There are two reference models TRM Technical Reference Model III-RM Integrated Information Infrastructure
What is the TRM- Technical Reference Model? The TOGAF’s TRM is a reference model and a foundational architecture A reference model has a taxonomy that’s describes components and the conceptual structure of the model and a graphic which provides a visual representation of the taxonomy as to aid understanding A foundation architecture is an architecture of generic services and functions that provides a foundation on which more specific architectures can be built
Uses of TRM Objective of TRM is to enable structured definition of the standardized application platform and its associated interfaces. Provides a starting point or reference for organisation to develop their own reference models by extending or adapting the TRM Provides a consistent taxonomy to aid a means of communication between stakeholders Can be used as a taxonomy to develop a standards information base within an organisation.
Overview of TRM Application Portability How applications call or use the services available in the platform. Done through the application platform interface Interoperability How the application platforms can communicate with each other Done through the communication infrastructure interface Diversity should be minimised between the application platform and the communications infrastructure
TRM in detail Application Software Contains two categories of software , business applications and infrastructure applications. The standards for the application platform will be strongly influenced by this application software. Business Applications Specific to a particular enterprise or vertical industry, model elements of an enterprise domain of activity or business process Infrastructure Applications Provide General purpose business functionality, uneconomic to customise but instead develop extensions, Interoperability and user interface are key attributes Application Platform Interface A complete interface between Application Software and the Application Platform. Needs to consist of the programming interface, protocols and data structures. Platforms provides and API that the application must comply with. An Application could call different APIs in order to conform with different platforms Application Platform A conceptual platform that contains all the platform services required to exist in order for the application software to work. e.g. A union of all operating systems services, security services, user interface services etc. Communications Infrastructure Interface Effectively becoming a standard of IP based communications that the application platform uses to talk to the communications infrastructure. Communications Infrastructure Basic mechanism of the transfer of data. Hardware and software elements that allow for the networking and physical links ( switches, routers) used by a system to interact with the network Qualities Attributes that are applicable across all the components. Qualities need to defined in detail when developing the target architecture e.g. Security, Locale, performance
What is III-RM ? The TRM focuses on the Application Platform space, III-RM main focus is the Applications space particularly the “Common Systems Architecture” Like the TRM it is a reference model with a taxonomy and a graphic however it is a subset of the scope of TRM but expands on certain parts Helps provide a solution to the common problem called the Boundaryless information flow Foundation Architecture that can be adapted be organisations as architecture building blocks
What is the Boundaryless Information Flow? Getting the right information to the right people in the right time in a secure, reliable manner, in order to support the operations that are core to the extended enterprise The problem is that departments are siloed with their own processes, their own systems, their own data. The trends in business now requires faster and better integration between these silos in to be responsive to changing markets, which requires access to systems and data across these silos. Cross functional teams help but how do they get access to the information to help them solve a business problem or to exploit a business opportunity
Boundaryless Information Flow – the problem it solves Imagine a simple organisation with multiple departments, each with systems and data Procure Space Internal Space Sell Space Systems Systems Systems Systems Systems data data data data data Customer Support Assembling Manufacturing Procurement Finance and Legal
Issues with implementing a cross functional group How does it understand the big picture? Cross functional Group
Cannot be trained on all the systems!
All the systems are propriety and have different means of access
Time spent co-ordinating with teams, slows down group
Systems Systems Systems Systems Systems data data data data data Customer Support Assembling Manufacturing Procurement Finance and Legal Internal Space Procure Space Sell Space
Overview of III-RM Focus of III-RM Subset of TRM No focussed on O/S, Network or communications Expands the Applications and API areas
Overview of III-RM Infrastructure applications
Information Provider Applications (IPA) Solves: All the systems are propriety and have different means of access Liberate Data by providing a open interface to a system via its propriety interface, make it the data more accessible. These applications tend to work on a request, response architecture where an open interface is called, which in turn calls a propriety interface at run-time, a response is returned which is converted into the open interface response. Abstracts the caller function from the system’s propriety interface calls. Also if the propriety system is replaced the IPA will need to change but the caller function may not.
Liberating the data using IPA Introducing information provider applications(IPA) Cross functional Group However still too many interfaces Open interfaces IPA IPA IPA IPA IPA Propriety interfaces Systems Systems Systems Systems Systems data data data data data Customer Support Assembling Manufacturing Procurement Finance and Legal Internal Space Procure Space Sell Space
Brokerage Applications If the number of IPA interfaces is too many and the information requirements are broad it is likely that many interfaces may be called to satisfy one type of information request. Brokerage Applications serve up a single request that has many information sources. It does this by breaking up a request into multiple dispatches and collates all the responses Brokerage Applications can also be used to allow external partners access to information
Orchestrating the data using BA Introducing brokerage applications(BA) Cross functional Group External Partner Where is the user interface, as Brokerage applications does not have one? Open interfaces BA BA BA Open interfaces IPA IPA IPA IPA IPA Propriety interfaces Systems Systems Systems Systems Systems data data data data data Customer Support Assembling Manufacturing Procurement Finance and Legal Procure Space Internal Space Sell Space
Information Consumer Applications (ICA) Provides the information to the end user in the format that they need it, in a secure manner Communicates with the BA or IPA via open interfaces, in some cases via a firewall. An example of a ICA is an UI components of an Enterprise Portal
Presenting the data using ICA Introducing Information Consumer Applications Cross functional Group External Partner ICA ICA ICA How do we develop these interfaces? How to be management these applications? Open interfaces firewall BA BA BA Open interfaces IPA IPA IPA IPA IPA Propriety interfaces Systems Systems Systems Systems Systems data data data data data Customer Support Assembling Manufacturing Procurement Finance and Legal Procure Space Internal Space Sell Space
Infrastructure Applications There are two infrastructure applications:- Development Tools Provides all the necessary modelling, design and construction capabilities to develop and deploy applications that require access to the integrated information infrastructure in a manner that is consistent with the environment Management utilities Tune and manage the run-time environment in order to meet the demands of the ever changing business environment
Application Platform There are a number of platform services required to make the III-RM work Software Engineering Services Programming Languages, Libraries etc Security Services Single Sign on, firewalls etc Location and Directory Services Naming, Discovery, registering Data Exchange Services Application-to-Application messaging UI Services Browser Data Management Services Search, file, query Workflow and event services