Composites manufacturing technology


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  • This paper reports the findings of a recent European initiative that examined the future use of composite materials in the automotive sector.
    Today it is easy to be optimistic about the future use of composite materials in the automotive industry. However, it would be a big mistake strategically to assume that the substitution of metals with composites will be unavoidable and automatic.
    There is no doubt that the number of composite material applications within the automotive sector will increase, but they will never completely replace metals.
    Composite materials have enormous potential, but the composites industry will need to demonstrate their advantages for each application and compete with advocates of metals. Ideally, designers should seek to work with both materials without prejudice, exploiting their best characteristics for a given application.
    under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.
    bio-mimicking artificial muscles or skins
    “This fascinating soft tissue-like material can be made into an electroactive polymer,” Suhr said. “So that we don’t have to add mechanical motors, which is typically heavy. So maybe we can develop bio-mimicking artificial muscles using this material.”
    Composite of carbon-nanotube-reinforced PMMA/HA is a demonstration of how nanomaterials will play an increasing role in the synthesis of next-generation biomedical applications."The combination of PMMA and hydroxyapatite with multi-walled carbon nanotubes
    Bone cement
  • Composites manufacturing technology

    1. 1. COMPOSITES MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY By: Shankaranarayanan Nitin Meena Rajat Pradhan Yogesh Jagtab Sukhdev 1
    2. 2. Contents Introduction to Composites. Manufacturing Technology. Case Study – Boeing 787 2
    3. 3. Introduction to composites What is a composite Material ? Two or more chemically distinct materials which when combined have improved properties over the individual materials. Example: Wood, Bamboo, Bricks. Composites are combinations of two materials in which one of the material is called the reinforcing phase, is in the form of fibers, sheets, or particles, and is embedded in the other material called the matrix phase. 3
    4. 4. Components of composite materials Reinforcement: fibers Interface Glass Carbon Organic Boron Ceramic Metallic 4 Matrix materials Polymers Metals Ceramics Bonding surface
    5. 5. Characteristics of composites 5
    6. 6. Classification of composites First Level (Matrix Material)  Metal Matrix Composites.  Ceramic Matrix Composites.  Polymer Matrix composites. Second Level (reinforcement form)  Particulate  Whisker  Continuous Fiber  Woven Composites 6
    7. 7. Composites – Polymer Matrix Polymer matrix composites (PMC) and fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) are referred to as Reinforced Plastics. Common fibers used are glass (GFRP), graphite (CFRP), boron, and aramids (Kevlar). These fibers have high specific strength (strength-to-weight ratio) and specific stiffness (stiffness-toweight ratio) Matrix materials are usually thermoplastics or thermosets; polyester, epoxy (80% of reinforced plastics), fluorocarbon, silicon, phenolic. 7
    8. 8. Composites – Metal Matrix The metal matrix composites offer higher modulus of elasticity, ductility, and resistance to elevated temperature than polymer matrix composites. But, they are heavier and more difficult to process. 8
    9. 9. Composites – Ceramic Matrix Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are used in applications where resistance to high temperature and corrosive environment is desired. CMCs are strong and stiff but they lack toughness (ductility) Matrix materials are usually silicon carbide, silicon nitride and aluminum oxide, and mullite (compound of aluminum, silicon and oxygen). They retain their strength up to 3000 oF. Fiber materials used commonly are carbon and aluminum oxide. Applications are in jet and automobile engines, deep-see mining, cutting tools, dies and pressure vessels. 9
    10. 10. Application of Composites Swedish Navy, Stealth (2005) Pedestrian bridge in Denmark, 130 feet long (1997) 10
    11. 11. Application of Composites 11
    13. 13. Manufacturing Processes Hand Lay-up Vacuum bagging/autoclave Compression Moulding Liquid Resin Moulding. Pultrusion Filament Winding Injection Moulding Thermoplastics processing Automated Tape Laying 13
    14. 14. Hand Lay-up A Process wherein the application of resin and reinforcement is done by hand onto a suitable mould surface. The resulting laminate is allowed to cure in place without further treatment. 14
    15. 15. Spray Lay-up    15 Glass fibers chopped up Resin, catalyst, & fibers sprayed onto a mold Cures at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure
    16. 16. Moulds 16
    17. 17. Vacuum Bag Molding  Two-sided mold set.  Shapes both surfaces of the panel.  Lower side is a rigid mold  Upper side is a flexible membrane or vacuum bag  Bag made of silicone material or an extruded polymer film.  Performed at either ambient or elevated temperature.  Ambient atmospheric pressure acts upon the vacuum bag.  Most economical way uses venturi vacuum and air compressor or a vacuum pump. 17
    18. 18. Vacuum bag assembly 18
    19. 19. 19
    20. 20. Autoclave Molding          20 Two-sided mold set Lower Side rigid mold Upper Side flexible membrane made from silicone or an extruded polymer film Reinforcement materials can be placed manually or robotically Include continuous fiber forms fashioned into textile constructions Use of autoclave pressure vessel process generally performed at both elevated pressure and elevated temperature elevated pressure facilitates a high fiber volume fraction Elevated pressure yields low void content for maximum structural efficiency
    21. 21. Autoclaves   Uses elevated pressure and temperature to consolidate plastic and fibers into a solid structure Various range of sizes  Small Laboratory Prototype models  Aircraft and Large Application models  Used for high-performance parts with the highest strength-to-weight ratios 21
    22. 22. Compression Molding 22
    23. 23. 23
    24. 24. VARTM and RTM  Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding  Sometimes a pump used to remove any air within the system  Resins permeate through the material from the top displacing air  Uses low viscosity catalyzed resins injected into the piece  Cures with low temperature and low pressure 24
    25. 25. Resin transfer moulding (RTM) 25
    26. 26. RTM - Applications 26
    27. 27. Pultrusion process 27
    28. 28. 28
    29. 29. 29
    30. 30. Pultrusion Applications 30
    31. 31. Filament Winding 31
    32. 32. Filament Winding Machines 32
    33. 33. 33
    34. 34. Filament Winding - Applications 34
    35. 35. Thermoplastics- Injection Molding 35
    36. 36. Roll Forming 36
    37. 37. Matched Die Forming 37
    38. 38. Hydroforming 38
    39. 39. Tape Laying 39
    40. 40. Advantages / Disadvantages 40
    41. 41. CASE STUDY – BOEING 787 41
    42. 42. Boeing 787 Benefits the of the 787 (aka. “Dreamliner”) I. Light weighta. Fuel efficient b. Longer range than comparable aircraft 42 II. Reduced maintenance costs a. $30-40 million in savings i. High reduction in fatigue ii. Highly corrosion resistant
    43. 43. Boeing 787 III. Increased passenger comfort a. Increase in cabin pressure b. Increased humidity i. Result of high corrosion resistance c. Bigger windows due to increased strength d. Less noise i. Front engine cowl intake is made of a single piece of composite, reducing drag IV. Decreased assembly time a. Parts arrive from suppliers as net-shape b. Components are pre-installed in parts at supplier factory 43
    44. 44. 44
    45. 45. 45
    46. 46. Boeing 787 Cost- Benefit Analysis of the Boeing 787 I. Boeing estimates that 787 will consume $5 million less in fuel on a comparable route than 767 a. Savings = Price of plane II. Potentially longer life a. Not proven yet, but likely due to the high reduction in corrosion and fatigue 46
    47. 47. Boeing 787 Changes Boeing Has Made in Order to Create a Composite Airplane needed I. Composites are made elsewhere. a. Attached in the factory using titanium hardware and adding carbon sheets where II. Safety equipment a. Revamped to provide protection from carbon dust II. New machines and equipment a. Alignment machines to assemble tubes i. Needed in order to attach fuselage due to low flexibility of fuselage 47
    48. 48. Automated Tape Laying machine- Used to the layup of the flight deck floor 48
    49. 49. Fuselage Unloader- Used to unload fuselage sections from Dreamlifter 49
    50. 50. Boeing 787 Some difficulties and problems Boeing has encountered during this project, and how have they been overcome I. Estimating weights of composite parts very difficult a. Current plane is overweight i. Redesign parts to conform to specs II. Problems detecting and repairing damage a. Composites pose a great challenge to finding flaws and cracks III. Value of components very high preceding machining IV. How to recycle a. One time material use? 50
    51. 51. Application of Composites in Aircraft Industry 20% more fuel efficiency and 35,000 lbs. lighter 51
    52. 52. Advantages of Composites 1) Higher Specific Strength (strength-to-weight ratio) 2) Design flexibility 3) Corrosion resistance 4) Low Relative investment 5) Durability 52
    53. 53. Disadvantages of Composites Composites are heterogeneous properties in composites vary from point to point in the material. Most engineering structural materials are homogeneous. Composites are highly anisotropic The strength in composites vary as the direction along which we measure changes (most engineering structural materials are isotropic). As a result, all other properties such as, stiffness, thermal expansion, thermal and electrical conductivity and creep resistance are also anisotropic. The relationship between stress and strain (force and deformation) is much more complicated than in isotropic materials. The experience and intuition gained over the years about the behavior of metallic materials does not apply to composite materials. 53
    54. 54. Disadvantages of Composites Composites materials are difficult to inspect with conventional ultrasonic, eddy current and visual NDI methods such as radiography. American Airlines Flight 587, broke apart over New York on Nov. 12, 2001 (265 people died). Airbus A300’s 27-foot-high tail fin tore off. Much of the tail fin, including the so-called tongues that fit in grooves on the fuselage and connect the tail to the jet, were made of a graphite composite. The plane crashed because of damage at the base of the tail that had gone undetected despite routine nondestructive testing and visual inspections. 54
    55. 55. Disadvantages of Composites In November 1999, America’s Cup boat “Young America” broke in two due to debonding face/core in the sandwich structure. 55
    57. 57. Future uses of structural composites: Automotive Industry Today it is easy to be optimistic about the future use of composite materials in the automotive industry. Substitution of metals with composites not unavoidable and automatic. Composite material applications will increase, but they will never completely replace metals Composite materials have enormous potential Industry will need to demonstrate advantages for each application and compete with advocates of metals Designers should seek to work with both materials exploiting best characteristics for a given application 57
    58. 58. Nanocomposites  Nanoparticulates (filler) introduced into a macroscopic sample material (matrix)  Percentage by weight (mass fraction) of the nanoparticulates can remain very low  on the order of 0.5% to 5%  Nanocomposite may exhibit enhanced properties  electrical and thermal conductivity  optical properties  dielectric properties  mechanical properties  stiffness  Strength  …Or nanoparticles can impart new physical properties and behaviors to matrix (genuine nanocomposites or hybrids)  flame retardancy   accelerated biodegradability 58
    59. 59. Nanocomposite: Under a microscope Polymer Carbon Matrix Nanotubes 59
    60. 60. Nanocomposite Examples Continuous Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Composites 3300% improvement in longitudinal modulus under compression up to 2100% improvement in damping capability composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide 3x less effective reinforcement in composites. Cyclics CBT resin nano-composite structure produces properties not previously possible with traditional engineering thermoplastics Thermoplastic with near water viscosity Extreme castability Headquarted in Schenectady 60
    61. 61. Nanocomposites in BioMed Bio-mimicking artificial muscles or skins Soft tissue-like material can be made into an electroactive polymer Don’t have to add mechanical motors Composite of PMMA and hydroxyapatite w/ MWCNT can be used as next-gen bone cement Biosensors using Sol-Gel technology 61