Cell biology


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Cell biology

  1. 1. Advanced Cell Biology 2014 1nd Semester Department of Animal Science Chungbuk National University 1st Lecture
  2. 2. Basic Information about Courses Lecturer : Suk Namgoong Room 443, S21-5 suknamgoong@chungbuk.ac.kr HP: 010-4103-2415 Biweekly : 1st, 3nd, 5th Thursday 9:00-12:00
  3. 3. Textbook and Materials Main text : Cell biology, 2nd edition, Pollard & Earnshaw Most of lecture material will be provided as ppt at http://www.slideshare.net/suknamgoong * Book is in my Office
  4. 4. Course Objectives • To understand the molecular basis of life at the cellular level • Focusing on general principles and molecular mechanisms. • Therefore, we assume general knowledge of Macromolecular structures and Chemical bonds, equilibrium constants, and rate constants
  5. 5. 1st week : Introduction 3rd week : Basic principle of Cell component/ Research Strategoes 5nd week : Nucleus, Transcription and Splicing 7nd week : Membrane and Channel 9nd week : Membrane Trafficking 11nd week : Cell Signaling 13nd week : Cytoskeleton 15nd week : Cell Cycle Syllabus
  6. 6. Cells Basic Functional Units of all living organism Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast (MEF)
  7. 7. Cells
  8. 8. Evolution of Life Prebiotic origin of life: Details are uncertain; RNA may have dominated early biochemistry. Common ancestor of all modern cells existed ~3.5 billion years ago with about 600 genes. Life diverged from this common origin by natural selection of favorable random mutations. Lateral transfer of genes among species has contributed to genetic diversity during evolution.
  9. 9. Typical Eukaryotic cells were composed with various component
  10. 10. Main difference with Eukaryotic and Procaryotic Cells - Compartmentation by inner cell membrane Nucleus Mitochondria Lysosome
  11. 11. What is difference betweeen complicated machine and living cell? Both are composed with various ‘component’ Performed as ‘defined’ task What is difference between them?
  12. 12. General Characteristics of Living Cell Self-Replication and Generation
  13. 13. Every cell has their own ‘design sheet’ as form of DNA DNA-RNA-Protein
  14. 14. Macromolecules (Protein, DNA) assembled with each other and forms cellular structure
  15. 15. In Nucleus.. DNA is replicated in HERE Transcriptions are carried out in HERE Splicing are carried out in HERE
  16. 16. ER Most Protein synthesis (Translation) happen in ER Proteins were transported via ER and Golgi to their destination
  17. 17. Membrane / Cell-To-Cell Junction
  18. 18. Cytoskeleton
  19. 19. Transports
  20. 20. Chemical Principle of Cell Biology Water Proteins Nucleic Acids DNA RNA Carbohydrate Lipids
  21. 21. Uncharged Polar Uncharged Charged
  22. 22. Post-translational modification of amino acid Important for regulation of proteins
  23. 23. Amino Acids = Polypeptides Covalent Bonds (공유결합)
  24. 24. Secondary Structure (Hydrogen Interactions)
  25. 25. Three-dimensional Structure of Protein determine their functions What is main driving force for Three-dimensional structure of Protein folding?
  26. 26. Main driving force for tertiary structure formation : Van der waals interactions Most protein are in water Hydrophilic (charged, polar) amino acid residues tend to be in protein surface Hydrophobic residues avoids water (core packing)
  27. 27. Three-dimensional Structure of Protein (and macromocules) determine their functions
  28. 28. To Understand how complicate machine works, You should know the shape and function of each component
  29. 29. To Understand deeply function of a specific component, you need to know about structure of functions
  30. 30. These approach are also same in proteins Cas9-sgRNA-DNA Complex (Nureki et al., Cell 2014)
  31. 31. Some proteins have multiple conformations
  32. 32. It is difficult to understand how horse can run with this single frame of picture.. But if we have series of still images of horse running, we can figure out how horse can run..
  33. 33. To understand how to protein do their jobs, we need Series of ‘snapshot’ structure. GDP or GTP mediated Conformational change of Rab28 GTPase
  34. 34. Nucleic Acids
  35. 35. DNA conformation: most commonly a double helix with complementary TA and GC base pairs. Encode genetic information in sequence.
  36. 36. RNA structures take on highly diverse conformations, including helical regions with complementary base pairs. Structural RNA : Hammerhead ribozyme
  37. 37. Molecular Crowding : Cell is very packed..
  38. 38. Not like this Cellular Transport inside Cells More likely this It will cost lots of energe for sure. 