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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &
ENGINEERING
TOPICS
• FOOD CHAIN
• FOOD WEB
• ECOLOGICAL PRYMIDS
• FOREST ECO SYSTEM
• PREPARED BY,
VARUN
KARTHIKEYAN
FOOD CHAIN
Food Chain—series of steps in which organisms
transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Arrows go in the direct...
TYPES OF FOOD CHAIN
• Grazing Food Chain
It Starts With Green Plants And Goes To The
Decomposer Food Chain
It Is Found In ...
IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT FOOD
CHAINS
• In a food chain each organism obtains energy
from the one at the level below.
• Plants...
Trophic Levels—each step in a food chain
• 1. Level 1—Producers (autotrophs)
• 2. Level 2—Primary Consumers (herbivores)
•...
FOOD WEB
• A food web is “an interlocking pattern of food
chains
• it show how plants and animals are connected
in many wa...
FOOD WEB
ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
• It’s A Graphical Representation Of The
Structure And Function Of Tropic Levels Of An
Ecosystem Is Ca...
PYRAMID OF NUMBERS
PYRAMID OF ENERGY
Energy Pyramid shows relative amount of
energy available at each trophic level
• Organisms in a trophic ...
PYRAMID BY ENERGY
PYRAMIDS OF BIOMASS
• IT represents the amount of living organic
matter at each trophic level
10%
100%
1%
0.1
Represents amount of energy
available at each level as well
as amount of living tissue—
both decrease with each
increasing...
FOREST ECOSYSTEM
• The forest is one of the main resource in
our world.
• Nearly it occupies 40% of the world’s
land area
...
FORESTS
Deciduousforests Tropicalrainforests Coastalforests Coniferousforests
Aforestisanareainwhichthemainplantsthatgrowt...
Deciduous Forest
• Large, flat leaves that
drop off in the Fall,
new leaves grow in
Spring.
• Leaves change color
with the...
TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
• These trees grow in
places that are hot
and wet all year.
• Trees are very tall and
the leaves are ...
COASTAL FOREST
• Grows in places
where there is lots of
rain.
• Temperature is not
too hot or too cold,
just cool.
• Has t...
CONIFEROUS FOREST
• Grows in places with
very cold winters and
cool summers.
• The leaves look like
needles so they don’t
...
CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREST
ECOSYSTEM
• It is characterised by the warm temperature
and adequate rainfall it make generation...
ABIOTIC COMPONENTS OF FOREST
ECOSYSTEM
• It Is A Physical Components About The
Climate, Temperature, Light, Rainfall And
M...
THE BIOTIC COMPONENTS OF FOREST
ECOSYSTEMS
 Producers
(autotrophs)
- Photosynthesis
 Consumers
(heterotrophs)
- Aerobic
...
THANK YOU
BY
– K.V.VARUN KARTHIKEYAN
Food chain,food web, forest ecosystem
Food chain,food web, forest ecosystem
Food chain,food web, forest ecosystem
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Food chain,food web, forest ecosystem

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Transcript of "Food chain,food web, forest ecosystem"

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
  2. 2. TOPICS • FOOD CHAIN • FOOD WEB • ECOLOGICAL PRYMIDS • FOREST ECO SYSTEM • PREPARED BY, VARUN KARTHIKEYAN
  3. 3. FOOD CHAIN Food Chain—series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten Arrows go in the direction of how energy is transferred Start with producer and end with top consumer or carnivore Ex: grass cricket frog raccoon
  4. 4. TYPES OF FOOD CHAIN • Grazing Food Chain It Starts With Green Plants And Goes To The Decomposer Food Chain It Is Found In Grassland & Pond Ecosystem Detritus Food Chain It Starts With Dead Organic Matter It Is Found In Grassland & Forest Ecosystem
  5. 5. IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT FOOD CHAINS • In a food chain each organism obtains energy from the one at the level below. • Plants are called producers because they create their own food through photosynthesis3 • Animals are consumers because they cannot create their own food, they must eat plants or other animals to get the energy that they need.
  6. 6. Trophic Levels—each step in a food chain • 1. Level 1—Producers (autotrophs) • 2. Level 2—Primary Consumers (herbivores) • 3. Level 3—Secondary Consumers (carnivores or omnivores) • 4. Level 4—Tertiary Consumers (carnivore—usually top carnivore)
  7. 7. FOOD WEB • A food web is “an interlocking pattern of food chains • it show how plants and animals are connected in many ways to help them all survive. Hawks Weasels Raccoons Mice Grass
  8. 8. FOOD WEB
  9. 9. ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS • It’s A Graphical Representation Of The Structure And Function Of Tropic Levels Of An Ecosystem Is Called Ecological Pyramids • Types Of Ecological Pyramids • Pyramid By Numbers • Pyramid Of Energy • Pyramid Of Bio Mass
  10. 10. PYRAMID OF NUMBERS
  11. 11. PYRAMID OF ENERGY Energy Pyramid shows relative amount of energy available at each trophic level • Organisms in a trophic level use the available energy for life processes (such as growth, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, metabolism,etc.)and release some energy as heat
  12. 12. PYRAMID BY ENERGY
  13. 13. PYRAMIDS OF BIOMASS • IT represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level 10% 100% 1% 0.1
  14. 14. Represents amount of energy available at each level as well as amount of living tissue— both decrease with each increasing trophic level ENERGY AND BIOMASS PYRAMID (TOGETHER)
  15. 15. FOREST ECOSYSTEM • The forest is one of the main resource in our world. • Nearly it occupies 40% of the world’s land area • In india 19% of the land is occupied by the forest
  16. 16. FORESTS Deciduousforests Tropicalrainforests Coastalforests Coniferousforests Aforestisanareainwhichthemainplantsthatgrowtherearetrees.
  17. 17. Deciduous Forest • Large, flat leaves that drop off in the Fall, new leaves grow in Spring. • Leaves change color with the seasons. • These trees grow in places that have warm, wet summers and cold winters. Winter
  18. 18. TROPICAL RAIN FOREST • These trees grow in places that are hot and wet all year. • Trees are very tall and the leaves are always green. • The forest has three layers. Forest floor Understory Canopy
  19. 19. COASTAL FOREST • Grows in places where there is lots of rain. • Temperature is not too hot or too cold, just cool. • Has three layers just like the rain forest: canopy, understory, forest floor.
  20. 20. CONIFEROUS FOREST • Grows in places with very cold winters and cool summers. • The leaves look like needles so they don’t need very much water. • Seeds grow in cones. • Get less rain than all the other forests. Seed cone
  21. 21. CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM • It is characterised by the warm temperature and adequate rainfall it make generation of no of ponds ,lakes.. • It maintain climate and rainfall • It gives shelter to wild animals • Soil is rich in organic matter • Lack of sunlight into forest so the conversation of the organic matter into nutrients is very fast
  22. 22. ABIOTIC COMPONENTS OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM • It Is A Physical Components About The Climate, Temperature, Light, Rainfall And Minerals
  23. 23. THE BIOTIC COMPONENTS OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS  Producers (autotrophs) - Photosynthesis  Consumers (heterotrophs) - Aerobic respiration  Decomposers
  24. 24. THANK YOU BY – K.V.VARUN KARTHIKEYAN
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