />
  8. 8. What does Ginseng do?<br />An herbal plant that increases nitric oxide concentrations in cell<br />More activated guanylylcylcase<br />greater number of cGMP<br />Some cGMP is broken down, but larger concentration leads to some following the normal cellular pathway<br />
  9. 9. Other Possible Problems<br />PKG and K+ close calcium ion channel<br />Prevents flow of calcium into cell, allowing muscle relaxation<br />If not blocked, there will be a flow of ions into the cell, which stops the normal cellular pathway<br />PKG activates MLC P’tase (removes phosphates)<br />Catalyzes the production of MLC, causing relaxation<br />If MLCK is activated, MLC will be phosphorylated, leading to contraction<br />
  10. 10. Other Problems<br />PKG inhibits IP3 receptors<br />Allows calcium ions leave the ER and enter the cytosol, causing relaxation<br />If activated, there will be a build up of calcium ions, causing contraction<br />P-Lamban inhibits the calcium pump<br />If activated, the levels of free Ca 2+ is reduced allowing for relaxation<br />If the pump is inhibited, relaxation will not occur, because high calcium levels cause contraction<br />

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