What does CULTURE mean? The system of shared beliefs, values,customs, behaviors, and artifacts that themembers of society use to cope with their world and with one another, and that aretransmitted from generation to generation through learning. Culture is the way of life of a group of people.
1.Culture is by definition smaller than a civilization.2.Culture can grow and exist without residing in a formalcivilization whereas a civilization will never grow andexist without the element of culture.3.Culture can be tangible or intangible whereascivilization is something that is more tangible because itis what you see as a whole4.Culture can be transmitted through symbols in theform of language whereas an entire civilization cannotbe transmitted by mere language alone
SymbolicMaterial Social TYPES OF CULTURE Political Folk culture
OWN CULTURE AND FOREIGN CULTURES Cultural relativism Ethnocentrism Xenophobia Cultural dominance
Process in which members of one cultural group adopt thebeliefs and behaviors of another group. Althoughacculturation is usually in the direction of a minority groupadopting habits and language patterns of the dominantgroup, acculturation can be reciprocal--that is, thedominant group also adopts patterns typical of the minoritygroup. Assimilation of one cultural group into another maybe evidenced by changes in language preference,adoption of common attitudes and values, members hip incommon social groups and institutions, and loss of
Alternative culture is a type of culture that exists outside or on thefringes of mainstream or popular culture, usually under the domain of one ormore subcultures. These subcultures may have little or nothing in commonbesides their relative obscurity, but cultural studies uses this common basis ofobscurity to classify them as alternative cultures, or, taken as a whole, thealternative culture. Compare with the more politically charged term,counterculture.Subculture In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is agroup of people with a culture(whether distinct or hidden) which differentiatesthem from the larger culture to which they belong. Counterculture (also written counter-culture) is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition.
slowness in the rate of change of one part of a culture in relation to another part, resulting in a maladjustment within society, as from the failure of the nonmaterial culture to keep abreast of developments in the material culture. (founded 1972)is a nonprofit group based in Cambridge, Massachusetts,USA which is dedicated to defending the human rights of indigenous peoples. Their stated mandate is to promote the rights, voices and visions, of indigenous people.
is a term, now used in a number of different ways in academic discourse, whosemost common meaning is the set of cultural products, mainly in the arts, held inthe highest esteem by a culture. In more popular terms, it is the culture ofan elite such as thearistocracy or intelligentsia, but also defined as a repositoryof a broad cultural knowledge, as a way of transcending the class system. It iscontrasted with the low culture or popular culture of, variously, the less well-educated, barbarians, Philistines, or the masses.A set of cultural values and ideas that arise from common exposure of apopulation to the same cultural activities, communications media, music and art,etc. Mass culture becomes possible only with modern communications andelectronic media. A mass culture is transmitted to individuals, rather than arisingfrom peoples daily interactions, and therefore lacks the distinctive content ofcultures rooted in community and region. Mass culture tends to reproduce theliberal value of individualism and to foster a view of the citizen as consumer.
POSTMODERN SOCIETYSome sociologists believe we are now moving into a new and very different type of society. The social change, that began to accelerate 300 years ago, has continued at such a pace that thetheories and assumptions we had about modern society no longer explain the society we find around us.The main characteristic of postmodernism seems to be a loss of faith in the ideas of the Enlightenment. It is argued by postmodernists that people have become disillusioned with the idea that we can use science and rational thought to make the world a better place. People have become disillusioned with the idea of progress. There is greater understanding of negative effects of so-called ‘progress’, such as pollution, environmental damage and damage to human populations.
CHANGES…Postmodernists also argue that other characteristics of modern societies aredisappearing.1. The big production companies making vast quantities of the same productare becoming more diversified and there has been a growth of smallcompanies producing goods for very specialized markets.2. New social movements are connecting people across traditional class andethnic boundaries; movements such as gay rights, environmentalism,feminism, and new religious movements.3. The significance of nation states is in decline. Today many multi-nationalcompanies are larger and have more power than most countries, and withincountries more provision is being privatized and less is provided by the state.4. Employees are less likely to have long-term careers and jobs forlife, employment is more uncertain and there has been a big increase in part-time, temporary and agency employment…