Airborne internet


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Airborne internet

  1. 1. A TECHNICAL PAPER ON PRESENTED BY 3rd E.C.E v. sANdEEP REddy email ID :- P.mANOj kumAR email ID :-
  2. 2. Abstract Airborne Internet aims at providing communication link between aircraft - ground, ground - ground and aircraft – aircraft. This is one of the major achievements in the aviation history by NASA. It is undertaking the development of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). This paper addresses some of the trends and issues involved in developing Airborne Internet. SATS is conceived to meet four major objectives: higher volume at non-towered/non-radar airports, lower landing minimums at minimally equipped landing facilities, increased single crew safety and mission reliability, and integrated procedures and systems for integrated fleet operations. A critical first step in attaining the desirable capabilities of an airborne Internet is a well-conceived architecture. The principle behind the A.I. is to establish a robust, reliable, and available digital data channel. An airborne Internet to provide aircraft to ground, ground to ground and aircraft to aircraft communications in support of air traffic management, fleet operations, and passenger support services. A critical first step in attaining the desirable capabilities of an airborne Internet is a well-conceived architecture. The architecture must be robust enough to enable the concept of operations envisioned for the 2025 timeframe yet flexible enough to support prototypes using technology and systems available in the 2005 timeframe. This paper addresses some of the trends and issues involved in developing an airborne Internet capable of achieving this goal. I. Introduction The Airborne Internet is a proposed network in which all nodes would be located in aircraft. The network is intended for use in aviation Communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) and would also be useful to businesses, private Internet users, and government agencies, especially the military. In time of war, for example, an airborne network might enable military planes to operate without the need for a communications infrastructure on the ground. Such a network could also allow civilian planes to continually monitor each other's positions and flight paths. At least three different methods have been proposed for putting communication nodes aloft. The first method would employ manned aircraft, the second method would use unmanned aircraft, and the third method would use blimps. The nodes would provide air-to-air, surface-to-air, and surface-to-surface communications. The aircraft or blimps would fly at altitudes of around 10 mi (16 km), and would cover regions of about 40 mi (64 mi) in radius. Data transfer rates would be on the order of several megabits per second, comparable to those of high-speed cable modem connections. Network users could communicate directly with other users, and indirectly with conventional Internet users through surface-based nodes. Like the Internet, the Airborne Network would use TCP/IP as the set of protocols for specifying network addresses and ensuring message packets arrive. The concept of the Airborne Internet was first proposed at NASA Langley Research Center's Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Planning Conference in 1999. The goal of the SATS initiative is implementation of small aircraft for public transportation. In one conference session, it was suggested that such a system would require a peer-to-peer communications network among the aircraft. The Airborne Internet Consortium formed subsequently to promote and aid in the development of such a system. Consortion members include Aerosat, C3D Aero, and United Airlines. II. Applications 2.1 ATN
  3. 3. As the Aeronautical telecommunications Network (ATN) is converted over to use the Internet Protocol (IP), Airborne Internet provides a unique opportunity for the Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) to become operational in the most economic operational form. Instead of using the proprietary radio system initially used for CPDLC operational trials, Airborne Internet could provide the revenue enhancing platform that is co-shared with CPDLC that could virtually eliminate the former CPDLC message costs. Public web page via a web browser that will display flight paths, winds at different altitudes, and soundings near airports. The data can also be converted to plain text format. Airborne Internet enabled aircraft will have the ability to instantly access TAMDAR weather information for their flight route. And because TAMDAR data will be made available to the public web site within fifteen minutes, it is always relatively fresh to the Airborne Internet aircraft. 2.3 Quality of Service By utilizing an Airborne Internet infrastructure that is designed for both income generation and aircraft operations, the net cost of CPDLC operations would be more than Offset by the income side of the Airborne Internet investment. CPDLC is a relatively low bandwidth application that only uses short bursts of text messaging and could more than likely be utilized even in narrowband Airborne Internet installations 2.2 TAMDAR Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Report (TAMDAR) is a program whose goal is to install an inexpensive instrument in aircraft that would measure meteorological variables from commuter aircraft flying to small and medium size cities. It is anticipated That TAMDAR will result in more accurate weather forecasts and reduce aircraft accidents and delays. Airborne Internet will provide an opportunity for the data from TAMDAR sensors to be collected and routed to the ground network in real time. TAMDAR data from Airborne Internet enabled commuter aircraft will provide needed data for improvements in computer models used in weather forecasting. The data will also be directly useful to flight crew, and to meteorologists in the National Weather Service and airline weather and operations offices. TAMDAR data will be available on a Quality of Service (QoS) is the capability of a network to provide better (or priority) service to selected network traffic. In a shared network in which flight deck or security functions are using the same network infrastructure and bandwidth as passenger services,(As Airborne Internet proposes to do), it is essential to be able to prioritize the network for flight deck and security functionality. The goal of Airborne Internet QoS is to provide priority (including dedicated bandwidth and reduced latency) for specified network user functions. It is also important to ensure that when an Airborne Internet QoS priority is provided for a function that the network does not make other passenger services fail. Airborne Internet would utilize congestion and queue management for functions on the same network. Airborne Internet architecture could be designed to guarantee a specified throughput level for higher priority functions. This in turn would allow end-to-end latency to not exceed predetermined levels. 2.4 SWIM Airborne Internet could provide the secure airborne data platform for the development of the System Wide Information Management (SWIM) infrastructure. SWIM is a transformation from point-to-point
  4. 4. communications to information-centric operations. Airborne Internet network enabled aircraft can become a more integral part of the information-centric system. These operations are characterized by widely shared information that can be exploited. The three primary elements of SWIM could benefit by using Airborne Internet: as augmentation to the surveillance data network, enabling better weather products to the aircraft, and facilitating the airborne element of the Aeronautical Information Management (AIM) network. With network-enabled air traffic operations and network enabled aircraft, collaborative decision-making is more possible and could enable more rapid responses to unforeseen events such as aviation weather or security threats. Airborne Internet enabled aircraft could have early detection sensors on board the aircraft that would immediately inform the other aircraft in the area and the essential government authorities on the ground network. Network connectivity to aircraft provides an opportunity for the flight crew and the Federal Air Marshals (FAMs) to privately be digitally connected to the ground counterparts and provide information at the soonest opportunity about activities in the aircraft. CPDLC. 2.5 Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) are rapidly changing the information is being consumed and brought to the cockpit. EFBs are replacing the old, large, heavy flight bag that so many pilots used to carry on board that contained their charts, approach plates, and other Flight related paper products. Airborne Internet is now providing network and information connectivity to EFBs that will save airlines lots of money as they move towards a paperless cockpit. An obvious first step to get to a paperless cockpit is to replace the paper operating manuals with the EFB. Airlines will save precious weight but will also see significant savings in document reproduction and distribution costs. Because the documents are in electronic form, they can then electronically load and update information. Updating EFB documents can be done over the Airborne Internet using secure network techniques. 2.6AutomaticDependent (ADS) Surveillance Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) is another function that Airborne Internet network connectivity between aircraft could provide. Network connectivity between aircraft and between aircraft and the ground networks could allow aircraft to automatically send navigation and guidance data derived from its flight management system and onboard navigation sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) , to air traffic control facilities for the purpose of accurately determining aircraft position and internet. CPDLC, ADS, and GPS, coupled with enhanced controller automation tools would form the basis to achieve an eventual oceanic free flight. 2.7 Voice over Internet Protocol The network connectivity that Airborne Internet will provide to aircraft will also provide the opportunity for the flight deck and passengers to use Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Companies providing VoIP service are commonly referred to as providers, and protocols which are used to carry voice signals over the IP network are commonly referred to as Voice over IP or VoIP protocols. They may be viewed as commercial realizations of the experimental Network Voice Protocol (1973) invented for the ARPANET providers. Some cost savings are due to utilizing a single network to carry voice and data, especially where users have existing underutilized network capacity that can carry VoIP at no additional cost. VoIP to VoIP phone calls are sometimes free, while VoIP to public switched telephone networks, PSTN, may have a cost that is borne by the VoIP user.
  5. 5. Currently voice communications from aircraft to ground is expensive, costing more than a $1 per minute. In addition, there is no direct method to call a VoIP user in another aircraft. Airborne Internet can change that. VOIP makes easy some things that are difficult to impossible with traditional phone networks. Incoming phone calls are automatically routed to your VOIP phone where ever you plug it into the network. VoIP users can take their hone with then on a flight, and anywhere the Airborne III. Airborne Internet Airborne Internet (A.I.) is an approach to provide a general purpose, multi-application data channel to aviation. In doing so, A.I. has the potential to provide significant cost savings for aircraft operators and the FAA, as it allows the consolidation of many functions into a common data channel. A primary application for A.I. is to track aircraft for the air traffic control system. Many other applications can utilize the same A.I. data channel. The applications available are only limited by the bandwidth available. A.I. began as a supporting technology for NASA’s Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The principle behind the A.I. is to establish a robust, reliable, and available digital data channel to aircraft. Establishing the general purpose, multi-application digital data channel connection to the aircraft is analogous to the connection of a desktop computer to its local area network, or even the wide area network we call the Internet. But aircraft are mobile objects. Therefore, mobile routing is required to maintain the data channel connectivity while the aircraft moves from region to region. The desktop computer, whether used in the office or the home, runs many different applications that can all use the same data channel. The applications are designed around the Internet Protocol (IP) standard to take advantage of the existence of the network connection to the computer. Airborne Internet is built upon the same model. A.I. will provide a general purpose, multi application data channel that numerous applications can use. By combining application and data functionality over a common data channel, aviation has the potential to significantly reduce costs for equipage on the ground and in the aircraft. If aircraft utilized IP as network computers do, functions in the cockpit could be enabled not currently being provided. It could open up a whole new set of operating capabilities, cost savings, safety and efficiency for tomorrow’s aviation industry. The functions provided today that require the use of multiple on-board systems could be reduced to two simple systems. First, a rigorous and dependable method to maintain the airplane’s connection to the ground based IP network is needed. This function is feasible using a combination of VHF radio (as is used for today’s aircraft communications) and an alternate, backup communication method. A satellite communication system could be employed for aircraft that fly in sparsely populated areas that are beyond VHF coverage of the existing NAS infrastructure, or for any aircraft that might lose VHF coverage (even temporarily). Satellite communication is currently being used for transoceanic flight today in which aircraft are clearly beyond range of the VHF radio system in the NASA 3.1 GPS But there is no reason that A.I. should be limited to SATS-class aircraft. All of aviation, and even transportation, has the potential to benefit from A.I. Second, a means of accurately determining an aircraft’s position is required. Current technology in GPS receivers provides position information reliably and accurately. WAAS and LAAS are aviation systems that utilize GPS and
  6. 6. provide error correction to allow aircraft the accuracy needed for navigation and landing. By combining the GPS provided position information of any moving aircraft (or other vehicle) with reliable mobile network connectivity, the aircraft’s position could be constantly reported to the ground network for processing. Further, this data could be intelligently parsed to provide position and tracking information back to aircraft so its flight crew could be aware of other aircraft movement in its proximity. Air-to-air position reporting is possible (such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast or ADS-B) if the proper radio method is used. 3.2 Virtual Network In the end state, it is possible that enough aircraft could utilize the A.I. architecture to create a virtual network in the sky. At any given moment, there are between 4500 and 6000 aircraft in flight over the United States. Air transport aircraft could not only use A.I. for their own purposes, but they could provide a network router function that could sell excess bandwidth to other less bandwidth-demanding aircraft. This network in the sky not only reduces equipage and saves system costs, it could create a revenue stream for air carriers that does not currently exist. It becomes a win-win situation for aviation. For more information, the reader is encouraged to visit Online and Airborne One day; this is what you might hear on an airplane: “Buckle your seatbelt. Turn off all cell phones and pagers. And, log in to the Internet.” There may be something else. You may be flying the plane! NASA is working to build a system for air travel. It will use a lot of small planes. People won’t have to fly on big jets. They will be able to make a direct flight with no stops. Flying will be faster. But, this is not ready to happen yet. There are a few things that need to be worked out. The new system will mean that there will be a lot of small airplanes in the air. Each plane will have to know where the other planes are. The pilots will have to stay in touch with each other. That is where “Airborne Internet” comes in. It won’t make planes take the place of the family car. But, it would make flying a plane more like renting a car. But, there are things that have to be fixed. A lot of new pilots will be in the air. They won’t be used to a lot of air traffic. The way traffic is taken care of will have to be changed. That is why NASA is working on the Airborne Internet. It will not be like the Internet we use. Pilots will not shop or look up their favorite Web sites while they are flying! But, it will work a lot like the way the real Internet does. Technology will help the Airborne Internet work. It will be a fast way for pilots talk to each other. Pilots could also use it to talk to air traffic controllers. They would tell the pilots where to fly. This could keep planes from crashing. The system could also be used to send the latest news to planes. The Airborne Internet has already been tested. It will work. Now, it has to be tested to see if it will help small planes fly. One day, flying a family plane might be as common as driving a car is today. NASA is working to make this happen safely. The Airborne Internet/Collaborative Information Environment (AI/CIE) was conceived because of recognizing several trends in society. Although these trends were acknowledged to be rapidly maturing and were completely independent of each other, each one makes a substantial contribution to the creation of the Airborne Internet/Collaborative Information Environment. This paper explains AI/CIE, and discusses each trend and its impact and/or contribution on the viability of AI/CIE. Airborne Internet/Collaborative Information Environment is a concept that overlays computer network theory and principles into the transportation realm. The goal is to create information connectivity by providing a general purpose, multi-application data channel for
  7. 7. people in transit. The first trend is that many functions in our society are being digitized to make use of new electronic digital circuits, especially computer networks. Increasing speed and breadth of information connectivity and sharing is a growing trend across the world. More and more networks have been created to connect people who want more than the information at their desk top. High speed broadband network connectivity has been a fuel to feed the hunger for information connectivity, allowing more content rich information to be delivered to the end user, such as video, music, and animation. The thirst for connectivity carries over into transportation. When people travel, they experience “connectivity down time” in which they are detached from the information that their network provided. Wireless networks, the second trend in society, are rapidly emerging to help fill this void. People that travel with laptops or personal digital assistants can obtain short term network connectivity from a business establishment when they stop for a coffee, hamburger, or to read a book. 3.3 Hot Spots Airport terminals are becoming popular “hot spots’ for wireless connectivity as people have time before and between flights to connect to the wireless network. The “human connectivity imperative” shows us a glaring absence of network connectivity during travel. While in motion on an aircraft, for example, people again lose the ability to connect. We design transportation systems to interconnect to complimentary forms of transportation. But these designs have ignored the information connectivity needs of the people who use it. The time people spend in transit could be turned into more productive time if network connectivity were available. Having access to more real-time information is also desired in aviation. The problem is that we have created a myriad of systems that crowd the flight deck. Each time we want to provide some new information to the flight deck, we create a new system to do it. This “stove pipe” approach generally means that a new ground system is created, a new avionics system is installed in the aircraft (including another antenna), and probably a new radio frequency is assigned This revolutionary approach has been founded in the analog technology that existed 50 years ago, when a new system was the only way practical to provide new information to the flight deck. But today we have a digital world to draw from. Old and new flight deck functionality can be digitized, consolidated in common digital systems, and use a common digital network connection to transfer the information to and from the aircraft. By using a general purpose, multi-application data channel, flight deck functions can be consolidated resulting in cost savings all around. 3.4 AI/CIE This is the third recognized trend – that businesses are reducing their costs while yet trying to increase profitability. The aviation industry is no exception. The flight deck avionics consolidation proposed by AI/CIE will save the aircraft operator money. When today’s analog flight functions are combined and replaced with a digital delivery system, the operator of the National Air Space (NAS) system, the FAA, will save money. And if enough bandwidth can be provided, the AI/CIE data channel could provide aircraft operators with a totally new revenue stream. Aircraft operators could provide network connectivity to passenger services. They could also sell off excess network bandwidth capability to smaller, less bandwidth-needy aircraft in their vicinity. As these new flight deck designs have evolved, so has a new generation of small jet aircraft. This fourth trend is projected to create a fleet of several thousand new small jet aircraft beginning in about two years. These small jets are costing less than half of that of their predecessors, use 3000-feet runways, and will operate at less than $1 per mile. They are currently the business focus of numerous air taxi operators who will use them in small rural airports to quickly and efficiently transport people without the need to use the large hub airports dominated by the major air carriers. The customers who will use these air taxi services will want to remain connected to their
  8. 8. networks as they travel. The value of their personal time will be far greater than the cost to install and operate the AI/CIE. Airborne Internet/Collaborative Information Environment will be such a highly desirable capability for the operators of air taxi service to offer their clients that these operators could be the earliest adopters of the Airborne Internet. demand for increased bandwidth to our businesses and to our homes. Airborne Internet will start out with a few obvious applications, but as bandwidth capability increases, so will the number of application or will it be that the number of applications will increase and in turn will create a demand for greater bandwidth? This achievement by the NASA has turned the entire world towards them. Soon or later this technology would surge into the entire world and the former aspect of control may disappear. V. References [1]Logistics Transformation: Restarting a Stalled Process by DIANE Publishing ISBN 1428910093 [2] www.searchmobilecomputing.techtarge The operators could use the AI/CIE to facilitate maintenance monitoring of their aircraft. The fifth trend is the technology of mobile routing, which is the ability of a network user to move from one network to another without losing network connectivity. It has been developed and has matured to the point that it is ready to be applied to aviation. The current internet protocol (IP) is being replaced with a new version that includes provisions for security and mobile routing. It is specifically designed to accommodate the proliferation of wireless network devices that are easily transportable between networks. The invention and growth of personalized information services, for example, XML services, is the sixth trend. It is changing the landscape of the World Wide Web as we know it today. Information connectivity is undergoing a complete shift in how information systems are integrated as a result of the advent of XML services, a standard way in which software interacts. IV. Conclusion As Airborne Internet enabled aircraft begin flying and the aviation community realizes the power of aircraft networking, the number of applications that can utilize Airborne Internet will greatly increase. There will be an increased demand for greater bandwidth from Airborne Internet in aircraft just as there was greater [3] web.html [4]