LAB-SCALE SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT Concept, Design, Simulation & Fabrication Project Advisor: Cdr. Shafiq Dr. Sohail Zaki Project Members: Syed Mohammed Umair Sulaiman Dawood Barry Saad Ahmed Khan Arsalan Qasim
Scope of Project• To harness solar energy• Selected DSG after comparison of various options
Objectives• To design and fabricate a lab scale solar thermal power plant and generate about 40W power• To demonstrate the principle of DSG using solar power
Energy Crisis In Pakistan• Problems due to use of fossil fuels: Crude oil is very expensive. Prices had once crossed over $140 per barrel Rising oil prices lead to inflation Oil embargo can cripple Pakistan economy
Energy Crisis In Pakistan• Problems due to use of fossil fuels: In year 2006, Pakistan imported crude worth 6.7 Billion Dollars (Dawn News) To finance such a purchase, loans from IMF are needed. This increases debt burden.
Possible Solution• These problems can be reduced greatly by utilizing RENEWABLE ENERGY and SOLAR POWER IN PARTICULAR.• Pakistan has vast tracts of desert regions which receive large quantities of solar flux throughout the year.
Power Generation Methods Using Parabolic Troughs Steam heated with a heat transfer fluid. Steam heated directly by solar radiation. Combined cycle power generation using both solar and fossil fuel.
Electric Generation Using Heat Transfer Fluid Uses parabolic troughs in order to produce electricity from sunlight They are long parallel rows of curved glass mirrors focusing the sun’s energy on an absorber pipe located along its focal line. These collectors track the sun by rotating around a north–south axis.
Electric Generation Using Heat Transfer Fluid The HTF (oil) is circulated through the pipes. Under normal operation the heated HTF leaves the collectors with a specified collector outlet temperature and is pumped to a central power plant area.
Electric Generation Using Heat Transfer Fluid The HTF is passed through several heat exchangers where its energy is transferred to the power plant’s working fluid (water or steam) The heated steam is used to drive a turbine generator to produce electricity and waste heat is rejected.
Electric Generation Using Direct Steam Generation The collectors reflect heat from the sun onto the receiver. Working fluid in the receiver is converted into steam After flowing through the super heater the high pressure steam is fed into the turbine/engine The fluid passes through the condenser back to the feed water tank where the cycle begins again
Electric Generation Using Combined Cycle Hybrid system with a gas-fired turbine and a solar field Solar energy heats creates steam at daytime while fossil fuel used at night and peak time The running cost of the fuel will be reduced due to lesser fuel input.
Our Selection Weighing all the advantages anddisadvantages we have decided to select Direct Steam Generation method as our project
Selection of Working Fluid Efficiency for Same Working Pressure (140 kPa) for different working fluids in an Ideal Rankine Cycle 0.04 0.035 0.03 0.025Efficiency 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 Steam R11 R113 R123 R134a R22 n-pentane Working Fluids
Selection of Working Fluid• Water – Cheap abundant supply – Non toxic – Non flammable – Close cycle not necessary for operation
Super-heater Heat Loss Comparison 0.7 0.6 0.5Heat Loss (kW) 0.4 2 m/s bare 0.3 2 m/s glass 5 m/s Bare 5 m/s glass 0.2 0.1 0 0.02 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.17 0.2 0.23 0.26 0.29 0.32 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.47 0.5 0.53 Length of Superheater (m)
Total Plant Heat Loss For Bare and Glass Tube 1.4 1.2 1 Heat Loss (kW) 0.8 Bare Tube with 5 m/s Glass Tube with 5 m/s 0.6 Bare Tube with 2 m/s Glass Tube with 2 m/s 0.4 0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.52 0.54 Length of Superheater (m)
Area Required for Each Combination 11 10.5 10Area of Trough (m2) 9.5 Bare Boiler + Bare Superheater Bare Boiler + Glass Superheater Glass Boiler + Bare Superheater 9 Glass Boiler + Glass Superheater 8.5 8 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.52 0.54 Length of Superheater (m)