E-Resources in Health Sciences


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E-Resources in Health Sciences' - Gives an account of various electronic resources available for medical researchers online. [Lecture for Medical Librarians]

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E-Resources in Health Sciences

  1. 1. E-Resources in Health Sciences by Sukhdev Singh
  2. 2. E-Resource <ul><li>Online tools that </li></ul><ul><li>index, </li></ul><ul><li>abstract, </li></ul><ul><li>or provide electronic access to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>articles, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>books, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dissertations and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other types of content. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Information (usually a file) which can be stored in the form of Electrical Signals usually, but not necessarily, on a Computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Information available on the internet. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Health Sciences E-Resources
  5. 5. <ul><li>Wait…. </li></ul><ul><li>We have a problem here. </li></ul><ul><li>Well it is the Problem of Plenty. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In 2003 there were over 100,000 health-related websites </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.  World Health Organization.  Proposal for ‘.health’ internet domain.  Geneva: WHO; 2003. Report by the Secretariat. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Just imagine there is scholarly journal on “Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries”. </li></ul>
  7. 7. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=t792303999~tab=sample
  8. 8. <ul><li>Knowing select quality resources would service as good start point </li></ul><ul><li>But that won’t be enough </li></ul><ul><li>Better would be to acquire skills in finding ‘quality’ resources </li></ul>
  9. 9. Search and Evaluate <ul><li>Have a plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without a plan you would be lost in the sea of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pick appropriate search tool for type of information you are seeking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critically evaluate search results </li></ul>
  10. 10. Appropriate Tool? Will depend on what you are looking for !!!
  11. 11. <ul><li>General Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Search Engines / General Web Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Journal References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases like PubMed / IndMED etc) / Scholar Google </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full Text Articles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Open Access. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fee Based – From Libraries . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best Practices / Evidence Based Medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cochrane Library </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. General Information
  13. 13. Best for Non-Scholarly Information Web Search Engines
  14. 14. General Information – Web Search Engines / Resources <ul><li>Search Engines </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-Search Engines </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Directories </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Guides </li></ul>
  15. 16. Search Engines <ul><ul><ul><li>Full-text of selected Web pages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search by keyword, trying to match exactly the words in the pages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No browsing, no subject categories. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Databases compiled by &quot;spiders&quot; (computer-robot programs). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Meta-Search Engines <ul><ul><ul><li>Meta-Search Engines quickly and superficially search several individual search engines at once. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Return results compiled into a convenient format. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They only catch about 10% of search results in any of the search engines they visit. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Web Directories <ul><ul><ul><li>Hand-selected sites. Organized into hierarchical subject categories. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often annotated with descriptions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Browse subject categories or search using broad, general terms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No full-text of documents. Can search only the subject categories and descriptions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 27. Subject Guides <ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages of collections of hypertext links on a subject. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compiled by &quot;expert&quot; subject specialists, agencies, associations, and hobbyists. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 35. Evaluating Your Web Search Results <ul><li>Search results should be examined for accuracy and authenticity and currency - </li></ul><ul><li>Who? Who is the authoring agency or individual? </li></ul><ul><li>What? What is the author's credentials? </li></ul><ul><li>Where? Where is the author's affiliation? </li></ul><ul><li>When? When was the page last updated </li></ul><ul><li>Why? Why is the page in existence? What is the author's purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>How? How does the page appear? </li></ul>
  20. 39. So, What have we learned? <ul><li>For General Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search Engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meta Search Engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Directories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject Guides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Your Web Search Results </li></ul>
  21. 40. <ul><li>Scholarly Information </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliographic Databases </li></ul><ul><li>-PubMed </li></ul><ul><li>-IndMED </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Search Engine </li></ul><ul><li>-Scholar Google </li></ul>
  22. 41. Bibliographic Databases <ul><ul><ul><li>Cover Peer Reviewed Literature. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Index select scholarly and quality journals . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>References along with abstracts are available sometimes links to free full text of articles. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require familiarization on searching. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Boolean Operators, Controlled Vocabulary like Medical Subject Headings ( MeSH ) and Qualifiers are required for advanced searching. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 42. <ul><ul><ul><li>http://pubmed.gov </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes MEDLINE® (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) is the U.S. National Library of Medicine's® (NLM) premier bibliographic database that contains over 16 million references to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine. A distinctive feature of MEDLINE is that the records are indexed with NLM's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 44. Overview of Boolean Searching
  25. 48. Problems when using Natural Languages for Searching <ul><li>Synonyms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(One Concept – different Words) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lady </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Woman </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Homonyms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(One Word – different Concepts) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple Words (Phrase) </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>etc.. </li></ul>
  26. 49. Controlled Vocabularies are used to “Index” and “Retrieve”
  27. 53. What about Indian Research?
  28. 54. Coverage of Indian Journals <ul><li>Only about 35 Indian Medical Journals are covered in PubMed. </li></ul><ul><li>This means world Indian research does not get exposed adequately. </li></ul><ul><li>No credit for good work being done in the areas dealing with local medical problem. </li></ul>
  29. 55. IndMED <ul><li>IndMED Database </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliographic Database – indexes 77 Indian Biomedical Journals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 56. Google Scholar <ul><li>  &quot;Google Scholar uses Google search technology to search for scholarly materials such as: peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles and more. Results come from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, universities and other scholarly organizations. Some of the literature will be freely found on the Web, while some links will offer the full-text of articles for payment.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>http://scholar.google.com </li></ul>
  31. 60. So, for Scholarly Information <ul><li>We start with Bibliographic Databases having references to journals and other scholarly literature </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of search techniques like use of Boolean Operators and Controlled Vocabularies is required for effective searching. </li></ul><ul><li>PubMed, Scirus – International </li></ul><ul><li>IndMED – Indian </li></ul><ul><li>Scholar Google special in some aspects but scope and coverage is not clearly defined. </li></ul>
  32. 61. <ul><li>Scholarly Information </li></ul><ul><li>Full text Journal Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Most expensive library resource </li></ul><ul><li>No Library can afford all the journals / Not even the core Journals of a subject </li></ul><ul><li>Things can improve with “Open Access” to scholarly literature </li></ul>
  33. 62. Some Free Resources for Full Text Articles <ul><li>From Open Access Publishers </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Journals online </li></ul><ul><li>From Institutional / Subject Repositories </li></ul>
  34. 63. <ul><li>http://uncat.nic.in </li></ul>
  35. 72. MedKnow
  36. 73. OA Archives or Repositories <ul><li>OA archives or repositories are free to access and allows uploading of articles and other scholarly materials by authors. </li></ul><ul><li>Archives may belong to institutions, such as universities and laboratories, or disciplines, such as physics and economics. </li></ul>
  37. 74. http://archives.eprints.org/
  38. 77. So, What have we learned about Journal Articles? <ul><li>Most Scholarly Journals provides online fee-based to full text of their articles </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries find it difficult to afford even the core journals. </li></ul><ul><li>Some relief by Open Access Journals / Repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Use Directories like DOAJ and ROAR locate free resources for journal articles </li></ul>
  39. 78. Evidence / Factual Resources
  40. 79. Cochrane Library <ul><li>Paid Service </li></ul><ul><li>Made accessible to Indian Residents through Sponsorship by ICMR </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic Reviews </li></ul>
  41. 88. Can You Build It?
  42. 94. Remember !!! <ul><li>The Web just does not have it all yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the premium and fee-accessible content may be hidden. </li></ul><ul><li>Even the best search engine will only search what is available. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that the Web is only the first tool in your arsenal of available resources. </li></ul>
  43. 95. <ul><li>THANK YOU, </li></ul><ul><li>Happy Surfing </li></ul><ul><li>esukhdev </li></ul>