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Assessment and individual differences
 

Assessment and individual differences

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    Assessment and individual differences Assessment and individual differences Presentation Transcript

    • Assessment and Individual Differences Sullivan TurnerEDTC 610/Fall 2010
    • Psychometric ModelAssumes that personal traits, includingknowledge and cognitive abilities can bemeasured by weight and distanceHas tremendous power to influence lifedecisionsClassify children as gifted, learningdisabled, or emotionally disturbed basedon test performance
    • ReliabilityReplicability of a test scoreTrue Scores and Observed Scores • Perfect reliability is impossible • Measurement Error • True Score • Observed scores Observed Score = True Score ± Measurement Error
    • ReliabilityConfidence Interval• True scores will be within the confidence level with a known level of probabilityNumber of Items• High reliability is desirable• Increase number of questions to boost test reliability
    • ValidityIs concerned with the meaning of what ismeasured A completely valid test measures fully andaccurately what it is intended to measure
    • ValidityWhat Does the Score Mean?• Construct Validity: concerned with whether a test measures what it is intended to measure.
    • ValidityWhat Does the Score Mean?• Concurrent Validity: evidence that a test measures a distinct construct within a theoretical system.• Predictive Validity: predicts test performance
    • ValidityConstruct Under – Representation• Means a test falls short of representing all that is intended to constructConstruct Over – Representation• Whenever a test measures something other than the construct that it is intended to measure.
    • ValidityConstruct Over – Representation• Measurement Contamination • Response - elimination strategy • Testwiseness • Test anxiety
    • ValidityMeasurement Variance: Variation in testscores among examinees can be expressedquantitatively s2 = Σ (X – X)2 n–1
    • ValidityMeasurement Variance• Construct – Irrelevant Variance • Every test is contaminated • Response eliminated strategy used in multiple choice testing
    • How Test Influence LearningWashback Effects: Anticipation of testconsequences can feed back to influence theprocesses of learning and teaching that lead upto the test.• Teaching to the TestMeasurement Driven Instruction• Minimal Competency testing• Consequential validity
    • Performance AssessmentAssessment• Asking for complex responses/diagnostic informationPerformance Assessments• Educational value “teaching to the test”Authentic Assessments• Leads to products and outcomes with intrinsic value
    • Classroom AssessmentEveryday Assumptions of TestingDesigning Tests• Multiple – Choice Question• Constructed Response Items 1. Scoring rubrics 2. Holistic scoring 3. Analytical scoring
    • Formative AssessmentSummative Assessment• Summarize the effects of past educational experienceFormative Assessment• Guide and match ongoing teaching and learning experiencesAssessment of Learning• Promotes student learning
    • Standardized TestingRaw score• Point value given on a particular testNormal Distribution• Mean• Mode• Standard DeviationStandard Scores• Percentile rank
    • Quantitative ResearchQualitative Research• Emphasize detailed description rather than numerical measurementQuantitative Research• Emphasizes numerical measurements of constructsDescriptive Analysis• States factual information
    • Attitude Interactions: ATIsCommon intuition that different studentslearn under different conditions.Aptitude• General cognitive abilityTreatment• Identifiable educational experienceInteraction• Matching treatment to aptitude
    • Diversification of InstructionCognitive Styles• Field dependence vs field independence• Impulsivity vs reflectivityLearning Styles• Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory• Time and Learning• Mastery Learning
    • Group DifferencesGender DifferencesSocioeconomic DifferencesRacial – Ethnic Differences• The Achievement Gap• Test Bias
    • Learning StrategiesIncrease the number of test itemsUse a full representation of theconstructWiden the process dimension oftest designUse a variety of testing formatsUse performance assessment
    • Learning StrategiesBe cautious about learning stylesConsider aptitude- treatmentinteractionsGive learning sufficient timeGuard against test biasClose the achievement gap