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computer tutorial part-2

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    computer tutorial part-2 computer tutorial part-2 Presentation Transcript

    • COMPUTER - 2
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.B.A.,M.PHIL.,PH.D.,
      baranibarani50@yahoo.com
      dharanbarani21@gmail.com
    • FLOPPY DISK
      Floppy disk is a recent development in storge devices – it was developed in 70s
      This is very small storage device which can be used both as input and output medium – this is made up elastic plastic material and a finely coated with magnetic oxide
      This disk is placed in plastic cover to avoid damage – the floppy is avaiable in 3 standard size of, storage capacity
      8 inches - 250 KB to 1.5 MB
      5.25 inches - 125 KB to 1 MB
      3.5 inches - 720 KB to 1.44 MB ==FEATURES===
      It is small storage medium-easily taken from one place to another place-cheap storage medium-very useful for PV-both input and output device-reading and writing-small commercial houses
      The floppy is inserted into floppy drive-this rotates inside the floppy drive like a musical record and the data is stored on fine circular paths called tracks
    • SCANNERS
      Scanners is an instrument which is used to scan a diagram, photograph etc., and image can be brought on to the monitor.
      The scanner is used light is ON in the scanner, appears on the screen of the monitor, this image can be edited and shaped into desired from
      To use a scanner, a special software is required to be loaded in the computer , the software is generally available with the scanner
      Optical scanners are becoming very popular for the purpose of office automation
      Now-a-days, computerised bank branches are using scanners for storing the signatures and photographs of the customers
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      3
    • OUTPUT UNITS
      the function of output units is reverse in nature than that of input unit /input unit is used to fee the data into the computer and output unit takes out of the data from the computer-the following are some devices which are used as output devices:
      MAGNETIC TAPEFLOPPY DISK
      DAISY WHEEL PRINTER DOT MATRIX PRINTER
      LASER PRINTERLINE PRINTER
      OPTICAL PRINTERVED DISPLAY UNIT(vdu)
      MICROFILM MICROFICHE
      TAPES PLOTTERS
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      4
    • PRINTERS
      Printers are the output devices
      The data/information from the main memory of computer is transferred to the memory of printer and the same is printed in the form of output.
      The data can be printed in the form of graphs, letters, reports etc. as desired by the user
      As shown in the figure, the printers are mainly divided into two parts
      1. IMPACT PRINTER = Impact printers use RIBBON/CARBON papers to leave an impression on the paper
      2. NON – IMPACT PRINTER
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      5
    • ImpactDOT MATRIX PRINTR
      The impression of character in the form of DOTS/a hammer which prints the characters one by one/the output obtained in he form of DOTS/the hammer of head contains 9 pins or 24 pins
      The typical speed of dot matrix printer is 40 characters per second to 1000 characters per second
      The printer mostly print in left to right movement
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      6
    • LINE PRINTER
      Line printers are called so because these print one line at one time/speed of line printers Is measured in terms of printing of lines per minute/work on large amount of data printing for a quite longer duration of time
      The speed of line printer is wonderful and they can print 300 to 2500 lines in a minute/the width of the line is 15 inches and the line has 96 to 160 characters
      Chain printers and drum printers come in the category of line printers
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      7
    • CHAING PRINTERS
      In a chain printer, a chain of characters rotates and in this process hammer of the printer strikes on chain and the character of the chain leaves an impression of the character on the paper
      This printer can work for a longer time but the quality of output is not so good
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      8
    • DAISY WHEEL PRINTER
      This printer contains a disk of metal or plastic and it has 96 characters on its petals /this disk is capable of rotating/the hammer of this printer pushes the character and it leaves an impression of the alphabet on the paper
      The typical speed of printer is 20 characters per second to 100 characters per second/cannot be used for longer duration and slow functioning/superior quality
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      9
    • Non-impactLASER PRINTR
      The printers generate both graphics as well as text as image output and is very good, use the technique of laser and photocopy
      The speed of this printer is marvelous, print more than 300 pages in one minute/now ,can print multicolouredgraphis/output
      As the quality of the output is very good, laser printers are used in Desk Top Publishing
      Limitations is very costly
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      10
    • THERMAL MATRIX PRINTER
      the printers work on heating arrangement, special type of paper is needed for printing
      it contains print wires and when electricity is passed through these wires and with passage of current, the wires get heated and leave impression with the help of special type of ribbon
      these printers are slow and costly
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      11
    • INK JET PRINTER
      The printer do not make a noise while printing/the drops of ink appear in the from of character/small pumps release tiny drops of ink though nozzles onto the paper in the form of character
      The printing of this printer is good and a good quality of graphics can be obtained/speed of ink jet printer ranges between 50-300 characters per second
      The shaped of these printers is very less as compared to laser printers
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      12
    • PLOTTERS
      Plotters are output devices and are used for various purposes like graphics, diagrams etc
      Three are different types of plotters and are used for various purposes
      1. GRAPH PLOTTER
      2. FLAT BED PLOTTER
      3. DRUM PLOTTER
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      13
    • GRAPH PLOTTERS
      AS EVIDENT FROM ITS NAME, GRAPH PLOTTERS ARE USED IN GRAPHIC WORK ANDDIAGRAMS
      FLAT BED PLOTTERS
      THIS PLOTTER USES ALIGHT PEN AND DRAW GRAPHS ON THE PAPERS/MULTICOLORED PENS ARE USED FOR GRAPHICS/PEN IS CONTROLLED BY PEN HOLDER, 8-10 COLOURS ARE USE
      THIS PLOTTER IS ALO KNOWN AS light pen plotter IT CAN MAKE GRAPHS OF SMALL TO LARGE SIZE DEPENDING UPON THE SIZE BED
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      14
    • DRUM PLOTTER
      DRUM PLOTTER (PRINTR) CONTAINS A DRUM WHICH IS CYLINDRICAL IN SHAPE/DRUM IS CAPABLE OF ROTAING
      DRUM PLOTTER PLOTS THE GRAPHS ON PAPER BY RORATING
      NORMALLY A LINE IN PRINTED OUT PUT CONTAINS 132 CHARACTERS AND THIS CAN PRINT 600-2000 LINES PER MINUTE
      THESE PLOTTERS ARE VERY CONSTLY AND ARE NOT USED WIDELY
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      15
    • Visual Display Units(VDU)
      Model of TV, displayed by Cathode Ray Tube to display a data, graphics, letters, pictures etc.,/common output device besides printer, plotter, speaker, speech synthesizer,etc.,
      The keyboard enter the data into the computer and the CRT is used to display the input data as well as the messages and processed out put from the computer
      The CRT produces a beam of electrons that makes the picture on the screen/the raster scan in the VDU and helps to convert the beam into a picture
      Graphic capacities depend on the capacity of the adapter
      Monochrome and coloured monitors are the two types of monitors
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      16
    • CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
      CPU is the main part of the computer
      In other words it is referred to as BRAIN of the computer
      This part of the computer controls all the functions of the computer
      CPU divided into THREE parts
      CONTROL UNIT
      ARITHMETICL LOGIC UNIT (ALU)
      MEMORY UNIT
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      17
    • CONTROL UNIT
      Control unit, as a evident from the name, controls the working of the computer and ascertains whether the computer is functioning as per the commands given to it by the user or not
      This part is located between MEMORY UNIT and ARITHMETICAL LOGIC UNIT
      The data can be transferred between them though this unit
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      18
    • ARITHMETICL LOGIC
      The function of this unit is to verify the accuracy of data received from memory unit and transfers the same back to the main memory of the computer
      This part performs all arithmetical and logical functions
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      19
    • MEMORY UNIT
      This unit stores data, calculations and results into it and in case of need it sends the data in the form of output
      the capacity of memory is measured in terms of BYTES, KILOBYTES or MEGABYTES / the bigger unit is GIGA BYTE
      Memory unit transfers the data to ARITHMETICAL and LOGIC UNIT.
      1 KB = 1024 BYTES
      1 MB = 1024 X 1024 BYTES
      1 GB = 1024 X 1024 X 1024 BYTES
      1 TERA BYTE = 1024 X 1024 X 1024 X 1024 BYTES
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      20
    • VOLATILE
      Memory may be volatile or non-volatile in nature
      Volatile memory is washed a soon as he power is cut
      The informations and the data is also washed as soon as the power supply is stopped
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      21
    • NON-VOLATILE
      Non-volatile memory is not washed if the power supply is cut and hence the data and informations are safe in that memory, mainly memory of computer is of following types:
      1.Read Only Memory (ROM)
      2.Random Access Memory (RAM)
      3.Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM)
      4.Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM)
      5.Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM)
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      22
    • READ ONLY MEMORY
      This memory is also termed as FIRMWARE/this memory cannot be altered or washed and permanent in nature/this memory gives instructions to the compUter/ROM is non-volatile in nature
      RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
      memory is temporary/washed as soon as the supply of power is cut/capacity of computer is related with RAM/more powerful is computer = further divided into 3 parts = 1.Cyclic 2.Serial Access 3.Direct :-
      1.CYCLIC MEMORY:=this memory of the computer transfers the data in cyclic order/this memory takes more time in transferring the data/the storage devices like magnetic drums fall in this category
      2.SERIAL ACCESS MEMORY:=this memory transfers the data in a serial order/the data or records are read one by one/hence to reach a required record/information, we have to pass through the remaining data/this memory also takes more time in transferring the data and hence more time is wasted in reading the required data/magnetic tapes store the data on to them in serial access manner
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      23
    • 3.DIRECT ACCESS MEMORY:=this memory transfers the data in a direct order and the time in reading the data is less/to read a particular recordnfomation, we have not to pass though the remaining data/magnetic disks store the data on to them in direct access manner
      PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY
      this is a type of semi conductor chip on which program can be written once and only once/this program is written with the help of computer
      ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY
      this is type of semi conductor chip on which the memory can be erased with the exposure to ultraviolet radiations
      ELECTRONICALLY ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY:=there are some special chips in the computer the memory on which can be reprogrammed with the help of electronic signals/the old data can be a newer one
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      24
    • The following are some important devices which are used for memory(data storage):=
      Magnetic tables/disks/floppy disk/winchester disks/magnetic drums
      24-11-2010
      K. BARANIDHARAN.M.COM.,M.PHIL., M.B.A.,PH.D
      25