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Mark-up languages

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A markup language is a modern system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text. The idea and terminology evolved from the "marking up" of manuscripts, …

A markup language is a modern system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text. The idea and terminology evolved from the "marking up" of manuscripts, i.e., the revision instructions by editors, traditionally written with a blue pencil on authors' manuscripts. Examples are typesetting instructions such as those found in troff, TeX and LaTeX, or structural markers such as XML tags. Markup instructs the software displaying the text to carry out appropriate actions, but is omitted from the version of the text that is displayed to users. Some markup languages, such as HTML, have pre-defined presentation semantics, meaning that their specification prescribes how the structured data are to be presented; others, such as XML, do not.
A widely-used markup language is HyperText Markup Language (HTML), one of the document formats of the World Wide Web. HTML, which is an instance of SGML (though, strictly, it does not comply with all the rules of SGML), follows many of the markup conventions used in the publishing industry in the communication of printed work between authors, editors, and printers.


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  • 1. Lecture Notes – Mark-Up Languages – Prepared by Sukh SandhuPage | 1 List of well-known document mark-up languages  HyperText Markup Language (HTML) – the original markup language that was defined as a part of implementing World Wide Web, an ad hoc defined language inspired by the meta format SGML and which inspired many other markup languages.  Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML): HTML reformulated in XML syntax.  XHTML Basic – a subset of XHTML for simple (typically mobile, handheld) devices. It is meant to replace WML, and C-HTML.  XHTML Mobile Profile (XHTML MP) – a standard designed for mobile phones and other resource-constrained devices.  Mathematical Markup Language (MathML)  Rich Text Format (RTF) – Microsoft format for exchanging documents with other vendors applications. (It is not really a markup language, as it was never meant for intuitive and easy typing.[1][2])  Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)  TeX, LaTeX – a format for describing complex type and page layout often used for mathematics, technical, and academic publications.  Extensible 3D (X3D) Metalanguages  Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) – a standard pattern for markup languages to which HTML and DocBook adhere.  Extensible Markup Language (XML) – a newer standard pattern for markup languages; a restricted form of SGML that is intended to be compatible with it. ]Lesser-known document markup languages (including some lightweight markup languages)
  • 2.  ABC music notation - markup language for music scores in pure text.[3]  Chemical Markup Language (CML)  Compact HyperText Markup Language (C-HTML) – used for some mobile phones.Page | 2  Computable Document Format - used for interactive technical documents.  ConTeXt – a modular, structured formatting language based on TeX.  Crossmark – common markup with macros.  Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA)  DocBook – format for technical (but not only) manuals and documentation.  eLML – eLesson Markup Language: create eLearning content  Encoded Archival Description (EAD)  Enriched text – for formatting e-mail text.  Generalized Markup Language (GML)  Guide Markup Language (GuideML) – used by the Hitchhikers Guide site.[4]  Handheld Device Markup Language (HDML) – designed for smartphones and handheld computers.  Help Markup Language (HelpML)  Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Language (HyTime)  HyperTeX – for including hyperlinks in TeX (and LaTeX) documents.  Information Presentation Facility (IPF) – is a system for presenting online help and hypertext on IBM OS/2 systems. It is also the default help file format used by the cross-platform fpGUI Toolkit project.  LilyPond – a system for music notation.  LinuxDoc – used by the Linux Documentation Project.  Lout – a document formatting functional programming language, similar in style to LaTeX.  Maker Interchange Format (MIF)  Markdown - simple plaintext markup popular as language of blog/cms posts and comments, multiple implementations, used to generate HTML.[5]  Microsoft Assistance Markup Language (MAML)  Music Encoding Initiative (MEI)  Music Extensible Markup Language (MusicXML)
  • 3.  Open Mathematical Documents (OMDoc)  OpenMath – a markup language for mathematical formulae which can complement MathML.  Plain Old Documentation (POD) – a simple, platform-independentPage | 3 documentation tool for Perl.[6]  Xupl - a C-style equivalent to XML.  Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML)  reStructuredText (reSt) - plaintext platform-independent markup used as Python libraries documentation tool, multiple output formats (HTML, LaTeX, ODT, EPUB, ...)[7]  Retail Template Markup Language (RTML) – e-commerce language which is based on LisP.  Revisable-Form Text (RFT) – part of IBMs Document Content Architecture to allow transfer of formatted documents to other systems.  S1000D – international specification for technical documentation related to commercial or military; aerospace, sea or land; vehicles or equipment.  Scribe – Brian Reids seminal markup language  Script – Early IBM markup language on which GML is built.  SKiCal - a machine-readable format for the interchange of enhanced yellow-page directory listings.  Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) – Guidelines for text encoding in the humanities, social sciences and linguistics.  Texinfo – GNU documentation format.  troff (typesetter runoff), groff (GNU runoff)  Wikitext – used in Wikipedia, MediaWiki and other Wiki installations.  Wireless Markup Language (WML), Wireless TV Markup Language (WTVML)  Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML) XML based user interface markup language  Z Format – an open, document and typesetting language inspired by TeX.[8] Office document markup languages  Compound Document Format  Office Open XML (OOXML) – open standard format for office documents:  SpreadsheetML – spreadsheet language, part of Office Open XML.  PresentationML – presentations language, part of Office Open XML.
  • 4.  WordprocessingML wordprocessing language, part of Office Open XML.  Microsoft Office 2003 XML formats, predecessor of Office Open XML.  OpenDocument (ODF) – open standard format for office documents.Page | 4  OpenOffice.org XML – predecessor of OpenDocument.  ReportML – Report format language originating from Microsoft Access. (not a part of Office Open XML (yet))  Uniform Office Format (UOF) – open format for office documents, being harmonised with OpenDocument. See also  Comparison of document markup languages  Comparison of Office Open XML and OpenDocument  Lightweight markup language References 1. ^ RTF Pocket Guide by OReilly Media, retrieved 2010-03-13 2. ^ Sean M. Burke (2003-07). "RTF Pocket Guide". Retrieved 2010-03- 13. 3. ^ http://abcnotation.com/wiki/abc:standard 4. ^ h2g2 5. ^ http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/ 6. ^ http://perldoc.perl.org/perlpod.html 7. ^ http://docutils.sourceforge.net/rst.html 8. ^ http://z.departure.dk/
  • 5. Markup Languages – List 1. Application Markup Language 50. Instrument Markup LanguagePage | 5 (AppML) (IML) 2. Architecture Description Markup 51. International Development Language (ADML) Markup Language (IDML) 3. Artificial Intelligence Markup 52. Java Speech Markup Language Language (AIML) (JSML) 4. ASN.1 Markup Language (AML) 53. Karst Markup Language (KML) 5. Astronomical Instrument Markup 54. Koala Bean Markup Language Language (AIML) (KBML) 6. Astronomical Markup Language 55. Lambda Markup Language (LML) (AML) 56. Learning Material Markup 7. Automatic Site Markup Language Language (LMML) (ASML) 57. Legal Extensible Markup 8. Bean Markup Language (BML) Language (LegalXML) 9. Better Markup Language (BML) 58. Liturgical Markup Language 10. Bibliography Markup Language (LitML) (BibML) 59. Log Markup Language (LOGML) 11. Bioinformatics Sequence Markup 60. Mail Markup Language (MML) Language (BSML) 61. Maker Markup Language (MML) 12. BIOML - BIOpolymer Markup 62. Market Data Markup Language Language (MDML) 13. Board Game Markup Language 63. Mathematical Markup Language (BGML) (MathML) 14. Business Rules Markup Language 64. Meaningful Text Markup (BRML) Language (MTML) 15. Comics Markup Language 65. Medical Markup Language (MML) (ComicsML) 66. Mind Reading Markup Language 16. Chemical Markup Language( CML) (MRML) 17. Claris Dynamic Markup Language 67. Modest Markup Language (MML) (CDML) 68. Multimedia Retrieval Markup 18. DARPA Agent Markup Language Language (MRML) (DAML) 69. Music Markup Language (MML) 19. Description Logic Markup Language 70. Outline Processor Markup (DLML) Language (OPML) 20. Directory Services Markup 71. Pet Name Markup Language Language (DSML) (PNML) 21. Document Template Markup 72. Procedural Markup Language Language (DTML) (PML) 22. Dynamic Hypertext Markup 73. Printing Industry Markup Language (DHTML) Language (PrintML) 23. Dynamic Markup Language (DML ) 74. Question and Answer Markup 24. E-business eXtensible Markup Language (QAML)
  • 6. Language (ebXML) 75. Quest Markup Language (QML) 25. Earth Science Markup Language 76. Relational-Functional Markup (ESML) Language (RFML) 26. Environmental Markup Language 77. Research Information Exchange (EML) Markup Language (RIXML)Page | 6 27. eXtensible Application Markup 78. Rule Markup Language (RuleML) Language (XAML) 79. Security Assertion Mark-up 28. eXtensible rights Markup Language Language (SAML) (XrML) 80. Security Services Markup 29. eXtensible Telephony Markup Language (S2ML) Language (XTML) 81. Simple Markup Language (SML) 30. eXtensible Graph Markup and 82. Simulation Module Markup Modeling Language (XGMML) Language (SiMMaL) 31. eXtensible Hypertext Markup 83. Spacecraft Markup Language Language (XHTML) (SML) 32. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) 84. Standard Generalized Markup 33. Farleden Dynamic Markup Language (SGML) Language 85. Synchronization Markup 34. Field Data Markup Language [SyncML] Language (FDML) 86. Synthesis Markup Language 35. FileMaker Dynamic Markup 87. Theological Markup Language Language (FDML) (ThML) 36. Financial products Markup 88. Transaction Authority Markup Language (FpML) Language (XAML) 37. Financial Services Markup Language 89. Trading Partner Agreement (FSML) Markup Language (TPAML) 38. Forms Data Markup Language 90. Transaction Authority Markup (FDML) Language (XAML) 39. Form Document Markup Language 91. Turing Machine Markup Language (FDML) (TMML) 40. Forms Definition Markup Language 92. Tutorial Markup Language (TML) (FDML) 93. Universal Rule Markup Language 41. Forms Markup Language (FML) (URML) 42. Gene Expression Markup Language 94. Virtual Reality Markup Language (GEML) (VRML) 43. Geometry Description Markup 95. Voice Extensible Markup Language (GDML) Language (VoiceXML) 44. Geography Markup Language (GML) 96. Why Markup Language (YML) 45. Handheld Device Markup Language 97. Wireless Markup Language (WML) (HDML) 98. Yet Another Markup Language 46. Hypertext Markup Language (YAML) (HTML) 47. Human Markup Language (HumanML) 48. Human Resources Markup
  • 7. Language (HRML) 49. ICAAP eXtended Markup Language (IXML) 50. Image Markup Language (IML) 51. Instrument Control MarkupPage | 7 Language (ICML)

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