GREENDROID:
AN ARCHITECTURE FOR DARK SILICON AGE
February 23, 2013
1 / 29
Contents
1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY
2 ANDROID PLATFORM
3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON
5 C-CORES
6 GREEND...
GO GREEN FOR A BETTER TOMORRROW....
What is this GREEN concept???
Green technology points to energy efficient techniques .
...
GO GREEN FOR A BETTER TOMORRROW....
What is this GREEN concept???
Green technology points to energy efficient techniques .
...
GO GREEN FOR A BETTER TOMORRROW....
What is this GREEN concept???
Green technology points to energy efficient techniques .
...
Mobile application processors are soon
to replace desktop processors as the
focus of innovation in microprocessor
technolo...
Contents
1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY
2 ANDROID PLATFORM
3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON
5 C-CORES
6 GREEND...
ANDROID PLATFORM
A Linux based operating system
6 / 29
ANDROID PLATFORM
A Linux based operating system
Mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers .
6 / 29
ANDROID PLATFORM
A Linux based operating system
Mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers .
An open source ...
ANDROID PLATFORM
A Linux based operating system
Mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers .
An open source ...
Contents
1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY
2 ANDROID PLATFORM
3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON
5 C-CORES
6 GREEND...
DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
Power consumption is more , since it is mainly meant for internet
surfing , co-operate applications.
8...
DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
Power consumption is more , since it is mainly meant for internet
surfing , co-operate applications.
F...
DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
Power consumption is more , since it is mainly meant for internet
surfing , co-operate applications.
F...
Contents
1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY
2 ANDROID PLATFORM
3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON
5 C-CORES
6 GREEND...
WHAT IS THIS DARK SILICON??
Plays an pivotal role in shaping the future of mobile processors.
10 / 29
WHAT IS THIS DARK SILICON??
Plays an pivotal role in shaping the future of mobile processors.
With each process generation...
WHAT IS THIS DARK SILICON??
Plays an pivotal role in shaping the future of mobile processors.
With each process generation...
WHAT IS THIS DARK SILICON??
Plays an pivotal role in shaping the future of mobile processors.
With each process generation...
SCALING THEORY
Scaling Thoery:
Transistors and power
budgets no longer balanced
11 / 29
SCALING THEORY
Scaling Thoery:
Transistors and power
budgets no longer balanced
Exponentially increasing
problem!!
11 / 29
SCALING THEORY
Scaling Thoery:
Transistors and power
budgets no longer balanced
Exponentially increasing
problem!!
11 / 29
Need to give more focus on energy efficiency....
12 / 29
Need to give more focus on energy efficiency....
12 / 29
WHAT DO WE DO WITH DARK SILICON??
Insights
Power is now more expensive than area.
13 / 29
WHAT DO WE DO WITH DARK SILICON??
Insights
Power is now more expensive than area.
Specialised logic has been shown as an e...
WHAT DO WE DO WITH DARK SILICON??
Insights
Power is now more expensive than area.
Specialised logic has been shown as an e...
Contents
1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY
2 ANDROID PLATFORM
3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON
5 C-CORES
6 GREEND...
CONSERVATION CORES
Specialised cores for reducing energy
Automatically generated from hot
regions of program source
15 / 29
CONSERVATION CORES
Specialised cores for reducing energy
Automatically generated from hot
regions of program source
Patchi...
CONSERVATION CORES
Specialised cores for reducing energy
Automatically generated from hot
regions of program source
Patchi...
Contents
1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY
2 ANDROID PLATFORM
3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON
5 C-CORES
6 GREEND...
GREENDROID : a boon to the dark silicon problem.
17 / 29
GREENDROID : a boon to the dark silicon problem.
If you fill the chip with highly specialized cores, then the fraction of
t...
GREENDROID : a boon to the dark silicon problem.
If you fill the chip with highly specialized cores, then the fraction of
t...
GREENDROID : a boon to the dark silicon problem.
If you fill the chip with highly specialized cores, then the fraction of
t...
GREENDROID will serve as a prototype for mobile application
processors in the next five to ten years.
18 / 29
GREENDROID will serve as a prototype for mobile application
processors in the next five to ten years.
It has a specially bu...
GREENDROID will serve as a prototype for mobile application
processors in the next five to ten years.
It has a specially bu...
Contents
1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY
2 ANDROID PLATFORM
3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON
5 C-CORES
6 GREEND...
Architecture...
20 / 29
Continues...
C-cores are most useful when they target code that execute frequently.
21 / 29
Continues...
C-cores are most useful when they target code that execute frequently.
C-core tool chain transforms the most ...
Continues...
C-cores are most useful when they target code that execute frequently.
C-core tool chain transforms the most ...
Continues...
C-cores are most useful when they target code that execute frequently.
C-core tool chain transforms the most ...
Continues...
C-cores are most useful when they target code that execute frequently.
C-core tool chain transforms the most ...
HOW THE CODES ARE GENERATED:An example
22 / 29
23 / 29
Contents
1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY
2 ANDROID PLATFORM
3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON
5 C-CORES
6 GREEND...
EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT
25 / 29
Contents
1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY
2 ANDROID PLATFORM
3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON
5 C-CORES
6 GREEND...
CONCLUSION
Utilization wall will exponentially worsen the problem of dark silicon.
27 / 29
CONCLUSION
Utilization wall will exponentially worsen the problem of dark silicon.
The GREENDROID prototype is a demonstra...
CONCLUSION
Utilization wall will exponentially worsen the problem of dark silicon.
The GREENDROID prototype is a demonstra...
CONCLUSION
Utilization wall will exponentially worsen the problem of dark silicon.
The GREENDROID prototype is a demonstra...
Contents
1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY
2 ANDROID PLATFORM
3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID
4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON
5 C-CORES
6 GREEND...
References
G. Venkatesh et al., Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of
Mature Computations,: Proc.15th Intl Conf.Archi...
References
G. Venkatesh et al., Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of
Mature Computations,: Proc.15th Intl Conf.Archi...
References
G. Venkatesh et al., Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of
Mature Computations,: Proc.15th Intl Conf.Archi...
References
G. Venkatesh et al., Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of
Mature Computations,: Proc.15th Intl Conf.Archi...
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Greendroid an architecture for dark silicon age

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Greendroid an architecture for dark silicon age

  1. 1. GREENDROID: AN ARCHITECTURE FOR DARK SILICON AGE February 23, 2013 1 / 29
  2. 2. Contents 1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY 2 ANDROID PLATFORM 3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID 4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON 5 C-CORES 6 GREENDROID 7 ARCHITECTURE 8 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 9 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 2 / 29
  3. 3. GO GREEN FOR A BETTER TOMORRROW.... What is this GREEN concept??? Green technology points to energy efficient techniques . 3 / 29
  4. 4. GO GREEN FOR A BETTER TOMORRROW.... What is this GREEN concept??? Green technology points to energy efficient techniques . Scarcity for energy resources 3 / 29
  5. 5. GO GREEN FOR A BETTER TOMORRROW.... What is this GREEN concept??? Green technology points to energy efficient techniques . Scarcity for energy resources looking for energy efficient designs & architectures. 3 / 29
  6. 6. Mobile application processors are soon to replace desktop processors as the focus of innovation in microprocessor technology . Smart phones sales surpass those of desktops. 4 / 29
  7. 7. Contents 1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY 2 ANDROID PLATFORM 3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID 4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON 5 C-CORES 6 GREENDROID 7 ARCHITECTURE 8 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 9 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 5 / 29
  8. 8. ANDROID PLATFORM A Linux based operating system 6 / 29
  9. 9. ANDROID PLATFORM A Linux based operating system Mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers . 6 / 29
  10. 10. ANDROID PLATFORM A Linux based operating system Mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers . An open source , developed by the open handset alliance led by Google . 6 / 29
  11. 11. ANDROID PLATFORM A Linux based operating system Mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers . An open source , developed by the open handset alliance led by Google . A multi-channel , multi-core OS. 6 / 29
  12. 12. Contents 1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY 2 ANDROID PLATFORM 3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID 4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON 5 C-CORES 6 GREENDROID 7 ARCHITECTURE 8 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 9 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 7 / 29
  13. 13. DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID Power consumption is more , since it is mainly meant for internet surfing , co-operate applications. 8 / 29
  14. 14. DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID Power consumption is more , since it is mainly meant for internet surfing , co-operate applications. Frequently using applications always remains on , unless we clear the task manager and it consumes power 8 / 29
  15. 15. DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID Power consumption is more , since it is mainly meant for internet surfing , co-operate applications. Frequently using applications always remains on , unless we clear the task manager and it consumes power Normally uses 200 mah , where battery provides 1500 mah. 8 / 29
  16. 16. Contents 1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY 2 ANDROID PLATFORM 3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID 4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON 5 C-CORES 6 GREENDROID 7 ARCHITECTURE 8 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 9 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 9 / 29
  17. 17. WHAT IS THIS DARK SILICON?? Plays an pivotal role in shaping the future of mobile processors. 10 / 29
  18. 18. WHAT IS THIS DARK SILICON?? Plays an pivotal role in shaping the future of mobile processors. With each process generation, power budget becomes exponentially more valuable in comparison 10 / 29
  19. 19. WHAT IS THIS DARK SILICON?? Plays an pivotal role in shaping the future of mobile processors. With each process generation, power budget becomes exponentially more valuable in comparison Dark silicon is necessary, because engineers are unable to reduce chips’ operating voltages any further to offset increases in power consumption and waste heat produced by smaller, faster chips . 10 / 29
  20. 20. WHAT IS THIS DARK SILICON?? Plays an pivotal role in shaping the future of mobile processors. With each process generation, power budget becomes exponentially more valuable in comparison Dark silicon is necessary, because engineers are unable to reduce chips’ operating voltages any further to offset increases in power consumption and waste heat produced by smaller, faster chips . This dark silicon limits the utilization of the application processors to the fullest. 10 / 29
  21. 21. SCALING THEORY Scaling Thoery: Transistors and power budgets no longer balanced 11 / 29
  22. 22. SCALING THEORY Scaling Thoery: Transistors and power budgets no longer balanced Exponentially increasing problem!! 11 / 29
  23. 23. SCALING THEORY Scaling Thoery: Transistors and power budgets no longer balanced Exponentially increasing problem!! 11 / 29
  24. 24. Need to give more focus on energy efficiency.... 12 / 29
  25. 25. Need to give more focus on energy efficiency.... 12 / 29
  26. 26. WHAT DO WE DO WITH DARK SILICON?? Insights Power is now more expensive than area. 13 / 29
  27. 27. WHAT DO WE DO WITH DARK SILICON?? Insights Power is now more expensive than area. Specialised logic has been shown as an effective way to improve energy efficiency(10-1000x) Our Approach: Fill dark silicon with specialised cores to save energy on common apps Power savings can be applied to other program,increasing throughput 13 / 29
  28. 28. WHAT DO WE DO WITH DARK SILICON?? Insights Power is now more expensive than area. Specialised logic has been shown as an effective way to improve energy efficiency(10-1000x) Our Approach: Fill dark silicon with specialised cores to save energy on common apps Power savings can be applied to other program,increasing throughput C-cores provide an architectural way to trade area for an effective increase in power budget! 13 / 29
  29. 29. Contents 1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY 2 ANDROID PLATFORM 3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID 4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON 5 C-CORES 6 GREENDROID 7 ARCHITECTURE 8 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 9 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 14 / 29
  30. 30. CONSERVATION CORES Specialised cores for reducing energy Automatically generated from hot regions of program source 15 / 29
  31. 31. CONSERVATION CORES Specialised cores for reducing energy Automatically generated from hot regions of program source Patching support future proofs HW Fully automated toolchain Drop-in replacements for code Hot code implemented by C-core cold code runs on host CPU 15 / 29
  32. 32. CONSERVATION CORES Specialised cores for reducing energy Automatically generated from hot regions of program source Patching support future proofs HW Fully automated toolchain Drop-in replacements for code Hot code implemented by C-core cold code runs on host CPU HW generation/SW integration. Enegy efficient Up to 16x for targeted hot code. 15 / 29
  33. 33. Contents 1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY 2 ANDROID PLATFORM 3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID 4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON 5 C-CORES 6 GREENDROID 7 ARCHITECTURE 8 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 9 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 16 / 29
  34. 34. GREENDROID : a boon to the dark silicon problem. 17 / 29
  35. 35. GREENDROID : a boon to the dark silicon problem. If you fill the chip with highly specialized cores, then the fraction of the chip that is lit up at one time can be the most energy efficient for that particular task. 17 / 29
  36. 36. GREENDROID : a boon to the dark silicon problem. If you fill the chip with highly specialized cores, then the fraction of the chip that is lit up at one time can be the most energy efficient for that particular task. A 45 nm multi core research prototype. 17 / 29
  37. 37. GREENDROID : a boon to the dark silicon problem. If you fill the chip with highly specialized cores, then the fraction of the chip that is lit up at one time can be the most energy efficient for that particular task. A 45 nm multi core research prototype. It targets the Android mobile phone software stack and can execute general purpose mobile programs with 11 times less energy than most energy efficient designs at similar or better levels of performance. 17 / 29
  38. 38. GREENDROID will serve as a prototype for mobile application processors in the next five to ten years. 18 / 29
  39. 39. GREENDROID will serve as a prototype for mobile application processors in the next five to ten years. It has a specially built structure that can analyze a current Android phone and determine which apps, and which CPU circuits the phone is using the most. 18 / 29
  40. 40. GREENDROID will serve as a prototype for mobile application processors in the next five to ten years. It has a specially built structure that can analyze a current Android phone and determine which apps, and which CPU circuits the phone is using the most. Then it can dream up a processor design that best takes advantage of those usage habits, creating a CPU that’s both faster and more energy efficient. 18 / 29
  41. 41. Contents 1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY 2 ANDROID PLATFORM 3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID 4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON 5 C-CORES 6 GREENDROID 7 ARCHITECTURE 8 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 9 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 19 / 29
  42. 42. Architecture... 20 / 29
  43. 43. Continues... C-cores are most useful when they target code that execute frequently. 21 / 29
  44. 44. Continues... C-cores are most useful when they target code that execute frequently. C-core tool chain transforms the most frequently executed code into c-core hardware. 21 / 29
  45. 45. Continues... C-cores are most useful when they target code that execute frequently. C-core tool chain transforms the most frequently executed code into c-core hardware. ANDROID is an excellent target for GREENDROID style architecture. 21 / 29
  46. 46. Continues... C-cores are most useful when they target code that execute frequently. C-core tool chain transforms the most frequently executed code into c-core hardware. ANDROID is an excellent target for GREENDROID style architecture. Android comprises three main components . Linux kernel , a collection of native libraries(written in c and c plus),virtual machine . These all are hot codes. 21 / 29
  47. 47. Continues... C-cores are most useful when they target code that execute frequently. C-core tool chain transforms the most frequently executed code into c-core hardware. ANDROID is an excellent target for GREENDROID style architecture. Android comprises three main components . Linux kernel , a collection of native libraries(written in c and c plus),virtual machine . These all are hot codes. On profiling diverse set of android applications including web browser , mail , video player it can be found that this workload spends 95% of its time executing just 43,000 static instruction . Just 7nm of a 45nm process will replace these key instructions. 21 / 29
  48. 48. HOW THE CODES ARE GENERATED:An example 22 / 29
  49. 49. 23 / 29
  50. 50. Contents 1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY 2 ANDROID PLATFORM 3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID 4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON 5 C-CORES 6 GREENDROID 7 ARCHITECTURE 8 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 9 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 24 / 29
  51. 51. EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 25 / 29
  52. 52. Contents 1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY 2 ANDROID PLATFORM 3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID 4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON 5 C-CORES 6 GREENDROID 7 ARCHITECTURE 8 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 9 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 26 / 29
  53. 53. CONCLUSION Utilization wall will exponentially worsen the problem of dark silicon. 27 / 29
  54. 54. CONCLUSION Utilization wall will exponentially worsen the problem of dark silicon. The GREENDROID prototype is a demonstration vehicle that shows the wide spread application of c-cores to android. 27 / 29
  55. 55. CONCLUSION Utilization wall will exponentially worsen the problem of dark silicon. The GREENDROID prototype is a demonstration vehicle that shows the wide spread application of c-cores to android. C-core reduce energy consumption for key regions. 27 / 29
  56. 56. CONCLUSION Utilization wall will exponentially worsen the problem of dark silicon. The GREENDROID prototype is a demonstration vehicle that shows the wide spread application of c-cores to android. C-core reduce energy consumption for key regions. C-core make use of selective de pipelining & reduce energy consumption by 91% 27 / 29
  57. 57. Contents 1 GREEN TECHNOLOGY 2 ANDROID PLATFORM 3 DRAWBACKS OF ANDROID 4 UTILIZATION WALL & DARK SILICON 5 C-CORES 6 GREENDROID 7 ARCHITECTURE 8 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 9 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 28 / 29
  58. 58. References G. Venkatesh et al., Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of Mature Computations,: Proc.15th Intl Conf.Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems,ACM Press, 2010, pp. 205/-218. 15th Intl. Conf. Architectural Support for Prog. Languages and Op. Sys., Mar. 2010. 29 / 29
  59. 59. References G. Venkatesh et al., Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of Mature Computations,: Proc.15th Intl Conf.Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems,ACM Press, 2010, pp. 205/-218. 15th Intl. Conf. Architectural Support for Prog. Languages and Op. Sys., Mar. 2010. N. Goulding et al., GreenDroid: A Mobile Application Processor for a Future of Dark Silicon, HotChips, 2010. 29 / 29
  60. 60. References G. Venkatesh et al., Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of Mature Computations,: Proc.15th Intl Conf.Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems,ACM Press, 2010, pp. 205/-218. 15th Intl. Conf. Architectural Support for Prog. Languages and Op. Sys., Mar. 2010. N. Goulding et al., GreenDroid: A Mobile Application Processor for a Future of Dark Silicon, HotChips, 2010. R. Dennard et al., Design of Ion-Implanted MOSFETs with Very Small Physical Dimensions, IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, Oct. 1974. 29 / 29
  61. 61. References G. Venkatesh et al., Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of Mature Computations,: Proc.15th Intl Conf.Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems,ACM Press, 2010, pp. 205/-218. 15th Intl. Conf. Architectural Support for Prog. Languages and Op. Sys., Mar. 2010. N. Goulding et al., GreenDroid: A Mobile Application Processor for a Future of Dark Silicon, HotChips, 2010. R. Dennard et al., Design of Ion-Implanted MOSFETs with Very Small Physical Dimensions, IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, Oct. 1974. M. Taylor et al., The Raw Processor: A Scalable 32 bit Fabric for General Purpose and Embedded Computing, HotChips, 2001. 29 / 29
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