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Representing and Evaluating Social Context on Mobile Devices

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Divert: Mother-in-law …

Divert: Mother-in-law
Representing and Evaluating Social Context on Mobile Devices

Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
ICT&S Center, University of Salzburg, Austria

MobileHCI 2007, Singapore

Published in: Technology, Business

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  • 1. Divert: Mother-in-law Representing and Evaluating Social Context on Mobile Devices Kris Mihalic ICT&S Center, University of Salzburg, Austria Manfred Tscheligi ICT&S Center, University of Salzburg, Austria
  • 2. Research on Context •  Context is a hot topic in HCI –  Context-aware systems, location-based services, etc. •  Also an issue in other sciences –  E.g. social sciences: context in human communication •  Lack of empirically based research MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 3. Related research •  ContextContacts –  Contextual cues about callees current situation –  Privacy management: what data can safely be communicated; service control –  Oulasvirta / Raento / Tiitta (2005) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 4. Related research •  Reality Mining –  Sampled context information over a longer period of time on the users device –  Measurements of strength, dynamics and evolution of social networks –  Eagle / Pentland, 2006 MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 5. Related research •  Defined Delivery (DeDe) –  Allows sender of a message to define the context or situation in which the message should be delivered to recipient –  Field trial with socially tight group of seven individuals for one month –  Sender must have good knowledge of recipient’s activities and habits –  Jung / Persson / Blom (2005) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 6. Related research •  Ethno-methodologically inspired study observing people in their daily activities •  Results describe phenomena in mobility –  How situational and planned acts intermesh in navigation –  How people construct personal and group spaces –  How temporal tensions develop and dissolve •  Tamminen et al. (2003) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 7. Related research •  Focus group on usage of mobiles –  Students and field workers –  Phone as personal artifact –  Social constraints: importance of socially higher persons –  Side-stepping: using phone during "free" times –  Mihalic / Tscheligi (2006) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 8. Interactional Context •  Emerges through the interaction between users by means of the device •  Associated with actions and events •  Comprises a variety of social factors –  Formality –  Mood –  Situation constraints –  etc. •  Research on interactional context still underrepresented, but highly important with mobiles MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 9. Objectives 1.  Examine how social relationships can be utilized in a mobile system in order to provide a more appropriate service to the user 2.  Represent a dynamic model of social context in the system 3.  Research on suitable methods for evaluating social context in-situ MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 10. Approach •  Focus group on how people perceive social relationships when using mobile phones (Mihalic / Tscheligi 2006) •  Requirements •  Context-of-use model as ontology •  Prototypical implementation •  Evaluation in the field MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 11. Model •  Comprises –  Relationship type –  Mood –  Communication channel and content –  Settings •  Modeled as ontologies MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 12. Relationship type MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 13. Mood •  PANAS scheme (Watson / Clark / Tellegen 1988) •  Single list of choices rather than semantic differential scale •  Added 'neutral' item MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 14. Communication channel and content MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 15. Settings MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 16. Study design •  Eight participants for one week (including weekend) •  Field workers: insurance agents, technicians and installers, IT coordinators •  Aged between 26 and 51 (37 on average) •  All male •  Experienced mobile phone users •  User-initiated and system triggered sampling –  8 notifications between 8:30am and 10:30pm –  Participants instructed to report on their own MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 17. ESM •  Experience Sampling Method (ESM) –  AKA beeper studies, time sampling •  Field study technique from psychology •  Used to understand –  Mood –  Social interactions •  Primary choice for understanding user in context as well as context factors MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 18. ESM Overview •  Participants fill out questionnaire when alerted –  Researcher is not present –  Alerted several times per day –  Business as usual until alerted –  Triggered within users’ current context •  Duration usually 1-2 weeks MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 19. Prototype •  Conduct evaluation based on scenarios •  Supports ESM methodology •  Client part runs on a mobile phone •  Server part needed for “heavy-duty” work –  No Semantic Web technologies available for mobile phones –  Porting of Semantic Web technologies to mobile OS out of scope MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 20. System model (high-level) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 21. Mobile client •  Implemented in Python •  Runs on Symbian Series 60 2nd Ed. •  Two modes –  User can answer questionnaire by herself –  Questionnaire is automatically initiated by the Service (via SMS) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 22. Mobile client MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 23. Backend service •  Implemented as Java Web-Application •  Runs on a J2EE compliant server (Tomcat) •  Uses Semantic Web framework (Jena) •  Uses OWL as ontology repository •  Provides (simple) web-based UI for management and administration •  Communication to Mobile client via SMS (gateway) and HTTP MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 24. Background service MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 25. Ontologies •  ESM ontology –  Describes the study, participants, questionnaires, alerts and triggers, questions and answers –  Can be used for any study (with or without an user ontology) •  User ontology –  Describes relations between the user and her communication partners (e.g. phone book records) –  Is particular to this study MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 26. Results •  Mood •  Communication channels and content •  Recommended and overridden settings •  Methodology MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 27. Results: Channels & content MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 28. Results: Mood 60% PA 16% NA 24% neutral MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 29. Results: Mood and relationships Tighter social relationships and social activities associated with higher PA? (Vittengl / Holt 1998; Clark / Watson 1988) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 30. Results: Recommended & overridden settings MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 31. Results: Methodology P#6: "If the questionnaire comes immediately after the call or SMS, and I get the call at midnight, then I would respond!" MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 32. Results: User feedback •  Positive –  Use of prototype straightforward, would use for longer period –  Users didn’t experience the system as obtrusive or interrupting their tasks •  Negative –  Technical issues (data settings…) –  Skeptical about fully automated solution MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 33. In a nutshell 1.  Communicated content and relationship types have an impact on choosing the communication channels - messaging for private, and voice for business; mood is dependant on the kind of the relationship - positive mood is associated with distant relationships 2.  Semantic Web ontologies are suitable for representing complex and dynamic information in a system, with a lack of systems available on mobile platforms 3.  ESM is appropriate for studying social context in-situ; using a combination of event-based and time-based sampling can provide higher user acceptance and better results MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  • 34. Acknowledgment Parts of this work have been carried out under the FIT-IT grant of the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology, contract number 809272/9295. MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi

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