TOGAF Reference Models

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Summary of TO

Summary of TO

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  • 1. TOGAF – A SummaryReference Models
  • 2. Where Reference Models fits into TOGAF?
  • 3. There are two reference models
    TRM
    Technical Reference Model
    III-RM
    Integrated Information Infrastructure
  • 4. What is the TRM- Technical Reference Model?
    The TOGAF’s TRM is a reference model and a foundational architecture
    A reference model has a taxonomy that’s describes components and the conceptual structure of the model and a graphic which provides a visual representation of the taxonomy as to aid understanding
    A foundation architecture is an architecture of generic services and functions that provides a foundation on which more specific architectures can be built
  • 5. Uses of TRM
    Objective of TRM is to enable structured definition of the standardized application platform and its associated interfaces.
    Provides a starting point or reference for organisation to develop their own reference models by extending or adapting the TRM
    Provides a consistent taxonomy to aid a means of communication between stakeholders
    Can be used as a taxonomy to develop a standards information base within an organisation.
  • 6. Overview of TRM
    Application Portability
    How applications call or use the services available in the platform.
    Done through the application platform interface
    Interoperability
    How the application platforms can communicate with each other
    Done through the communication infrastructure interface
    Diversity should be minimised between the application platform and the communications infrastructure
  • 7. TRM in detail
    Application Software
    Contains two categories of software , business applications and infrastructure applications. The standards for the application platform will be strongly influenced by this application software.
    Business Applications
    Specific to a particular enterprise or vertical industry, model elements of an enterprise domain of activity or business process
    Infrastructure Applications
    Provide General purpose business functionality, uneconomic to customise but instead develop extensions, Interoperability and user interface are key attributes
    Application Platform Interface
    A complete interface between Application Software and the Application Platform. Needs to consist of the programming interface, protocols and data structures. Platforms provides and API that the application must comply with. An Application could call different APIs in order to conform with different platforms
    Application Platform
    A conceptual platform that contains all the platform services required to exist in order for the application software to work. e.g. A union of all operating systems services, security services, user interface services etc.
    Communications Infrastructure Interface
    Effectively becoming a standard of IP based communications that the application platform uses to talk to the communications infrastructure.
    Communications Infrastructure
    Basic mechanism of the transfer of data. Hardware and software elements that allow for the networking and physical links ( switches, routers) used by a system to interact with the network
    Qualities
    Attributes that are applicable across all the components. Qualities need to defined in detail when developing the target architecture e.g. Security, Locale, performance
  • 8. What is III-RM ?
    The TRM focuses on the Application Platform space, III-RM main focus is the Applications space particularly the “Common Systems Architecture”
    Like the TRM it is a reference model with a taxonomy and a graphic however it is a subset of the scope of TRM but expands on certain parts
    Helps provide a solution to the common problem called the Boundaryless information flow
    Foundation Architecture that can be adapted be organisations as architecture building blocks
  • 9. What is the Boundaryless Information Flow?
    Getting the right information to the right people in the right time in a secure, reliable manner, in order to support the operations that are core to the extended enterprise
    The problem is that departments are siloed with their own processes, their own systems, their own data.
    The trends in business now requires faster and better integration between these silos in to be responsive to changing markets, which requires access to systems and data across these silos.
    Cross functional teams help but how do they get access to the information to help them solve a business problem or to exploit a business opportunity
  • 10. Boundaryless Information Flow – the problem it solves
    Imagine a simple organisation with multiple departments, each with systems and data
    Procure
    Space
    Internal Space
    Sell Space
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    data
    data
    data
    data
    data
    Customer
    Support
    Assembling
    Manufacturing
    Procurement
    Finance
    and Legal
  • 11. Issues with implementing a cross functional group
    How does it understand the big picture?
    Cross functional Group
    • Cannot be trained on all the systems!
    • 12. All the systems are propriety and have different means of access
    • 13. Time spent co-ordinating with teams, slows down group
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    data
    data
    data
    data
    data
    Customer
    Support
    Assembling
    Manufacturing
    Procurement
    Finance
    and Legal
    Internal Space
    Procure
    Space
    Sell Space
  • 14. Overview of III-RM
    Focus of III-RM
    Subset of TRM
    No focussed on O/S, Network or communications
    Expands the Applications and API areas
  • 15. Overview of III-RM
    Infrastructure applications
  • 16. Information Provider Applications (IPA)
    Solves: All the systems are propriety and have different means of access
    Liberate Data by providing a open interface to a system via its propriety interface, make it the data more accessible.
    These applications tend to work on a request, response architecture where an open interface is called, which in turn calls a propriety interface at run-time, a response is returned which is converted into the open interface response.
    Abstracts the caller function from the system’s propriety interface calls. Also if the propriety system is replaced the IPA will need to change but the caller function may not.
  • 17. Liberating the data using IPA
    Introducing information provider applications(IPA)
    Cross functional Group
    However still too many interfaces
    Open interfaces
    IPA
    IPA
    IPA
    IPA
    IPA
    Propriety interfaces
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    data
    data
    data
    data
    data
    Customer
    Support
    Assembling
    Manufacturing
    Procurement
    Finance
    and Legal
    Internal Space
    Procure
    Space
    Sell Space
  • 18. Brokerage Applications
    If the number of IPA interfaces is too many and the information requirements are broad it is likely that many interfaces may be called to satisfy one type of information request.
    Brokerage Applications serve up a single request that has many information sources. It does this by breaking up a request into multiple dispatches and collates all the responses
    Brokerage Applications can also be used to allow external partners access to information
  • 19. Orchestrating the data using BA
    Introducing brokerage applications(BA)
    Cross functional Group
    External Partner
    Where is the user interface, as Brokerage applications does not have one?
    Open interfaces
    BA
    BA
    BA
    Open interfaces
    IPA
    IPA
    IPA
    IPA
    IPA
    Propriety interfaces
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    data
    data
    data
    data
    data
    Customer
    Support
    Assembling
    Manufacturing
    Procurement
    Finance
    and Legal
    Procure
    Space
    Internal Space
    Sell Space
  • 20. Information Consumer Applications (ICA)
    Provides the information to the end user in the format that they need it, in a secure manner
    Communicates with the BA or IPA via open interfaces, in some cases via a firewall.
    An example of a ICA is an UI components of an Enterprise Portal
  • 21. Presenting the data using ICA
    Introducing Information Consumer Applications
    Cross functional Group
    External Partner
    ICA
    ICA
    ICA
    How do we develop these interfaces? How to be management these applications?
    Open interfaces
    firewall
    BA
    BA
    BA
    Open interfaces
    IPA
    IPA
    IPA
    IPA
    IPA
    Propriety interfaces
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    Systems
    data
    data
    data
    data
    data
    Customer
    Support
    Assembling
    Manufacturing
    Procurement
    Finance
    and Legal
    Procure
    Space
    Internal Space
    Sell Space
  • 22. Infrastructure Applications
    There are two infrastructure applications:-
    Development Tools
    Provides all the necessary modelling, design and construction capabilities to develop and deploy applications that require access to the integrated information infrastructure in a manner that is consistent with the environment
    Management utilities
    Tune and manage the run-time environment in order to meet the demands of the ever changing business environment
  • 23. Application Platform
    There are a number of platform services required to make the III-RM work
    Software Engineering Services
    Programming Languages, Libraries etc
    Security Services
    Single Sign on, firewalls etc
    Location and Directory Services
    Naming, Discovery, registering
    Data Exchange Services
    Application-to-Application messaging
    UI Services
    Browser
    Data Management Services
    Search, file, query
    Workflow and event services