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CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE1.Position element in Periodic Table                               3. GROUP 17 (HALOGENS)        ...
Group 1 –Alkali metals                                                                     GROUP                          ...
GROUP 18: NOBLE GAS  Elements                                                          Physical                           ...
PREPARED BY SULAIMAN SMKSM                                                          GROUP 1 (ALKALI METAL)          Elemen...
Elements                                        Chemical reaction          Change in physical properties down the group   ...
Going down a group 1                      Change across period 3                                                          ...
Chemical reaction of Group 1(alkali metal)                                 Aim:  To investigate the reactivity of alkali m...
1.   Reaction with iron wool,                                                                                             ...
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  1. 1. CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE1.Position element in Periodic Table 3. GROUP 17 (HALOGENS) PHYSICAL PROPERTIESGROUP - The number of valence electrons Physical properties • colourless gasesPERIOD - The number of shells occupied with electrons Boiling • cannot dissolve in water. Physical Melting2. Group 1 (alkali metal) Symbol Colour point • cannot conduct electricity and heat. state at point PHYSICAL PROPERTIES • low melting and boiling point. • Softmetals • low melting & boiling F Gas Yellow • low densities. points Greenish Cl Gas • silvery and • good conductors of yellow M.P and B.P INCREASE DOWN A GROUP shiny surfaces heat and electricity Reddish because the atomic size of each element Br Liquid Melting Boiling brown increases Density Purplish Increase Increase symbol Size points points -3 I Solid the forces of attraction between the atoms of (g cm ) black (°C) (°C) each element become stronger Li thus more energy is required to overcome the M.P and B.P INCREASE DOWN A GROUP Na stronger forces of attraction K • the molecular size increases 4.TRANSITION ELEMENTS Rb Increase Decrease Decrease Decrease • Forces of attraction between molecules becomes Between Group 2 to Group 13 stronger Special Characteristics: • Need more energy to overcome the forces of attraction i) Form coloured ions or compounds PHYSICAL CHANGES DOWN A GROUP ii) Have different oxidation numbers between molecules The atomic size increases - the number of shells iii) Acts as catalysts increases. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES The density increases - increasing in atomic mass is faster X2 + 2NaOH NaX + NaOX + H2O ; X is halogen 5.ELEMENTS IN A PERIOD than the increasing in atomic volume/size. Fe + 3X2 2FeX3 ; X is halogen - Basic oxides reacts with acid to form salt & H2O The melting and boiling points decreases - the atomic size X2 + H2O HX + HOX ; X is halogen - Acidic oxides reacts with alkali to form salt & H2O increases, the metal bond between the metal atoms REACTIVITY decrease down a group - Amphoteric oxides can react with both acids & becomes weaker. The atomic size increases down the group. alkali The hardness of the metal decreases. The distance of the outermost shell becomes greater CHEMICAL PROPERTIES from the nucleus. Atomic size DECREASE G1 + H2O → alkali + H2 The force of attraction between nucleus valence electrons G1 + O2 → white solid oxide decrease. G1 + Cl2 → white solid chloride the proton number increases the tendency of an atom to receive one/two/three G1 + Br2 → metal bromide the increasing of the attraction force electron to achieve an octet electron arrangement REACTIVITY increase down a group between nucleus and valence electrons. decrease.♠ the atomic size increases This causes the electronegativity decreases down the Electronegativity INCREASE♠ valence electron in the outermost occupied shell becomes group.far away from the nucleus 4. GROUP 18 ELEMENT♠ the attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron Size of atom decreasebecomes weaker the increasing of the attraction force Known as Noble gas♠ Therefore, it is easier for the atom to donate the single between nucleus and valence electrons. Monoatomicvalence electron to achieve the stable electron arrangement. chemically unreactive because they achive octet/duplet♠This causes the electropositivity increase down the group electron arrangement. PREPARED BY SULAIMAN SMKSM
  2. 2. Group 1 –Alkali metals GROUP Group 2 – Alkali-earth metals. 1 4 Group 3 to 12 - Transition elements 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 1 H* 2 11 12 13 He Group 17 – Halogens 1 2 Group 18 – Noble gases 7 8 11 12 14 16 19 20 P Nucleon Number Li Be A B C N O F Ne E 2 3 4 X 5 6 7 8 9 10 The group of an Period R Z Proton Number element number I 23 24 27 28 31 32 35 40 O 3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar D 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Determine by Determine by 39 40 80 4 K Ca TRANSITION METALS Br 19 20 35 The number of shells The number of valence occupied with electron electrons First 20 elements For elements with 1 to 2 valence electrons ELEMENTS ELEMENTS 1 valence 1 valence electron Group 1 H Hydrogen Hajat Na Sodium Nak 2 . 8. 8. 1 He Helium Hendak Mg Magnesium Mgorat Li Lithium Lihat Al Aluminium Alamak Be Berylium Bedah Si Silicon Si 4 shells 4 electron shells B Boron Balas P Phosporus Peli occupied Period 4 C Carbon Cinta S Sulphur Sedia with Potassium has 19 electrons N Nitrogen Nanti Cl Chlorine Clewang electrons O Oxygen Orang Ar Argon Aku F Flourine Fikir K Potassium Kena Ne Neon Niat Ca Calcium Chow For elements with 3 to 8 valence electrons First shell: 2 electrons 4 valence electron Group 14 2 . 8. 4 Second shell: 8 electrons Third shell: 8 electrons 3 electron shells Period 3 Add +10 for element. with 3 to 8 valence Last electron/s in the last outermost electrons shell, we called as valence electron. PREPARED BY SULAIMAN SMKSM
  3. 3. GROUP 18: NOBLE GAS Elements Physical Chemical properties Elements Electron Colourless gas Known as monoatomic gas/inert gas arrangement Cannot conduct electricity Chemically uncreative because chemically unreactive Helium 2 Poor conductor of heat because they achive octet/duplet electron Neon 2.8 Insoluble in water arrangement Argon 2.8.8 Low melting point Do not release, accept or share electron with other element Krypton 2.8.18.8 Radon 2.8.18.32.18.8 Change in Physical properties down a group 18 Atomic size of element increases Melting and boiling points of Density of elements increases elements increases the atomic mass of each element Number of occupied with When atomic size of each element increase is increases.electron increase The forces of attraction between the atoms of each element become stronger thus more energy is required to overcome the stronger forces of attraction during melting or boiling. Helium Argon Neon Used to fill airships and weather Used in advertising lights and balloons Used to fill light bulbs television tubes. Used to fill oxygen tank used by divers. Krypton Xenon Radon Used in lasers to repair the Used in the treatment of retina of the eye cancer. Used in the brightest bulb in Used to fill photographic flash To detect pipe leakage lighthouse lamp. PREPARED BY SULAIMAN SMKSM
  4. 4. PREPARED BY SULAIMAN SMKSM GROUP 1 (ALKALI METAL) Elements Chemical reaction Soft metals Reaction with water Symbol of Low melting & Elements Good conductor 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 Element boiling points Li of electricity Lithium Reaction with oxygen Physical Sodium Na 4Na + O2 2Na2O properties Potassium K Rubidium Rb Silvery and shiny Good conductor Reaction with halogen Caesium Cs surface of heat and 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl Fr electricity Francium Low density Less reactive Change in physical properties down the group 1 Reactivity of group 1 depend Reactivity Melting and Density on ability to Size boiling lose electron points When size of atom increasesNumber of proton When size Increase mass increases Valence electron in the outermost occupied atom increase is faster than increase of shell becomes far away from the nucleusNumber of shells atomic radiusoccupied with Metal bondelectron increase become weaker The easier to Force of attraction between the nucleus lose an electron, Melting and and valence electron become weaker Density the more boiling point Size increase increase reactive decrease It is easier for the atom to donate the Chemical properties and electron arrangement single valence electron to achieve stable Example: electron arrangement Alkali metals have one valence electron in their Na → Na+ + e outermost occupied shells. 2.8.1 2.8 To achieving the stable electron arrangement (octet or More reactive duplet) K → K+ + - e They will donating one electron from its outermost 2.8.8.1 2.8.8 occupied shell to form an ion with a charge of +1 Reactivity increase
  5. 5. Elements Chemical reaction Change in physical properties down the group Reaction with iron Symbol of 3Cl2 + 2Fe 2FeCl3 Elements Element Melting and Size Flouroine F Reaction halogen with water boiling Density Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCl points Chlorine Cl Bromine Br Reaction halogen with sodium hydroxide When size atom 2KOH + Cl2 KCl + KOCl + H2ONumber of proton Iodine I increase increases Increase mass is faster than Force increase of Reactivity attraction atomic radius Reactivity of decrease downNumber of shells between group 1 depend a group Less reactiveoccupied with molecules on ability toelectron increase attract electron More heat is When size of atom increases required to DensitySize increase overcome the increase attractive force The distance of the outermost shell becomes greater from the nucleus. GROUP 17 (HALOGEN) Valance electron 7 The easier to Force of attraction between the nucleus exist as diatomic attract an Melting and and valence electron become weaker molecules. electron, the boiling point { F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 } more reactive increase the tendency of an atom to receive Chemical properties and electron arrangement electrons to achieve an octet electron arrangement decrease. Example: Alkali metals have 7 valence electron in their outermost occupied shells. less reactive Cl2 + 2e 2Cl- To achieving the stable electron arrangement (octet or 2.8.7 2.8.8 duplet) They will accept one electron to form an ion with a Br2 + 2e 2Br- Reactivity decrease charge of -1 2.8.18.7 2.8.18.8 PREPARED BY SULAIMAN SMKSM
  6. 6. Going down a group 1 Change across period 3 Size of sodium bigger than lithium The number of proton sodium more than lithium atom Size of element decrease Number of shell occupied with electron Number of proton increase of sodium more than lithium atom. Lithium (2.1) The positive charge of the nucleus increase The attraction force on nucleus on the electron become stronger Sodium is more reactive than lithium atom Electron pull closer to nucleus causes atomic size decrease Size of sodium larger than lithium The attraction forces between nucleus and valence electron in sodium strongerElectronegativity increase than lithium Sodium (2.8.1) Sodium more easily to released electron to form positive ions When atomic size decrease the positive charge will increase The attraction force between nucleus and electron become stronger Going down group 17 The element will easily to accept electron Fluorine more reactive/electronegative than chlorine: Change in oxide properties Size of Fluorine larger than lithium Fluorine(2.7) The attraction forces between nucleus and valence electron in fluorine stronger than Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P4O10 SO2 Cl2O7 chlorine Basic Amphoteric Acidic Fluorine atom easily to accept electron to reacts with acid to can react with both reacts with base to form form negative ions form salt & H2O acids & alkali salt & H2O Chlorine ( 2.8.7) Metallic properties Across period of 3 Chlorine atom smaller than sodium: Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Number of proton chlorine more than sodium Metal Metalloid Non metal The attraction force on nucleus on the electron become stronger Electron pull closer to nucleus causes atomic size Transition metal Form colour of ions decrease Example: Sodium (2.8.1) Cu2+ - blue Copper, iron, zinc, Nickel Fe2+ - Green Chlorine atom more electronegative than sodium: Size of chlorine atom smaller than sodium The attraction forces between nucleus and valence electron in chlorine stronger than sodium Act as catalyst Form complex ions Have different Chlorine atom easily to accept electron to form Fe – Haber process oxidation number Chlorine (2.8.7) negative ions Pt – ostwald process
  7. 7. Chemical reaction of Group 1(alkali metal) Aim: To investigate the reactivity of alkali metal toward React with oxygen gas to produce metal oxides [white React with chlorine gas to produce metal chlorides water solids]. [white solids]. PS : How does the reactivity of alkali metal toward water HyPo: when going down a group 1, reactivity of A.M toward Metal G1 + O2 → metal oxide Metal G1 + Cl2 metal chloride water increase Gas jar spoon Gas jar spoon Metal* White fume Gas jar White fume water White Gas jar Variable Action to be taken Metal* Metal* Repeat exp using diff. alkali Oxygen gas M Metal G1 PROCEDURE: Chlorine gas Chlorine metal Reactivity of Observe movement alkali PROCEDURE: R alkali metal metal on water surface PROCEDURE Size of alkali Use same size of alkali The lithium is heated in jar spoon until its start C burn and put into gas jar containing oxygen gas The lithium is heated in jar spoon until its start metal metal The observation is recorded burn and put into gas jar containing chlorine gas When the reaction stops, 5 cm3 of distilled water The observation is recorded RESULT: is poured into gas jar and solution formed is The experiment is repeated with sodium and Metal* tested with red litmus paper potassium ObservationReaction becomes more vigorous The experiment is repeated with sodium and Lithium moves slowly on water surface potassium RESULT: with ‘hiss’ sound. Metal Reaction becomes more vigorous Li The colourless solution formed; turns red Observations RESULT: litmus paper to blue. Sodium moves quickly on water surface Metal* Observations Lithium burns slowly with a red flame. Na with ‘hiss’ sound. Li A white solid is produced. The colourless solution formed; turns red Lithium burns slowly with a red flame. litmus paper to blue. Li A white / fume solid is produced. Sodium burns brightly with a yellow Potassium moves vigorously on water flame. Na K surface with ‘hiss’ sound. Sodium burns brightly with a yellow A white solid is produced. The colourless solution formed; turns red flame. Potassium burns very bright with a Na litmus paper to blue. A white solid is produced. purple flame. K Potassium burns very bright with a A white solid is produced. Chemical equation: purple/lilac flame. K A white solid is produced. Chemical Equation 2Li + 2H2O 2LiOH + H2 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 Chemical equation 2K + 2H2O 2KOH + H2 2Li + O2 2Li2O 2Li + Cl2 2LiCl2 4Na + O2 2Na2O 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl2 PREPARED BY SULAIMAN SMKSM 4K + O2 2K2O 2K + Cl2 2KCl2
  8. 8. 1. Reaction with iron wool, 2. Reaction with water, H2OAim : To investigate the reactivity of halogen toward iron Aim : To investigate the halogen with waterProblem statements : How does the reactivity of halogen toward iron Problem statements : How does halogen react with waterHypothesis : When going down a group of 17, reactivity of Hypothesis : When going down a group of 17, reactivity of halogen toward iron decrease halogen toward iron decrease Chlorine gas Iron wool water Variables:Concentrated Iron Manipulated : Type of halogen usedhydrochloric acid Heat wool Responding : The rate at which the halogen dissolves in water and product of reaction Potassium Constant : temperature of water manganate(VII) liquid Heat Halogen Observation Equation bromine/ Dissolve quickly in water to form Solid Chlorine, light yellowish solution. Turn Iodine Cl2 + 2H2O 2HCl + 2HOCl Heat Cl2 blue litmus paper to red and then white Variable Action to be taken Dissolve slowly in water to form Bromine, Repeat the experiment by using brown solution. Turn blue litmus Br2 + H2O 2HBr + 2HOBrManipulated Type of halogen Br2 different halogen paper to red and then white Reactivity of Dissolve very slowly in water toResponding Observe the burning of iron Iodine, halogen form brown solution. Turn blue I2 + 2H2O 2HI + 2HOIConstant Size of iron Use same size of iron metal I2 litmus paper to red very slowlyObservation: Halogen Observation Equation 3. Reaction with NaOH Halogen ObservationChlorine, Iron wool ignites rapidly with Chlorine, Dissolve rapidly in sodium 2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3Cl2 bright flame Cl2 hydroxide to produceBromine, Iron wool glow moderately colourless solution. 2Fe + 3Br2 2FeBr3 ChlorineBr2 bright, moderate fast Bromine, Dissolve steadily in sodium gasIodine, I2 Iron wool glow dimly 2Fe + 3I2 2FeI3 Br2 hydroxide to produce colourless solution. Sodium Iodine, Dissolve steadily in sodium hydroxide solution I2 hydroxide to produce PREPARED BY SULAIMAN SMKSM colourless solution.
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