Cancer

JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
INTRODUCTION
Cancer is characterrized by uncontrolled growth and
division of certain body ttissues, so forming a tumour.
...
Characteristics of cancer cell
1. Cancers show uncontrolled mitotic divisions of cells causing
unorganised growth.
2. The ...
6.These cells have less survival capability than the normal cells.
7.Cancer cells are far less adhesive than the normal ce...
Causes of cancer
Cancer is neither contagious nor hereditary disease.
Every living organism has some inactive cancerr
ca...
1.Ionising radiation
 Cancer cause by X-rays, Gamma rays,Uv rays.
Skin Cancer , Leukemia etc

2.Physical irritants
 Cer...
3.Chemical agents
 chemical Caffein, Polycyclic hydrocarbon, Heavy metals,
Hormones testosterone, and estrogen
Chewing o...
Chromosomal changes in the genome of
cancer cells
Deletion

Terminal
Deletion

Reciprocal
translocation

Duplication

Inse...
Nucleotide changes in the genome of
cancer cells
Nucleotide
Deletions

Nucleotide
Insertions

Nucleotide
Substitutions

JN...
Types of cancer
1. On the basis of their location, tumours are
of three types

a)Carcinomas.
b)Sarcomas.
c)Leukemias.

Tum...
2. On the basis of their spread, tumour is
of two types.
a)Benign or Non-malignant tumour.
a)Malignant tumours.

JNV DHAMT...
Danger signals of Cancer
1. Presence of a perisistant tumour in lip, tongue ,breast.
2. Any wound with continuous bleeding...
Diagnosis of cancer
1. Histologic and Cytologic methods
2. DNA probe analyses.
3. Tumour markers.
4. Endoscopy. A) Gastros...
Therapy
 Radiation therapy
 Hormonal therapy
 Surgery
 Chemotherapy:- Mercaptopurine
6-Aminopterin
Sadabahar (Catharan...
Treating Cancers
Cancer treatments include drugs that can stop
cancer cells from dividing.

JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukh...
SUMMARY
Normal Cell Division
1. DNA is replicated
properly.
2. Chemical signals start
and stop the cell cycle.
3. Cells co...
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Cancer

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Cancer

  1. 1. Cancer JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Cancer is characterrized by uncontrolled growth and division of certain body ttissues, so forming a tumour.  It is more common in people between 40 to 60 years of age .  It ia one of the chief killers todaay. JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  3. 3. Characteristics of cancer cell 1. Cancers show uncontrolled mitotic divisions of cells causing unorganised growth. 2. The rate of cell division is much higher than that of normal cells.Ex. Gut linig divide after 36 hours. 3. Cancer cell lose the normal feedback controls that prevent excessive growth, so these cells grow much ore than the normal cells. 4. Due to uncontrolled growth and division of cells, a tumour( also called neoplasm which literally means new growth) is generally formed. 5. All tumours are not cancerous further, no tumour is formed in Leukaemia. JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  4. 4. 6.These cells have less survival capability than the normal cells. 7.Cancer cells are far less adhesive than the normal cells so these generally wander through the tissues to cause cancerous growth in different parts of the body. 8.Most of these produce angiogenic facters which stimulate the growth of blood vessels to supply more nutrients required for cancer growth. 9.Cancer cells do not undergo differntiation. 10.Cancerr cells do not show contact inhibition. 11.These cells have high invasiveness. 12.In cancer cells, cytoskeletal structure like microtubules and microfilaments tend to be disorganised. JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  5. 5. Causes of cancer Cancer is neither contagious nor hereditary disease. Every living organism has some inactive cancerr causing genes called Proto-oncognes. A physical or chemical agents mutate the Protooncognes into oncogenes.  1.Ionising radiation.  2.Physical irritants.  3.Chemical agents.  4.Biological agents. JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  6. 6. 1.Ionising radiation  Cancer cause by X-rays, Gamma rays,Uv rays. Skin Cancer , Leukemia etc 2.Physical irritants  Certain food, and heat exposure. Skin cancer Abdominal skin cancer and intestinal Cancer. Tumor in Colon JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  7. 7. 3.Chemical agents  chemical Caffein, Polycyclic hydrocarbon, Heavy metals, Hormones testosterone, and estrogen Chewing of beetles, Cigarette and cigartobacco smoking.  Chemical Benzpyrene and N-nitrosodimethylene 4. Biological agents  Cervix cancer is caused by viruses. Tumour causing virusesEx. Epstain Barr virus, Herpes simplex type-2 virus these are oncovirus. JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  8. 8. Chromosomal changes in the genome of cancer cells Deletion Terminal Deletion Reciprocal translocation Duplication Insertion Inversion Ring Chromosome Robertsonian Translocation Isochromosomes JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  9. 9. Nucleotide changes in the genome of cancer cells Nucleotide Deletions Nucleotide Insertions Nucleotide Substitutions JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  10. 10. Types of cancer 1. On the basis of their location, tumours are of three types a)Carcinomas. b)Sarcomas. c)Leukemias. Tumors in Liver JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  11. 11. 2. On the basis of their spread, tumour is of two types. a)Benign or Non-malignant tumour. a)Malignant tumours. JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  12. 12. Danger signals of Cancer 1. Presence of a perisistant tumour in lip, tongue ,breast. 2. Any wound with continuous bleeding. 3. Persistant indigestion. 4. Rapid change in appearance form and growth of some warts on the body 5. Any wound not healing for long time. 6. Persistant hoarseness in voice, or persistant coughing, or perrsistant difficulty in swallowing indicate throat cancer. 7. Unexpected loss of weight. 8. Excessive bleeding in the menses. JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  13. 13. Diagnosis of cancer 1. Histologic and Cytologic methods 2. DNA probe analyses. 3. Tumour markers. 4. Endoscopy. A) Gastroscopy B) Laparoscopy JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  14. 14. Therapy  Radiation therapy  Hormonal therapy  Surgery  Chemotherapy:- Mercaptopurine 6-Aminopterin Sadabahar (Catharanthus roseus) provide two anticancerous drugs. Vincristin and Vinblastin which is use in leukemia Photoferin cure throat cancer. JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  15. 15. Treating Cancers Cancer treatments include drugs that can stop cancer cells from dividing. JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  16. 16. SUMMARY Normal Cell Division 1. DNA is replicated properly. 2. Chemical signals start and stop the cell cycle. 3. Cells communicate with each other so they don’t become overcrowded. Cancer Cells 1. Mutations occur in the DNA when it is replicated. 2. Chemical signals that start and stop the cell cycle are ignored. 3. Cells do not communicate with each other and tumors form. JNV DHAMTARI Presented by Sukhnandan Saw
  17. 17. k n a h T u o y
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