Divert: Mother-in-law
    Representing and Evaluating
Social Context on Mobile Devices

                                  ...
Research on Context


    •  Context is a hot topic in HCI
           –  Context-aware systems, location-based services,
 ...
Related research


    •  ContextContacts
           –  Contextual cues about callees current situation
           –  Priv...
Related research


    •  Reality Mining
           –  Sampled context information over a longer period
              of t...
Related research


    •  Defined Delivery (DeDe)
           –  Allows sender of a message to define the context
         ...
Related research


    •  Ethno-methodologically inspired study
       observing people in their daily activities
    •  R...
Related research


    •  Focus group on usage of mobiles
           –  Students and field workers
           –  Phone as ...
Interactional Context


    •  Emerges through the interaction between users
       by means of the device
    •  Associat...
Objectives


    1.  Examine how social relationships can be
        utilized in a mobile system in order to provide
     ...
Approach


    •  Focus group on how people perceive social
       relationships when using mobile phones
       (Mihalic ...
Model


    •  Comprises
           –  Relationship type
           –  Mood
           –  Communication channel and conten...
Relationship type




 MobileHCI 2007 Singapore   Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
Mood


    •  PANAS scheme
       (Watson / Clark /
       Tellegen 1988)
    •  Single list of choices
       rather than...
Communication channel and content




 MobileHCI 2007 Singapore           Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
Settings




 MobileHCI 2007 Singapore   Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
Study design


    •  Eight participants for one week (including
       weekend)
    •  Field workers: insurance agents, t...
ESM


    •  Experience Sampling Method (ESM)
           –  AKA beeper studies, time sampling
    •  Field study technique...
ESM Overview


    •  Participants fill out questionnaire when alerted
           –  Researcher is not present
           ...
Prototype


    •  Conduct evaluation based on scenarios
    •  Supports ESM methodology
    •  Client part runs on a mobi...
System model (high-level)




 MobileHCI 2007 Singapore   Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
Mobile client


    •  Implemented in Python
    •  Runs on Symbian Series 60 2nd Ed.
    •  Two modes
           –  User ...
Mobile client




 MobileHCI 2007 Singapore   Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
Backend service


    •  Implemented as Java Web-Application
    •  Runs on a J2EE compliant server (Tomcat)
    •  Uses S...
Background service




 MobileHCI 2007 Singapore   Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
Ontologies


    •  ESM ontology
           –  Describes the study, participants, questionnaires,
              alerts and...
Results


    •  Mood
    •  Communication channels and content
    •  Recommended and overridden settings
    •  Methodol...
Results: Channels & content




 MobileHCI 2007 Singapore     Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
Results: Mood




    60% PA
    16% NA
    24% neutral
 MobileHCI 2007 Singapore   Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
Results: Mood and relationships




    Tighter social relationships and social activities
    associated with higher PA? ...
Results: Recommended & overridden settings




 MobileHCI 2007 Singapore            Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
Results: Methodology




    P#6: "If the questionnaire comes immediately after the
    call or SMS, and I get the call at...
Results: User feedback


    •  Positive
           –  Use of prototype straightforward, would use for
              longe...
In a nutshell


    1.       Communicated content and relationship types have an
             impact on choosing the commu...
Acknowledgment




    Parts of this work have been carried out under the FIT-IT
    grant of the Austrian Federal Ministr...
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Representing and Evaluating Social Context on Mobile Devices

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Divert: Mother-in-law
Representing and Evaluating Social Context on Mobile Devices

Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
ICT&S Center, University of Salzburg, Austria

MobileHCI 2007, Singapore

Published in: Technology, Business
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Transcript of "Representing and Evaluating Social Context on Mobile Devices"

  1. 1. Divert: Mother-in-law Representing and Evaluating Social Context on Mobile Devices Kris Mihalic ICT&S Center, University of Salzburg, Austria Manfred Tscheligi ICT&S Center, University of Salzburg, Austria
  2. 2. Research on Context •  Context is a hot topic in HCI –  Context-aware systems, location-based services, etc. •  Also an issue in other sciences –  E.g. social sciences: context in human communication •  Lack of empirically based research MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  3. 3. Related research •  ContextContacts –  Contextual cues about callees current situation –  Privacy management: what data can safely be communicated; service control –  Oulasvirta / Raento / Tiitta (2005) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  4. 4. Related research •  Reality Mining –  Sampled context information over a longer period of time on the users device –  Measurements of strength, dynamics and evolution of social networks –  Eagle / Pentland, 2006 MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  5. 5. Related research •  Defined Delivery (DeDe) –  Allows sender of a message to define the context or situation in which the message should be delivered to recipient –  Field trial with socially tight group of seven individuals for one month –  Sender must have good knowledge of recipient’s activities and habits –  Jung / Persson / Blom (2005) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  6. 6. Related research •  Ethno-methodologically inspired study observing people in their daily activities •  Results describe phenomena in mobility –  How situational and planned acts intermesh in navigation –  How people construct personal and group spaces –  How temporal tensions develop and dissolve •  Tamminen et al. (2003) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  7. 7. Related research •  Focus group on usage of mobiles –  Students and field workers –  Phone as personal artifact –  Social constraints: importance of socially higher persons –  Side-stepping: using phone during "free" times –  Mihalic / Tscheligi (2006) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  8. 8. Interactional Context •  Emerges through the interaction between users by means of the device •  Associated with actions and events •  Comprises a variety of social factors –  Formality –  Mood –  Situation constraints –  etc. •  Research on interactional context still underrepresented, but highly important with mobiles MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  9. 9. Objectives 1.  Examine how social relationships can be utilized in a mobile system in order to provide a more appropriate service to the user 2.  Represent a dynamic model of social context in the system 3.  Research on suitable methods for evaluating social context in-situ MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  10. 10. Approach •  Focus group on how people perceive social relationships when using mobile phones (Mihalic / Tscheligi 2006) •  Requirements •  Context-of-use model as ontology •  Prototypical implementation •  Evaluation in the field MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  11. 11. Model •  Comprises –  Relationship type –  Mood –  Communication channel and content –  Settings •  Modeled as ontologies MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  12. 12. Relationship type MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  13. 13. Mood •  PANAS scheme (Watson / Clark / Tellegen 1988) •  Single list of choices rather than semantic differential scale •  Added 'neutral' item MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  14. 14. Communication channel and content MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  15. 15. Settings MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  16. 16. Study design •  Eight participants for one week (including weekend) •  Field workers: insurance agents, technicians and installers, IT coordinators •  Aged between 26 and 51 (37 on average) •  All male •  Experienced mobile phone users •  User-initiated and system triggered sampling –  8 notifications between 8:30am and 10:30pm –  Participants instructed to report on their own MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  17. 17. ESM •  Experience Sampling Method (ESM) –  AKA beeper studies, time sampling •  Field study technique from psychology •  Used to understand –  Mood –  Social interactions •  Primary choice for understanding user in context as well as context factors MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  18. 18. ESM Overview •  Participants fill out questionnaire when alerted –  Researcher is not present –  Alerted several times per day –  Business as usual until alerted –  Triggered within users’ current context •  Duration usually 1-2 weeks MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  19. 19. Prototype •  Conduct evaluation based on scenarios •  Supports ESM methodology •  Client part runs on a mobile phone •  Server part needed for “heavy-duty” work –  No Semantic Web technologies available for mobile phones –  Porting of Semantic Web technologies to mobile OS out of scope MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  20. 20. System model (high-level) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  21. 21. Mobile client •  Implemented in Python •  Runs on Symbian Series 60 2nd Ed. •  Two modes –  User can answer questionnaire by herself –  Questionnaire is automatically initiated by the Service (via SMS) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  22. 22. Mobile client MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  23. 23. Backend service •  Implemented as Java Web-Application •  Runs on a J2EE compliant server (Tomcat) •  Uses Semantic Web framework (Jena) •  Uses OWL as ontology repository •  Provides (simple) web-based UI for management and administration •  Communication to Mobile client via SMS (gateway) and HTTP MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  24. 24. Background service MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  25. 25. Ontologies •  ESM ontology –  Describes the study, participants, questionnaires, alerts and triggers, questions and answers –  Can be used for any study (with or without an user ontology) •  User ontology –  Describes relations between the user and her communication partners (e.g. phone book records) –  Is particular to this study MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  26. 26. Results •  Mood •  Communication channels and content •  Recommended and overridden settings •  Methodology MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  27. 27. Results: Channels & content MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  28. 28. Results: Mood 60% PA 16% NA 24% neutral MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  29. 29. Results: Mood and relationships Tighter social relationships and social activities associated with higher PA? (Vittengl / Holt 1998; Clark / Watson 1988) MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  30. 30. Results: Recommended & overridden settings MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  31. 31. Results: Methodology P#6: "If the questionnaire comes immediately after the call or SMS, and I get the call at midnight, then I would respond!" MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  32. 32. Results: User feedback •  Positive –  Use of prototype straightforward, would use for longer period –  Users didn’t experience the system as obtrusive or interrupting their tasks •  Negative –  Technical issues (data settings…) –  Skeptical about fully automated solution MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  33. 33. In a nutshell 1.  Communicated content and relationship types have an impact on choosing the communication channels - messaging for private, and voice for business; mood is dependant on the kind of the relationship - positive mood is associated with distant relationships 2.  Semantic Web ontologies are suitable for representing complex and dynamic information in a system, with a lack of systems available on mobile platforms 3.  ESM is appropriate for studying social context in-situ; using a combination of event-based and time-based sampling can provide higher user acceptance and better results MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi
  34. 34. Acknowledgment Parts of this work have been carried out under the FIT-IT grant of the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology, contract number 809272/9295. MobileHCI 2007 Singapore Kris Mihalic, Manfred Tscheligi

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