• Orienting Employees• The Training Process• Training Techniques• Managerial Development and Training• Evaluating the Training and Development Effort
Orienting Employees• Employee orientation provides new employees with basic background information they need to perform their jobs satisfactorily.• Orientation is one component of the employer’s new employee socialization process.• Socialization is the ongoing process of instilling in all employees the attitudes, standards, values, and patterns of behavior that the organization and the departments expect.
• Orientation programs range from brief, informal introductions to lengthy, formal programs.• A successful orientation should accomplish four things: the new employee should feel welcome; he or she should understand the organization in a broad sense; the employee should be clear about what the firm expects in terms of work and behavior; and hopefully the person should begin the process of becoming socialized into the firm’s preferred ways of acting and doing things.
The Training Process• Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skill they need to perform their jobs.• Training’s focus is broader today than it was several years ago.• Training experts today increasingly use the phrase “workplace learning and performance” in lieu of training.
• Companies spent about $826 per employee for training in 2002 and offered each about 28 hours of training.• Training plays an increasingly vital role in implementing the employer’s strategic plans.• As one trainer puts it: “ We don’t just concentrate on the traditional objectives anymore….We sit down with management and help them identify strategic goals and objectives and the skills and knowledge needed to achieve them. Then we work together to identify whether our staff has the skills and knowledge, and when they don’t, that’s when we discuss training needs.”
The Training and Development Process1. Need Analysis2. Instructional Design3. Validation4. Implementation5. Evaluation
Training Need Analysis• The first step in training is to determine what training, if any, is required.• Employers determine the skills each job requires, and the skills of the job’s current or prospective employees.• Training is thus designed to eliminate the skills gap.
• Assessing new employees’ training needs usually involves task analysis—breaking the jobs into sub-tasks and teaching each to the new employee.• Need analysis for current employees is more complex: Is training the solution, or is performance is down because the person is not motivated? Here performance analysis is required.
Setting Training Objectives• After training needs have been uncovered, concrete, measurable training objectives should be set.• Training and development objectives are “a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent.”• Objectives specify what the trainee should be able to accomplish after successfully completing the training program.• They thus provide a focus for the efforts of both the trainee and the trainer and a benchmark for evaluating the success of the training program.
Training Techniques• On-the-job Training• Informal Learning• Apprenticeship Training• Simulated Training• Audiovisual and Distance Learning Techniques• Computer-Based Training• Training via DVD/CD-ROM, the Internet, and Learning Portals
On-the-Job Training• The most familiar type is coaching or understudy method.• Job rotation is another type of on-the job technique.
Informal Learning• ASTD estimate that as much as 80 % of what employees learn on the job they learn through informal means like work related discussion taking place in the cafeteria.
Apprenticeship• Apprentice study under the tutelage of a master craftsman.• It lasts for nearly three years and ends with a certification examination.
Simulated Training• Trainees learn on the actual or simulated equipment they will use on the job but receive their training off the job.• It aims to obtain the advantages of on-the-job training without actually putting the trainee on the job.• Necessary when it is too costly or dangerous to put trainee on-the –job.
Audiovisual and Distance Learning Techniques• Tele-training• Videoconference Distance Learning
Computer Based Training• Interactive and realistic.• Cost effective once designed and produced.
Training via DVD/CD-ROM, the Internet, and Learning Portals• Interactive, multimedia computer-disk-based training programs.• Internet based learning.• Learning Portals
Training for Special Purpose• Literacy Training Techniques• Values Training• Diversity Training• Training for Teamwork and Empowerment
Managerial Development and Training• Managerial on-the-job Training• Action Learning• The Case Study method• Management Games• Outside seminars/workshops• University-Related Programs• Behavior Modeling: modeling, role playing, social reinforcement, transfer of training
• In-House Development Centers• Organizational Development• Building High-Performance Learning Organizations• Organizational Change• Lewin’s Process of Overcoming Resistance
Evaluating the Training and Development EffortThree basic categories of training outcomes can be measured:1. Reaction2. Learning3. Behavior4. Results