And here’s a boring slide about me – and where I’ve been driving over 400M of additional revenue in the last few years. In two months this year alone, I’ve found an additional ¾ M pounds annual profit for clients. For the sharp eyed amongst you, you’ll see that Lean UX hasn’t been around since 2008. Many startups and teams were doing this stuff before it got a new name, even if the approach was slightly different. For the last 4 years, I’ve been optimising sites using the combination of techniques I’ll show you today.
So – what’s driving this change then? Well there have been great books on selling and persuading people – all the way back to ‘Scientific Advertising’ in 1923.And my favourite here is the Cialdini work – simply because it’s a great help for people to find practical uses for these techniques.I’ve also included some analytics and testing books here – primarily because they help so MUCH in augmenting our customer insight, testing and measurement efforts.There are lots of books with really cool examples, great stories and absolutely no fucking useful information you can use on your website – if you’ve read some of these, you’ll know exactly what I mean. These are the tomes I got most practical use from and I’d recommend you buy the whole lot – worth every penny.
And here are the most useful resources I regularly use or share with people. They have the best and most practical advice – cool insights but with practical applications.A special mention here to my friends at PRWD, who are one of the few companies blending Psychology, Split Testing and UX for superb gains in rapid time. Check out their resources section on their website.
These are all people on twitter who cover hybrid stuff – where usability, psychology, analytics and persuasive writing collide. If you follow this lot, you’ll be much smarter within a month, guaranteed.
But one of the biggest drivers has been with Toolkits. The investment made by Google in their Analytics product alone has transformed my life.I’m now able to very accurately measure and understand what might be driving losses, lack of engagement or inability to use a product.I can quantify it – not just in terms of potential gains or losses – but in actual revenue and profit numbers, based on the actual baskets.With multiple toolsets, I’m not reliant on one set of data – I can triangulate multiple sources to firm up or challenge my hypothesesAnd with the better numbers, I can prioritise – based on what sort of return we’ll get from fixing or testing stuffAnd that’s the critical point – these tools get you in a position to know more, in near realtime – that allows you to use the JFDI method – Just Fucking Do It.
On the internet, nobody knows you’re a dog? Or do they? These session replay tools are interesting because they can take a good guess at where you’re looking on the screen – even whether you are male or female – based on tracking your display, mouse and keyboard entry. It’s like watching a video of their screen.You can then pull out recordings for people that behave or do things in a particular way and watch them. I like to watch them at 5 or 10 x speed – as I can get through hundreds in one day.What do you get then? Well – a very good sense for where people are struggling – but we also get a bit of the mind too.A lot of recordings show a strong correlation between where I expect eye gaze to be and where the mouse cursor is moving. It isn’t precise but it helps to see where people are jumping, scanning and scrolling around. A lot of people – 30-50% - display the ‘Karaoke Bouncing ball’ when reading text. They ‘bounce’ the mouse along the line of text, as they’re reading it. This happens on important stuff that gets noticed.You also get some other stuff – where people click that doesn’t do anything – people clicking on a picture, for example – but nothing happens.When I worked at Autoglass, I kept seeing people go to fill out a form and give up after scrolling up down up down, looking at the size of information they were looking at. During tests, I asked people about what they were doing – and they said ‘weighing up how much boring crap there was to fill in’. I simply reduced the form size in steps and watched the recordings. Bingo – we split the form into two pieces and got much higher conversion – it just looked too daunting.
And you’ve probably heard of the ‘fold line’ – well it’s bullshit because everyone has a setup. Screens are actually shrinking on desktop sites so you need to watch this, otherwise you’ll alter behaviour in some surprising ways. This screen shows that 99.2% of visitors can see the big fucking button. When it was lower due to page design, people missed it due to the white space around it.There are subtle clues you can give the user so they know to scroll – but avoiding the problem entirely is the best option. In this case, paying attention to the REAL screen sizes of visitors was easily 20% of the entire lift I got from this funnel.
And these tools are great – because they let us ask the customer in context for their feedback. You can even trigger feedback when people exhibit specific behaviour or don’t generate the outcome you desire. This lets you target and find out more from these segments – by analysing responses and verbatim feedback.There is NO excuse not to have these on your site – as 4Q is completely free (for 100 responses a month) and the rest are very reasonably priced. Check them out – it’s called asking people shit, and it works. Shut the fuck up and listen – involves asking stuff.
And these are the three survey tools I’d recommend. Surveymonkey for rapid build and deployment but not for the UI. Zoomerang is one of my faves as the cross tabulated reporting (analysing say age group versus responses in a survey) – is seamless and easily exported - very nice reporting for management without effort (milk it for all it’s worth – ha!). SurveyGizmo has every feature you’d ever need from a survey tool. I haven’t found a barrier yet to producing high quality, on-brand, easy to use surveys. It even hassles people to fill out their surveys, if you want it to – a piece of software that helps you? Wonderful.
An there are 3 tools here that let you wear the magical slippers of real customer experience. See it how they actually see it for yourself.Many of my clients have 50% or more of their emails opened on mobiles and tablets. Have you ever looked at how your nice snazzy email looks on mobile mail clients? Well that’s why your clickthrough rate really sucks – it doesn’t work. Looks nice in your office, not so good in the field. These will help you fix that – as they show you exactly how it looks in real customer inboxes. You know when an email looks really shit when you open it? Don’t laugh – that might be yours.Browser testing is one of the easiest ways to make money on a site. In 45 sites I’ve checked, I’ve now found over 30 that had serious browser issues. What do I mean? Well – it works on Internet Explorer fine but the buy button is missing in Google Chrome, for example. Nobody will complain, call up or tell you about the problem. Your analytics will tell you if this is happening and a bit of testing will fix it. Don’t trust your developers when they say ‘we test the most popular stuff’ – they may have missed the money. I had an interview once with someone and he said “People who use IE7 or 8 are fucking stupid” - I was really taken aback and quizzed him more. In the end, I knew he had two children so posed a story “Your wife goes to the department store in town with your two kids in a double buggy. When she arrives, the buggy won’t fit through the door – so the shop loses a sale that day. The conversation I’d have love to have heard would be you telling your wife she was fucking stupid for buying such a wide buggy”. Didn’t get the job!Lastly – you can now rent real phones in the cloud. If I want an iPhone that’s in Silicon valley, running on a Sprint 4G network, I can dial one up and rent it remotely for an hour, for $40. This way I can install apps, send texts, browse the web – like a real person. I also get access to a huge range of devices for testing, that I’d never be able to afford to buy. Very neat services.
And the tools have never been cheaper for doing your own usability testing. And with the growth of mobile, the audience you can test with their ‘computer’ has grown. You’ll find them in pubs, clubs, coffee shops, bookstores and more. You can take your prototype to the streets, get feedback and be back at the office in time to leave for home <grin> The last bit of this slide covers mobile recording and the others are for desktop or laptop computers with a webcam.
Too many tools to go through. But these tap into the power of the crowd – your own site visitors or the wider public – in novel and insightful ways. From running usability tests to trying new features, prototypes or mockups – you can get instant and high volume feedback on what you’ve got – or what you’re building. And these crowd collaborations also work with widely spread teams – allowing people across the globe to get involved in critiquing, fixing or improving something.
And now split testing is available for free to everyone – via Google Content Experiments. This even includes a clever piece of software that works out what’s converting best and diverts site traffic to that version. Very clever and if you’re interested, there’s an explanation on the slides.The last two are the testing rigs that most decent practitioners are using. The days of forking out several thousands a month for testing tools are gone.
Create a suck index = pageviews * load time.
Here I show you some examples of well known brands, some of whom should know better. The larger the size of the page, the longer it will take to download and render on the device, especially when you don’t have perfect data conditions. The numberof requests also makes a difference, as it’s inefficient on mobile to open lots of connections like this. In short, the smaller the pagesize and number of requests you can aim for, the better. I’m patient with bad data connections but do people have the tolerance for 10-15 seconds on mobile? No – it has to happen much faster.
A new battleground to grab attention and include powerful social signals has emerged – the search engines!This google example shows how more compelling a recipe listing is, simply because you have reviews, ratings, cooking times and calories. The picture might vary but the social proof is extremely powerful.And you can start feeding all this stuff on the right to google. Reviews are particularly important, as so many split tests show – the presence of these signals increases attention, trust and conversion – a triple whammy. Clickthrough rates on advertising are higher – so if you and your competitor are bidding the same price – who’s creative will win on the page? The one with Microdata!
This stuff is important. What do photographs do?Well they help me persuade people, influence their thinking, give them directions or cues and explain things – this is the scanning generation!And they’re very powerful when selling experiences, stories or using the power of social proofThey help people very quickly (more quickly than reading) discriminate, evaluate – work out what stuff is, how it’s organized, what the things are, what’s being shown to you.And most importantly, they drive emotional response in people. Whether you like being soggy, wet and without toilet paper for a 30 mile radius or not, a picture like this gets a RESPONSE! Work it!Lastly, a shout out to James Chudley, who’s book this example comes from.
So this is quite a powerful area – what about people images?I’ve tested quite a few of these – in over 20 countries and over 15 languages. What did I find?Well - the person, pose, eye gaze, facial expressions and body language – cause visceral emotional reactions and big changes in behaviour. The difference between a crappy image and one optimised to get the right response is huge.And one interesting thing Eye gaze is pretty crucial – to engage you, the viewer, or to ‘point’ or draw eye gaze and attention to a product. I’ve tested all angles of viewing and in these people images, the best view is straight at the viewer or slightly away. Any further and the conversion rate drops. It makes a difference I can count.
Toolkits of the CRO Professionals
@OptimiseOrDie• UX and Analytics (1999)• User Centred Design (2001)• Agile, Startups, No budget (2003)• Funnel optimisation (2004)• Multivariate & A/B (2005)• Conversion Optimisation (2005)• Persuasive Copywriting (2006)• Joined Twitter (2007)• Lean UX (2008)• Holistic Optimisation (2009)Was : Group eBusiness Manager, BelronNow : Director of Optimisation, Rush + others
The dial won’t turn anymoreWith thanks to @morysPPC SEO
Session Replay• Record what „they‟ saw• Karaoke bouncing + wheeling• Clicks that AREN‟T clickable• Autoglass form length exampleSoftware:Clicktale (Client) www.clicktale.comSessionCam (Client) www.sessioncam.comMouseflow (Client) www.mouseflow.comGhostrec (Client) www.ghostrec.comUsabilla (Client) www.usabilla.comTealeaf (Hybrid) www.tealeaf.comUserReplay (Server) www.userreplay.com9@OptimiseOrDieWith session replay, we still don‟t know if you‟re a dog
Feedback / VOC tools• Anything that allows immediate realtime onpage feedback• Comments on elements, pages and overall site & service• Can be used for behavioural triggered feedbackKampylewww.kampyle.comQualaroowww.qualaroo.com4Q4q.iperceptions.comUsabillawww.usabilla.com11@OptimiseOrDie
Survey ToolsSurveymonkey www.surveymonkey.com Zoomerang www.zoomerang.com SurveyGizmo www.surveygizmo.com • If you do surveys or FORMS – checkouts, signups, leadgeneration, read:Caroline Jarrett : @cjformsLuke Wroblewski : @lukew• Informed by their work and with copywriting from@stickycontent, we crafted a survey for Autoglass.• We got a 35% clickthrough rate and a whopping 94%form completion rate. 9 pages long. Sweet.• Luke Wroblewski‟s work on Forms, Psychology, UX andDesign is the best in the world – and essential for anyoneworking on a website.@OptimiseOrDie
Guerrilla UX testing• Mobile can be lots of fun• Some low budget stuff you may know about already:CamStudio (free)www.camstudio.orgMediacam AV (cheap)www.netu2.co.ukSilverback (Mac)www.silverbackapp.comScreenflow (Mac)www.telestream.netUX Recorder (iOS), Skype Hugging, Reflectionwww.uxrecorder.com & bit.ly/tesTfm & bit.ly/GZMgxR 14
Som, feedbackRemote UX tools (P=Panel, S=Site recruited, B=Both)Usertesting (B) www.usertesting.comUserlytics (B) www.userlytics.comUserzoom (S) www.userzoom.comIntuition HQ (S) www.intuitionhq.comMechanical turk (S) www.mechanicalturk.comLoop11 (S) www.loop11.comOpen Hallway (S) www.openhallway.comWhat Users Do (P) www.whatusersdo.comFeedback army (P) www.feedbackarmy.comUser feel (P) www.userfeel.comEthnio (For Recruiting) www.ethnio.comFeedback on Prototypes / MockupsPidoco www.pidoco.comVerify from Zurb www.verifyapp.comFive second test www.fivesecondtest.comConceptshare www.conceptshare.comUX Crowd tools15
Split testing tools – Cheap!• Google Content Experimentsbit.ly/Ljg7Ds• Multi Armed Bandit Explanationbit.ly/Xa80O8• Optimizelywww.optimizely.com• Visual Website Optimizerwww.visualwebsiteoptimizer.com@OptimiseOrDie
Performance• Google Site Speed• Webpagetest.org• Mobitest.akamai.org
• People• Products• Businesses• Organisations• Recipes• Events• Music• Local• Video• Reviews!Huge increases inCTR and ConversionMicrodata and Search Engines@OptimiseOrDie
Photo UX24 Jan 2012• Persuasion / Influence /Direction / Explanation• Helps people processinformation and stories• Vital to sell an „experience‟• Helps people recognise anddiscriminate between things• Supports Scanning Visitors• Drives emotional responseshort.cx/YrBczl
• Very powerful and under-estimated area• I‟ve done over 20M visitor tests with peopleimages for a service industry – some tips:• The person, pose, eye gaze, facialexpressions and body language – causevisceral emotional reactions and big changesin behaviour• Eye gaze crucial – to engage you or to „point‟Photo UX24 Jan 2012
• Negative body language is a turnoff• Uniforms and branding a positive (ball cap)• Hands are hard to handle – use a prop to help• For Ecommerce – tip! test bigger images!• Autoglass and Belron always use real people• In most countries (out of 33) with strong femaleand male images in test, female wins• Smile and authenticity in these examples isabsolutely vital• So, I have a question for youPhoto UX24 Jan 2012
Terrible Stock Photos : headsethotties.com & awkwardstockphotos.comLaughing at Salads : womenlaughingwithsalad.tumblr.comBBC Fake Smile Test : bbc.in/5rtnv
Nudge Unit – Car Tax Renewals• ANPR snap taken, reminder sent = 11% conversionAdd "Pay your tax or lose your [make of car]“• Rises to 22% conversionAdd Photo from number plate camera?• Rises to 33% conversionRead More :http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2013/may/02/nudge-unit-has-it-workedhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2013/may/01/policy-francismaude
• Optimisation can be used for evil!• Either by accident (just stupid)• Or by design, to trick peoplewiki.darkpatterns.org/wiki/HomeDark Persuasion@OptimiseOrDie
So why isn‟t everyone doing it?@OptimiseOrDie1. Not experimenting & learning2. Have software but idle3. Infrequent experiments4. Failed experiments5. Pass the Baby approach6. Badly Directed Lever Pushing
The future of testing?@OptimiseOrDieBetter inputs – tools, dataSocial & BehaviourSegmentationPersona drivenMachine LearningGrowing research bodyDeeper brain understanding
How is it working out for me?• Methodologies are not Real Life ™• It’s about the mindset of the team and managers,not the tools or methodologies they play with• Not all my clients have all the working parts• You should not be a methodology slave – feel freeto roll your own• Use some, any techniques instead of ‘guessing’• Blending Lean and Agile UX with conversionoptimisation techniques is my critical insight fromthe last 5 years:Belron World Conversion Rate Increase:2009 +5%, 2010 +10%, 2011 +15%, 2012 +25%Rush : Conversion lift within 3 months77% increase in conversion, 33% for phone• Don’t over complicate it. JFDI. 32
“Shut the fuck up and listen.Listen some more.Ask good questions.Repeat.” Anonymous“Changing behaviour is not ascomplicated or as hard as youthink. Once you understandhuman nature, it getssurprisingly easy” Brian Solis“I am not a numberI‟m a free man”
EmailTwitterSlideshare: email@example.com: @OptimiseOrDie: linkd.in/pvrg14: slidesha.re/nlCDm6Thank you! Slides and resources on Slideshare.
Photography Guidelines -Belron• Groups, vans, stores, head office,corporate guff = NO• Single person – not groups oreven person + customer (ignoringyou)• Open, Friendly, Natural, Smiling,Engaged, Alert = YES• Smile best with eye crinkles• Uniform – has huge effect, evenwearing branded hat improvesconversion• Look straight at viewer or slightlytowards CTA• No folded arms, arms on hips,pointing, scowling, cheesy smiles,hands behind back, hanginguseless by the side, clasped bygroin, fiddling with hands• Plain backgrounds only or free ofdistractions• Arms with prop instead – hold aclipboard, rag, tool – I‟m working for*you*• Female images work best in almostevery country – they slay the guys• Natural, authentic and not „model‟ or„stock‟ image types work best forpeople• Some of our best performing imageswould be rejected by advertisers as„too ugly.• Want to know more? Contact me orcheck out the @brainlady• Check out the ***[Photo UX book– add info]