Compiled by Diane Jensen and Jody Sulser<br />ExLL 2009<br />Inferring<br />
Making Inferences<br />is<br />reading <br />BETWEEN<br />the lines<br />
is the bedrock of comprehension <br />uses schema and author’s clues to draw conclusions, make critical judgments, and form unique interpretations<br />occurs in the form of conclusions, predictions, or new ideas.<br />Inferring …<br />
Inferring, Questioning and Predicting…<br />go hand in hand to build understanding <br />an inference is a prediction based from author’s clues and your own schema<br />when a question is generated, an inference is rarely far behind<br />inferring, questioning, and predicting are next of kin<br />However…<br />
Prediction: A logical guess based on facts. It is either confirmed or disproved by the text<br />Inference: A logical conclusion based on schema and clues in the text. Inferences are not explicitly confirmed in the text<br />Opinion: A belief or conclusion that isn’t necessarily based on facts or information. It can be informed or ridiculous, because it is based on what one thinks instead of what is proven by facts to be true.<br />Teach the Difference<br />
Teach students to Infer<br />Ask yourself a question. Wonder about something in the text. (I wonder why Owen quit writing to Petey?)<br />Consider textual evidence left by the author that may represent important clues. (The man was 73 years old, he couldn’t lift the patients anymore when he left the hospital, he wrote letters and then they suddenly stopped.)<br />Think about what you know about the evidence. What does your background knowledge tell you about these clues? (Owen was old and getting weak. My grandma always sent birthday cards until she died.)<br />Using the clues in the text and your background knowledge about the topic, try to answer the original question. (Owen quit writing because he got old and died.)<br />
create meaning that is not explicitly stated in the text<br />use the combination of background knowledge and explicitly stated information to answer questions they have as they read<br />are more able to remember and reapply what they have read, create new and revise background knowledge<br />When proficient readers infer they…<br />
may read more slowly, reread sections, write, or draw to better understand the content<br />revise their inferences based on the inferences and interpretation of others<br />When proficient readers infer they…<br />
Getting Started with Inferring<br />Read comics<br />Read riddles<br />Read poetry<br />Play charades<br />Guess the use of the unusual kitchen appliance<br />Figure out the mystery substance in bottles<br />Read and solve mysteries together<br />Sketch and write the endings to a thrilling story<br />Catch students inferring and LABEL IT!<br />
Poetry<br />Fiction<br />Wide variety of interpretation is appropriate<br />Nonfiction<br />More narrow range of interpretation is typical<br />** latitude is given providing the reader can defend their inferences with relevant prior knowledge and specific text they have read<br />Texts to use for inferring:<br />
Cartoons As an Example of Inference<br />Why do some cartoons make you laugh, while others go right over your head?<br />
Picture Books as an Example of Inference<br />Listen to the description and look at the illustration. Infer where the ants are in the kitchen.<br />
When the mind is thinking, it is talking to itself.<br />~Plato<br />
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.