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Introducing the Semantic Web Professor James Hendler http://www.cs.umd.edu/~hendler Co-Director, Maryland Information and ...
 
The Evolving Web DOCUMENTS DATA/PROGRAMS Web of Knowledge  HyperText Markup Language HyperText Transfer Protocol Resource ...
Web Semantics Semantic Web LayerCake  (Berners-Lee, 99;Swartz-Hendler, 2001)
Can’t we just use XML? This is what a web-page in natural language  looks like for a machine
XML helps XML allows “meaningful tags” to be added to parts of the text CV name education work private <  > <  > <  > <  >...
XML    machine accessible meaning But to your machine,  the tags look like this…. CV name education work private <  > <  ...
Schemas take a step in the right direction Schemas help…. <    > … by relating  common terms between documents 
But other people use other schemas <    >   > <  >  <  > Someone else has one like this…. CV name educati...
The “semantics” isn’t there <    > … which don’t fit in 
KR provides “external” referents to merge on SW languages add mappings And structure.         CV ...
Which is what the web was meant to be!! <ul><li>&quot;This is a pity, as in fact documents on the web describe real object...
Putting semantics on the web
(and making it machine-readable)
 
Event:title Event:WebPage < >  rdf:type photo:Photograph,   Photo:File http://…/images#image1,    Photo:topic  :event1#eve...
On the Web --  links are critical! <a href= URI> HTML Web page Any Web Resource <a href=“http://…”> RDF URI URI URI RDF is...
RDF graphs resemble semantic nets <mind:Person  rdf:id=“Hendler”> <mind:title jobs:Professor> <jobs:placeOfWork  http://ww...
Semantics on the  WEB <ul><li>RDF, like the WWW itself, is not “separable” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about the ontolo...
Radically new view of Semantics Distributed,partially mapped, inconsistent -- but SCALEABLE!  = some partial mapping uses ...
Real examples <ul><li>Examples from  http://dormouse.cs.umd.edu:8080/wiki/cmsc498wiki. wiki </li></ul><ul><li>Students vio...
Current Activities Semantic Web LayerCake  (Berners-Lee, 99;Swartz-Hendler, 2001) You are here
W3C Web Ontology Working Group <ul><li>Web Ontology Working Group in the  W3C Semantic Web Activity  aimed at “extending t...
Membership <ul><li>Current  Working  Group includes over 50 members from over 30 organizations.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cha...
But will it fly? <ul><li>DAML+OIL is already the most used ontology language ever!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.daml....
Making Markup Easier
Machine worries about the syntax
Use that markup in query/portal interfaces
Extending ontologies on the fly
Semantic Web Portals:   The  Mosaic  of the semantic web? <Oncogene rdf:ID=&quot;Oncogene, MYB&quot;><code>C3682</code><id...
Moving to the futureof the web Semantic Web LayerCake  (Berners-Lee, 99;Swartz-Hendler, 2001)
Web “travel agents” <ul><li>Query processed:  73 answers found </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google  document search finds 235,312...
Allows new capabilities
Services off the desktop
Or perhaps on different desktops…
Web Agents need Service Descriptions
Semantic Web Service Description
Use Semantics for Composition Translate my symptoms from French and find me a pharmacy that has the necessary medicine (th...
Or, translate to Planning Operators
For goal-based service composition Buy the French version of a book from amazon.fr and  have it sent to Mom’s address
Services need Web Logics
Web of Trust <ul><li>Claims can be verified if there is supporting evidence from another (trusted) source </li></ul><ul><u...
Distributed Trust
Conclusion <ul><li>It is no longer a question of whether the semantic web will come into being, it is already here! </li><...
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Sweo talk

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  1. 1. Introducing the Semantic Web Professor James Hendler http://www.cs.umd.edu/~hendler Co-Director, Maryland Information and Network Dynamics Laboratory Semantic Web Agents Project http://www.mindswap.org MiND
  2. 3. The Evolving Web DOCUMENTS DATA/PROGRAMS Web of Knowledge HyperText Markup Language HyperText Transfer Protocol Resource Description Framework eXtensible Markup Language Self-Describing Documents Foundation of the Current Web Proof, Logic and Ontology Languages Shared terms/terminology Machine-Machine communication 1990 2000 2010 Berners-Lee, Hendler; Nature , 2001
  3. 4. Web Semantics Semantic Web LayerCake (Berners-Lee, 99;Swartz-Hendler, 2001)
  4. 5. Can’t we just use XML? This is what a web-page in natural language looks like for a machine
  5. 6. XML helps XML allows “meaningful tags” to be added to parts of the text CV name education work private < > < > < > < > < >
  6. 7. XML  machine accessible meaning But to your machine, the tags look like this…. CV name education work private < > < > < > < > < > <  > <  > <  > <  > <  >
  7. 8. Schemas take a step in the right direction Schemas help…. <  > … by relating common terms between documents 
  8. 9. But other people use other schemas <  >   > <  >  <  > Someone else has one like this…. CV name education work private < > < > < > < > < >
  9. 10. The “semantics” isn’t there <  > … which don’t fit in 
  10. 11. KR provides “external” referents to merge on SW languages add mappings And structure.         CV name education work private < > < > < > < > < > <  > <  > <  >  < ‹›„⁄ >
  11. 12. Which is what the web was meant to be!! <ul><li>&quot;This is a pity, as in fact documents on the web describe real objects and imaginary concepts, and give particular relationships between them... For example, a document might describe a person. The title document to a house describes a house and also the ownership relation with a person. ... This means that machines, as well as people operating on the web of information, can do real things. For example, a program could search for a house and negotiate transfer of ownership of the house to a new owner. The land registry guarantees that the title actually represents reality.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee plenary presentation at WWW Geneva, 1994 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Putting semantics on the web
  13. 14. (and making it machine-readable)
  14. 16. Event:title Event:WebPage < > rdf:type photo:Photograph, Photo:File http://…/images#image1, Photo:topic :event1#event:speaker. Event1 a Event:event; date “May 7-11”, speaker http://…#timbl.html Title “WWW 2002…” TimBL rdf:type w3c-ont:person; name “Tim Berners-Lee” … <daml:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=&quot;photograph&quot;> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=&quot;#Picture&quot;/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource= …#person&quot;/> </daml:ObjectProperty> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/03/earl/0.95#Person&quot;> <rdf:type rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Class&quot;/> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/03/earl/0.95#Assertor&quot;/> </rdf:Description> <s:Class rdf:about=&quot;http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/swrc-onto-2000-09-10.daml#Conference&quot;> <s:comment> describes a generic conceptabout events </s:comment> <s:subClassOf rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/swrc-onto-2000-09-10.daml#Event&quot;/> <a:disjointFrom rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/swrc-onto-2000-09-10.daml#Workshop&quot;/> <a:restrictedBy rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.semanticweb.org/ontologies/swrc-onto-2000-09-10.daml#genid18&quot;/>
  15. 17. On the Web -- links are critical! <a href= URI> HTML Web page Any Web Resource <a href=“http://…”> RDF URI URI URI RDF is like the web! And… On the Semantic WEB -- links are critical!
  16. 18. RDF graphs resemble semantic nets <mind:Person rdf:id=“Hendler”> <mind:title jobs:Professor> <jobs:placeOfWork http://www.cs.umd.edu> </mind:Person> DOC1 Hendler DOC1 Mind:title Jobs:placeOfWork Web Page http://www… Professor Jobs: Mind: Jobs:
  17. 19. Semantics on the WEB <ul><li>RDF, like the WWW itself, is not “separable” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about the ontologies, without considering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The links to other terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The instances that link to them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The crawling and collecting of ontological terminologues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is like thinking about the Web without the links!! </li></ul></ul>Hendler DOC1 Mind:title Jobs:placeOfWork Web Page http://www… Professor Jobs: Mind: Jobs: Other Professors Other Pages Other title s Other description s Other URI s
  18. 20. Radically new view of Semantics Distributed,partially mapped, inconsistent -- but SCALEABLE! = some partial mapping uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses uses
  19. 21. Real examples <ul><li>Examples from http://dormouse.cs.umd.edu:8080/wiki/cmsc498wiki. wiki </li></ul><ul><li>Students violated every rule in the KR book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended existing ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked instances directly to terms from multiple ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed “real KR” and NL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We can learn from their lessons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://dormouse.cs. umd .edu:8080/ wiki /assignment1_collected_les. wiki </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Current Activities Semantic Web LayerCake (Berners-Lee, 99;Swartz-Hendler, 2001) You are here
  21. 23. W3C Web Ontology Working Group <ul><li>Web Ontology Working Group in the W3C Semantic Web Activity aimed at “extending the semantic reach of current XML and RDF meta-data efforts. “ </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DAML+OIL is submitted as a joint committee effort published as a W3C note . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W3C WG Announcement in November 2001 - http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www- rdf -logic/2001Nov/0000.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly teleconferences started in November 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Face to Face Meeting - New Jersey (Lucent), Jan ‘02; 2nd - Amsterdam April (W3C); 3rd - CA (Fujitsu/Stanford host) July; 4th in Bristol UK (HP Host) Oct. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Working Drafts to date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements/Use cases - March 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 Technical Documents - July 2002 (Language renamed OWL ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Membership <ul><li>Current Working Group includes over 50 members from over 30 organizations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>J. Hendler, MIND Lab UMCP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>G. Schreiber, Univ. of Amsterdam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large companies - Daimler Chrysler, IBM, HP, Intel, EDS, Fujitsu, Lucent, Motorola, Nokia, Philips Electronics, Sun, Unisys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newer/smaller companies - IVIS Group, Network Inference, Stilo Technology, Unicorn Solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government and Not-For-Profits: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US Defense Information Systems Agency, Interoperability Technology Association for Information Processing, Japan (INTAP) , Electricite De France , Mitre, NIST </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities and Research Centers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of Bristol, University of Maryland, University of Southamptom, Stanford University </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DFKI (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence), Forschungszentrum Informatik, Ontoweb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invited Experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Well-known academics from non-W3C members (Hayes, Heflin, Stein, Borden) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 25. But will it fly? <ul><li>DAML+OIL is already the most used ontology language ever!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.daml.org (3.5M statements on 25,000 web pages) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gaining acceptance by web players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web Track being offered at WWW 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3x more people attended WWW2002 Developer Day on SW than attended KR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Significant (international) Govt Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US DARPA/NSF; EU IST Framework 5,6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan, Germany, Australia considering significant investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US National Cancer Institute to publish cancer vocabulary in DAML+OIL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much New Startup activity (even in this economic climate) </li></ul><ul><li>Many tools being developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of them aimed at developers, not just AI literate types </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Making Markup Easier
  25. 27. Machine worries about the syntax
  26. 28. Use that markup in query/portal interfaces
  27. 29. Extending ontologies on the fly
  28. 30. Semantic Web Portals: The Mosaic of the semantic web? <Oncogene rdf:ID=&quot;Oncogene, MYB&quot;><code>C3682</code><id>3683</id> <Found_In_Organism rdf:ID=&quot;Human&quot;></Found_In_Organism> <Gene_Has_Function rdf:ID=&quot;Gene Transcription&quot;></Gene_Has_Function> <Gene_Has_Function rdf:ID=&quot;Transcriptional Regulation&quot;></Gene_Has_Function> <In_Chromosomal_Location rdf:ID=&quot;6q22-q23&quot;/> </Oncogene> < Oncogene rdf:ID=&quot;Oncogene NMYC&quot;> <code>C17656</code><id>17657</id><Found_In_Organism rdf:ID=&quot;Human&quot;></Found_In_Organism> <In_Chromosomal_Location rdf:ID=&quot;2p24.1&quot;/> <Gene_Has_Function rdf:ID=&quot;Transcriptional Regulation&quot;> </Gene_Has_Function><Gene_Associated_With_Disease rdf:ID=&quot;Neuroblastoma&quot;> </Gene_Associated_With_Disease></Oncogene> <XSLT/>
  29. 31. Moving to the futureof the web Semantic Web LayerCake (Berners-Lee, 99;Swartz-Hendler, 2001)
  30. 32. Web “travel agents” <ul><li>Query processed: 73 answers found </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google document search finds 235,312 possible page hits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Http://www…/CowTexas.html claims the answer is 289,921,836 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A database entitled “ Texas Cattle Association” can be queried for the answer, but you will need “authorization as a state employee.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer program that can compute that number is offered by the State of Texas Cattleman’s Cooperative, click here to run program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “sex network” can answer anything that troubles you, click here for relief... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “UFO network” claims the “all cows in Texas have been replaced by aliens </li></ul></ul>How many cows are there in Texas?
  31. 33. Allows new capabilities
  32. 34. Services off the desktop
  33. 35. Or perhaps on different desktops…
  34. 36. Web Agents need Service Descriptions
  35. 37. Semantic Web Service Description
  36. 38. Use Semantics for Composition Translate my symptoms from French and find me a pharmacy that has the necessary medicine (then compute how to get there and print the directions) Print the directions to a pharmacy which has a medicine that cures the symptoms that I will tell you (in French)
  37. 39. Or, translate to Planning Operators
  38. 40. For goal-based service composition Buy the French version of a book from amazon.fr and have it sent to Mom’s address
  39. 41. Services need Web Logics
  40. 42. Web of Trust <ul><li>Claims can be verified if there is supporting evidence from another (trusted) source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We only believe that someone is a professor at a university if the university also claims that person is a professor, and the university is on a list I trust. </li></ul></ul>believe(c1) :- claims(x, c1) ^ predicate(c1, professorAt) ^ arg1(c1, x) ^ arg2(c1, y) ^ claims(c2, y) ^ predicate(c2, professorAt) ^ arg1(c2, x) ^ arg2(c2, y) ^ AccreditedUniversity(y) AcknowledgedUniversity(u) :- link-from( “ http://www.cs.umd.edu/university-list” , u) Notice this one
  41. 43. Distributed Trust
  42. 44. Conclusion <ul><li>It is no longer a question of whether the semantic web will come into being, it is already here! </li></ul><ul><li>We’re already well past the starting gate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web ontologies, term languages, “shims” to DB and services, research in proofs/rules/trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization providing a common denominator for KR researchers as well as web developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small companies starting to form, Big companies starting to move </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The current environment is open, encouraging, moving fast, and exciting as heck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Come play! </li></ul></ul>http://www.daml.org http://www.semanticweb.org http://www.w3.org/2001/sw
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