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  1. 1. Management by objective MBO
  2. 2. Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>Many believe that everyone already sets goals </li></ul><ul><li>But this is not true </li></ul><ul><li>When groups do set goals, output invariably increases over groups that do not set goals. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Goal setting and incentives <ul><li>Incentives improve performance – but </li></ul><ul><li>Only if they cause individuals to set and commit to attaining specific goals </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why does goal setting effect performance? <ul><li>Goals focus activity </li></ul><ul><li>Goals regulate expenditure of effort </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult goals lead to more persistent effort than do easy goals </li></ul><ul><li>These 3 are critical to the MBO process </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is MBO? <ul><li>We set goals and then performance is judged based on how well we accomplish these goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectually – this seems like the way to go – and has for years </li></ul><ul><li>But? </li></ul>
  6. 6. The goals must be: <ul><li>Mutually agreeable to employee and supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Demanding (stretching) but achievable </li></ul><ul><li>Within the control of the employee </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewed periodically for modifications based on events </li></ul>
  7. 7. The goals must also be: <ul><li>Clearly defined </li></ul><ul><li>Simple to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul>
  8. 8. Problems with MBO programs <ul><li>Employees get systematically more credit or blame than deserved </li></ul><ul><li>Bias still exist in rating. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Definition <ul><li>Management by objectives (MBO) is a systematic and organized approach that allows management to focus on achievable goals and to attain the best possible results from available resources. It aims to increase organizational performance by aligning goals and subordinate objectives throughout the organization. Ideally, employees get strong input to identify their objectives, time lines for completion, etc. MBO includes ongoing tracking and feedback in the process to reach objectives. </li></ul>
  10. 10. MBO <ul><li>Management by Objectives (MBO) was first outlined by Peter Drucker in 1954 in his book 'The Practice of Management'. In the 90s, Peter Drucker himself decreased the significance of this organization management method, when he said: &quot;It's just another tool. It is not the great cure for management inefficiency... Management by Objectives works if you know the objectives , 90% of the time you don't.&quot; </li></ul>
  11. 11. FOCUS <ul><li>MBO managers focus on the result , not the activity. They delegate tasks by &quot;negotiating a contract of goals&quot; with their subordinates without dictating a detailed roadmap for implementation. Management by Objectives (MBO) is about setting yourself objectives and then breaking these down into more specific goals or key results. </li></ul>
  12. 12. SMART GOALS <ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul><ul><li>Attainable </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Timely </li></ul>
  13. 13. KRA’S <ul><li>The review mechanism enables leaders to measure the performance of their managers, especially in the key result areas: marketing; innovation ; human organization; financial resources; physical resources; productivity; social responsibility; and profit requirements. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The end