LAB-SCALE SOLAR THERMAL      POWER PLANT  Concept, Design, Simulation & Fabrication                         Project Adviso...
Scope of Project• To harness solar energy• Selected DSG after comparison of various  options
Objectives• To design and fabricate a lab scale solar  thermal power plant and generate about 40W  power• To demonstrate t...
Energy Crisis In Pakistan• Problems due to use of fossil fuels:    Crude oil is very expensive. Prices had once crossed o...
Energy Crisis In Pakistan• Problems due to use of fossil fuels:    In year 2006, Pakistan imported crude worth 6.7 Billio...
Cost Of Energy In Pakistan
Possible Solution• These problems can be reduced greatly by utilizing  RENEWABLE ENERGY and SOLAR POWER IN PARTICULAR.• Pa...
Power Generation Methods Using        Parabolic Troughs  Steam heated with a heat transfer fluid.  Steam heated directly...
Electric Generation Using     Heat Transfer Fluid          Uses parabolic troughs in order to         produce electricity...
Electric Generation Using     Heat Transfer Fluid          The HTF (oil) is circulated through the         pipes.        ...
Electric Generation Using     Heat Transfer Fluid          The HTF is passed through several         heat exchangers wher...
Electric Generation Using  Direct Steam Generation             The  collectors reflect heat from            the sun onto ...
Electric Generation Using       Combined Cycle           Hybrid system with a gas-fired           turbine and a solar fie...
Our Selection    Weighing all the advantages anddisadvantages we have decided to select       Direct Steam Generation     ...
Selection of Working Fluid                     Efficiency for Same Working Pressure (140 kPa) for different working       ...
Selection of Working Fluid• Water  – Cheap abundant supply  – Non toxic  – Non flammable  – Close cycle not necessary for ...
Cycle Selection                                 Efficiency Vs Boiler Pressure             0.07             0.06           ...
Schematic
Design Constraints• Temperature is 15 K superheat  – Conserve engine life  – Demonstrate the principle• Pressure 140 kPa  ...
Design Constraints• Black nickel electroplating  – Solar selective coating  – Easily available• Tube Length 1.6 meter  – T...
Design Approach
Design Approach
Design Approach
Design Approach
Super-heater Surface Temperature against its Length                           1800                           1600         ...
Boiler Analysis                                          Heat Transfer Coefficient Vs Water Level                         ...
Boiler Analysis           Reynolds Number Vs Water Level260024002200200018001600140012001000       0   0.1   0.2   0.3   0...
Boiler Analysis                                                      Entry Length of Thermal Bondary                      ...
Boiler Analysis             Boiling Regime: Nucleate             Safe Operation
Heat Loss Analysis                       1.4                       1.2                        1Total Heat Loss (kW)       ...
Boiler Heat Loss Comparison                 0.8                 0.7                 0.6Heat Loss (kW)                 0.5 ...
Super-heater Heat Loss Comparison                 0.7                 0.6                 0.5Heat Loss (kW)               ...
Total Plant Heat Loss For Bare and Glass Tube                  1.4                  1.2                   1 Heat Loss (kW)...
Area Required for Each Combination                       11                      10.5                       10Area of Trou...
Parabola Width for Boiler and Superheat               Sections                      100 Parabola Width (m)                ...
Total Efficiency of Plant                            1.15                             1.1Percentage Efficiency (%)        ...
Plant Layout
Variation of Super-heater Surface Temperature and   Steam Exit Temperature with Boiler Pressure                           ...
Variation of Plant Carnot Efficiency, Efficiency with     Bare Tube and Glass Tube with Pressure               0.12       ...
Heat Loss with Pressure                             0.9                             0.8                             0.7Tot...
Variation Total Area Required with Pressure                               18                               16             ...
Cost breakupPart                            CostCopper tube                    2,500Black nickel coating            400Par...
FEA Analysis• Objective:  – Determine the deformation in Supporting    Structure  – Optimize the flow in the Superheater b...
Stress and Strain Analysis                             44
Super-heater AnalysisInlet Region                            45
Flow Inlet Angle: 45Vortex Region: Largest   Stagnation Pressure Drop: Large                                              ...
Flow Inlet Angle: -5Vortex Region: Moderate   Stagnation Pressure Drop: Moderate                                          ...
Flow Inlet Angle: -55Vortex Region: Negligible   Stagnation Pressure Drop: Largest                                        ...
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Manufacturing Operations                           56
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Engine Operation Principle                             65
Pump       66
ACHIEVEMENTS• Presented two papers  1. 3rd National Energy Confrence at QUEST     Nawabshah  2. SPEC-2010 at NED Universit...
Conclusion             68
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Solar Thermal Power Plant 2nd presentaion

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Solar Thermal Power Plant 2nd presentaion

  1. 1. LAB-SCALE SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT Concept, Design, Simulation & Fabrication Project Advisor: Cdr. Shafiq Dr. Sohail Zaki Project Members: Syed Mohammed Umair Sulaiman Dawood Barry Saad Ahmed Khan Arsalan Qasim
  2. 2. Scope of Project• To harness solar energy• Selected DSG after comparison of various options
  3. 3. Objectives• To design and fabricate a lab scale solar thermal power plant and generate about 40W power• To demonstrate the principle of DSG using solar power
  4. 4. Energy Crisis In Pakistan• Problems due to use of fossil fuels:  Crude oil is very expensive. Prices had once crossed over $140 per barrel  Rising oil prices lead to inflation  Oil embargo can cripple Pakistan economy
  5. 5. Energy Crisis In Pakistan• Problems due to use of fossil fuels:  In year 2006, Pakistan imported crude worth 6.7 Billion Dollars (Dawn News)  To finance such a purchase, loans from IMF are needed. This increases debt burden.
  6. 6. Cost Of Energy In Pakistan
  7. 7. Possible Solution• These problems can be reduced greatly by utilizing RENEWABLE ENERGY and SOLAR POWER IN PARTICULAR.• Pakistan has vast tracts of desert regions which receive large quantities of solar flux throughout the year.
  8. 8. Power Generation Methods Using Parabolic Troughs  Steam heated with a heat transfer fluid.  Steam heated directly by solar radiation.  Combined cycle power generation using both solar and fossil fuel.
  9. 9. Electric Generation Using Heat Transfer Fluid  Uses parabolic troughs in order to produce electricity from sunlight They are long parallel rows of curved glass mirrors focusing the sun’s energy on an absorber pipe located along its focal line. These collectors track the sun by rotating around a north–south axis.
  10. 10. Electric Generation Using Heat Transfer Fluid  The HTF (oil) is circulated through the pipes. Under normal operation the heated HTF leaves the collectors with a specified collector outlet temperature and is pumped to a central power plant area.
  11. 11. Electric Generation Using Heat Transfer Fluid  The HTF is passed through several heat exchangers where its energy is transferred to the power plant’s working fluid (water or steam) The heated steam is used to drive a turbine generator to produce electricity and waste heat is rejected.
  12. 12. Electric Generation Using Direct Steam Generation  The collectors reflect heat from the sun onto the receiver. Working fluid in the receiver is converted into steam After flowing through the super heater the high pressure steam is fed into the turbine/engine The fluid passes through the condenser back to the feed water tank where the cycle begins again
  13. 13. Electric Generation Using Combined Cycle Hybrid system with a gas-fired turbine and a solar field Solar energy heats creates steam at daytime while fossil fuel used at night and peak time The running cost of the fuel will be reduced due to lesser fuel input.
  14. 14. Our Selection Weighing all the advantages anddisadvantages we have decided to select Direct Steam Generation method as our project
  15. 15. Selection of Working Fluid Efficiency for Same Working Pressure (140 kPa) for different working fluids in an Ideal Rankine Cycle 0.04 0.035 0.03 0.025Efficiency 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 Steam R11 R113 R123 R134a R22 n-pentane Working Fluids
  16. 16. Selection of Working Fluid• Water – Cheap abundant supply – Non toxic – Non flammable – Close cycle not necessary for operation
  17. 17. Cycle Selection Efficiency Vs Boiler Pressure 0.07 0.06 0.05Efficiency 0.04 Closed Cycle 0.03 Open Cycle 0.02 0.01 0 102 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 Boiler Pressure Closed Cycle Open CyclePressure (kPa) 101 101Pump Inlet Quality 0.1 N/APump Temperature (°C) N/A 25
  18. 18. Schematic
  19. 19. Design Constraints• Temperature is 15 K superheat – Conserve engine life – Demonstrate the principle• Pressure 140 kPa – Limitation of overhead tank – Unavailability of Low Flow rate pumps
  20. 20. Design Constraints• Black nickel electroplating – Solar selective coating – Easily available• Tube Length 1.6 meter – Test on existing parabola – Unavailability of Larger electroplating setup
  21. 21. Design Approach
  22. 22. Design Approach
  23. 23. Design Approach
  24. 24. Design Approach
  25. 25. Super-heater Surface Temperature against its Length 1800 1600 1400Surface Temperature (°C) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.11 Superheater Length (m)
  26. 26. Boiler Analysis Heat Transfer Coefficient Vs Water Level 14 SteamHeat Transfer Co-efficients W/m2-K 12 Water 10 8 DANGEROUS!!! 6 4 2 Steam 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Water SAFER TO OPERATE
  27. 27. Boiler Analysis Reynolds Number Vs Water Level260024002200200018001600140012001000 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
  28. 28. Boiler Analysis Entry Length of Thermal Bondary Layer Vs Water Level 3Entry Length of Thermal Bondary Layer (m) 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
  29. 29. Boiler Analysis Boiling Regime: Nucleate Safe Operation
  30. 30. Heat Loss Analysis 1.4 1.2 1Total Heat Loss (kW) 0.8 0 m/s 1 m/s 0.6 2 m/s 3 m/s 4 m/s 0.4 5 m/s 0.2 0 0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.17 0.2 0.23 0.26 0.29 0.32 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.47 0.5 0.53 Length of Superheater (m)
  31. 31. Boiler Heat Loss Comparison 0.8 0.7 0.6Heat Loss (kW) 0.5 0.4 Bare Tube Glass Tube 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Wind Velocity (m/s)
  32. 32. Super-heater Heat Loss Comparison 0.7 0.6 0.5Heat Loss (kW) 0.4 2 m/s bare 0.3 2 m/s glass 5 m/s Bare 5 m/s glass 0.2 0.1 0 0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.17 0.2 0.23 0.26 0.29 0.32 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.47 0.5 0.53 Length of Superheater (m)
  33. 33. Total Plant Heat Loss For Bare and Glass Tube 1.4 1.2 1 Heat Loss (kW) 0.8 Bare Tube with 5 m/s Glass Tube with 5 m/s 0.6 Bare Tube with 2 m/s Glass Tube with 2 m/s 0.4 0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.52 0.54 Length of Superheater (m)
  34. 34. Area Required for Each Combination 11 10.5 10Area of Trough (m2) 9.5 Bare Boiler + Bare Superheater Bare Boiler + Glass Superheater Glass Boiler + Bare Superheater 9 Glass Boiler + Glass Superheater 8.5 8 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.52 0.54 Length of Superheater (m)
  35. 35. Parabola Width for Boiler and Superheat Sections 100 Parabola Width (m) 10 Bare Boiler Glass Boiler Bare Superheater Glass Superheater 1 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.3 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.5 0.52 0.54 Length of Superheater (m)
  36. 36. Total Efficiency of Plant 1.15 1.1Percentage Efficiency (%) 1.05 1 Entirely Bare Tube 5m/s Entirely Envoloped with Glass Tube 0.95 5m/s Entirely Bare Tube 2m/s 0.9 Entirely Envoloped with Glass Tube 2m/s 0.85 0.8 0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.17 0.23 0.26 0.29 0.32 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.47 0.53 0.2 0.5 Length of Superheater (m)
  37. 37. Plant Layout
  38. 38. Variation of Super-heater Surface Temperature and Steam Exit Temperature with Boiler Pressure 800 700 600 Temperature (oC) 500 400 Superheater Surface Temperature 300 Steam Exit Temperature 200 100 0 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 345 360 375 Working Pressure (kPa)
  39. 39. Variation of Plant Carnot Efficiency, Efficiency with Bare Tube and Glass Tube with Pressure 0.12 0.1 0.08 Efficiency 0.06 Carnot Efficiency Thermal Efficiency with Bare Tube Thermal Efficiency with Glass Tube 0.04 0.02 0 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 345 360 375 Working Pressure (kPa)
  40. 40. Heat Loss with Pressure 0.9 0.8 0.7Total Plant Heat Loss (kW) 0.6 0.5 0.4 Heat Loss Bare Tube Heat Loss Glass Tube 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 345 360 375 Working Pressure (kPa)
  41. 41. Variation Total Area Required with Pressure 18 16 14 Total Area Required (m2) 12 10 8 Area Required with Bare Tube Area Required with Glass Tube 6 4 2 0 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 Working Pressure (kPa)
  42. 42. Cost breakupPart CostCopper tube 2,500Black nickel coating 400Parabola frame with mounting 9,000Valves and fittings 5,000Steam engine 5,000Mirror strips 2,500Miscellaneous 1,000Total 25,400
  43. 43. FEA Analysis• Objective: – Determine the deformation in Supporting Structure – Optimize the flow in the Superheater by • Reducing the vortex region • Reducing the Stagnation Pressure Drop 43
  44. 44. Stress and Strain Analysis 44
  45. 45. Super-heater AnalysisInlet Region 45
  46. 46. Flow Inlet Angle: 45Vortex Region: Largest Stagnation Pressure Drop: Large 46
  47. 47. Flow Inlet Angle: -5Vortex Region: Moderate Stagnation Pressure Drop: Moderate 47
  48. 48. Flow Inlet Angle: -55Vortex Region: Negligible Stagnation Pressure Drop: Largest 48
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  56. 56. Manufacturing Operations 56
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  65. 65. Engine Operation Principle 65
  66. 66. Pump 66
  67. 67. ACHIEVEMENTS• Presented two papers 1. 3rd National Energy Confrence at QUEST Nawabshah 2. SPEC-2010 at NED University Karachi• Won as Runner up at NED University
  68. 68. Conclusion 68

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