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Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen
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Suicide and LGBTTI Youth - Dr Mathijs Lucassen

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Presentation by Mathijs Lucassen at the symposium LGBTTI Wellness & Suicide: What do we need to change? Hosted in Auckland on 27 February 2013 by Auckland DHB, Affinity Services, OUTLine NZ, Rainbow …

Presentation by Mathijs Lucassen at the symposium LGBTTI Wellness & Suicide: What do we need to change? Hosted in Auckland on 27 February 2013 by Auckland DHB, Affinity Services, OUTLine NZ, Rainbow Youth and the Mental Health Foundation.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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  • 1. “SUICIDE AND LGBTTI YOUTH” Mathijs Lucassen PhDResearch Fellow - Werry Centre for Childand Adolescent Mental Health & Youth’12 Team, Department of Psychological Medicine & School of Nursing University of Auckland
  • 2. OVERVIEW Definitions – suicide and LGBTTI young people Suicide and young people generally Suicide and LGBTTI young people Two specific interventions/research projects
  • 3. DEFINITIONS - SUICIDE Suicidal ideation = Refers to thoughts of harming or killing oneself. Attempted suicide = Is a non-fatal, self- inflicted destructive act with explicit or inferred intent to die. Suicide = Is a fatal self-inflicted destructive act with explicit or inferred intent to die.(O‟Carroll et al., 1996)
  • 4. DEFINITIONS – LGBTTI YOUNG PEOPLE Is this young person….Bisexual?
  • 5. SUICIDE ANDYOUNG PEOPLE GENERALLY
  • 6. Trends in youth suicide rates per 100 000 people 15-19 years1816 Italy14 UK OECD-3312 USA Australia10 NZ8 Linear (Italy) Linear (OECD-33)6 Linear (NZ)420 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Source Dr Sonia Lewycka (Youth‟12 Team)
  • 7. RISK FACTORS FOR YOUTH SUICIDE INCLUDE… ↑ Age (Brent et al., 1999) Male sex (Fergusson, Woodward, & Horwood, 2000) Ethnicity (Beautrais, 2001; Borowsky, Resnick, Ireland, & Blum, 1999; Fortune et al., 2010) Severe and frequent suicidal ideation (Lewinsohn, Rohde, & Seeley, 1996) Previous suicide attempt (Brent et al., 1999) Lethality of suicide attempt (Brent et al., 1998)
  • 8. RISK FACTORS FOR YOUTH SUICIDE INCLUDE… Inter-personal conflict or loss (Brent et al., 1999) Mental ill-health (Brent et al., 1998) Maltreatment (Brent et al., 1999) Exposure to suicide (Brent et al., 1989; Bridge, Goldstein & Brent, 2006)
  • 9. PROTECTIVE FACTORS FOR YOUTH SUICIDE INCLUDE… Sound mental and emotional wellbeing Good social skills Problem-solving abilities Positive engagement with school Family cohesiveness(Fortune et al., 2010)
  • 10. SUICIDE AND LGBTTI YOUNG PEOPLE
  • 11. LGBTTI YOUNG PEOPLE
  • 12. YOUTH’07 REPRESENTATIVE NZ SAMPLE(Lucassen et al., 2011; Rossen, Lucassen, Denny, & Robinson, 2009)
  • 13. YOUTH’07 6% „SEXUAL MINORITY‟ YOUTH1% 3%2% 2% 92% Opposite-sex attracted Same-sex attracted Both-sex attracted Not sure Attracted to neither sex
  • 14. Longitudinal Christchurch Health and Development Study 2.8% LGB(Fergusson, Horwood & Beautrais, 1999)
  • 15. YOUTH’07… Mostof the sexual minority youth were not suicidal and did not have significant depressive symptoms…But
  • 16. YOUTH’07 - INCREASED RISK… n (%) OR (95% CL) p v a lu eCu rre n t d e p re s s iv e <.0001s y m p to m sOpposit e-sex 687 (9.5) 1.0Sa m e-sex 16 (23.3) 1.9 (1.1-3.1)Bot h -sex 86 (32.3) 3.7 (2.8-4.7)Not su r e 30 (21.8) 2.1 (1.3-3.3)Neit h er 14 (9.7) 1.0 (0.6-1.7)Atte m p te d s u ic id e <.0001Opposit e-sex 291 (4.0) 1.0Sa m e-sex 10 (13.9) 4.8 (2.4-9.6)Bot h -sex 59 (21.7) 7.0 (5.2-9.4)Not su r e 14 (10.1) 2.4 (1.1-5.1)Neit h er 8 (5.0) 1.1 (0.6-1.9)
  • 17. YOUTH’07 – INCREASED RISK… n (%) OR (95% CL) p v a lu eD e libe ra te ly s e lf- <.0001h a rm e dOpposit e-sex 1426 (19.4) 1.0Sa m e-sex 27 (36.9) 2.8 (1.8-4.4)Bot h -sex 156 (57.9) 5.8 (4.4-7.6)Not su r e 44 (30.4) 1.8 (1.1-2.7)Neit h er 20 (13.4) 0.6 (0.4-0.9)
  • 18. Christchurch Health and Development Study (Fergusson, Horwood & Beautrais, 1999) % OR (95% CL) p v a lu eMa jo r d e p re s s io n(14 to 21 y e a rs o f <.001age)H et er osexu a l 38.2% 1.0LGB 71.4% 4.0 (1.8-9.3)Atte m p te d s u ic id e <.001(e v e r)H et er osexu a l 7.1% 1.0LGB 32.1% 6.2 (2.7-14.3)
  • 19. YOUTH’07SEXUAL MINORITY YOUTH WANT & NEED HELP…
  • 20. WHY ARE LGBTTI YOUTH AT INCREASED RISK?
  • 21. WHY ARE LGBTTI YOUTH AT INCREASED RISK? ↑ Rates of bullying/victimisation  Family rejection  ↑ Substance abuse  ↑ Rates of mood disorders (e.g. depression) (Bridge, Goldstein, & Brent, 2006; Russell & Joyner, 2001)
  • 22. BRIEFLY - TWO RESEARCH PROJECTS Rainbow SPARX Rainbow Youth’s Education Package in Schools (a formal evaluation)
  • 23. SPARX
  • 24. UNIQUE ISSUES…Ways participants can Environments & tell that they are their impact different Ways Depression & participants sexuality cope
  • 25. SPARX: THE RAINBOW VERSION
  • 26. SPARX: THE RAINBOW VERSION Expressed interest in study (N=44) Not enrolled (N=17) Participants enrolled (N=27) Did not meet criteria (N=6) Depressive symptoms pre-intervention (N=21) Withdrew (N=2) Completed intervention (N=19) [91% of pre-intervention] Lost to follow-up (N=2) Completed three month follow up (N=17) [81% of pre-intervention]
  • 27. SPARX: THE RAINBOW VERSION –FINDINGS Sexual minority youth were more likely to complete treatment (p=0.007) 85% of sexual minority youth thought the treatment would appeal to other young people Depressive symptoms  significantly from pre- to post-intervention (p<0.0001) with a large pre to post effect size (d=1.01) & this positive change was maintained at follow-up
  • 28. DO YOU THINK RAINBOW SPARX HELPED YOU FEEL BETTER? “Yes, it made me feel a lot better. I have been much happier because I was able to relate and use the information that I learnt to better my situation” (Troy, 16).
  • 29. DO YOU THINK RAINBOW SPARX HELPED YOU FEEL BETTER? “Not really, but it did give me something to do at nights so it kind of helped” (Lara, 17).
  • 30. DO YOU THINK RAINBOW SPARX HELPED YOU FEEL BETTER? “…it worked for me” (Bob, 13).
  • 31. RAINBOW YOUTH’S EDUCATION PACKAGE - EVALUATION 237 Yr 9 and 10 students from two schools participated in x 2 workshops (sexuality and gender diversity) School climates perceived to be “hard” and “bullying/mocking” for LGBTTI students ¾ believed the workshops would ↓ bullying (Burford, Lucassen, Penniket & Hamilton, unpublished report)
  • 32. QUESTIONS…
  • 33. REFERENCESBeautrais, A.L. (2001). Child and young adolescent suicide in New Zealand. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 647-653.Brent, D.A., Baugher, M., Bridge, J., Chen, T., & Chiappetta, L. (1999). Age- and sex-related risk factors for adolescent suicide. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1497-1505.Brent, D.A., Kerr, M.M., Goldstein, C., Bozigar, J., Wartella, M., & Allan, M.J. (1989). An outbreak of suicide and suicidal behavior in a high school. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 918- 924.Brent, D.A., Perper, J.A., Goldstein, C.E., Kolko, D.J., Allan, M.J., Allman, C.J., et al. (1988). Risk factors for adolescent suicide. A comparison of adolescent suicide victims with suicidal inpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 581-588.Bridge, J.A., Goldstein, T.R., & Brent, D.A. (2006). Adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3/4), 372-394.Borowsky, I.W., Resnick, M.D., Ireland, M., & Blum, R.W. (1999). Suicide attempts among American Indian and Alaska Native youth: Risk and protective factors. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 153, 573-580.Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Beautrais, A. L. (1999). Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people? Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(10), 876-880.Fergusson, D.M., Woodward, L.J., & Horwood, L.J. (2000). Risk factors and life processes associated with the onset of suicidal behaviour during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 30, 23-39.Fortune, S., Watson, P., Robinson, E., Fleming, T., Merry, S., & Denny, S. (2010). Youth’07: The health and wellbeing of secondary school students in New Zealand: Suicide behaviours and mental health in 2001 and 2007. Auckland: The University of Auckland.
  • 34. Lewinsohn, P.M., Rohde, P., & Seeley, J.R. (1996). Adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts: Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 3, 25-36.Lucassen et al. (2011). Sexual attraction, depression, self-harm, suicidality and help-seeking behaviour in New Zealand secondary school students. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 376- 383.O’Carroll, P.W., Berman, A.L., Marris., R.W., Moscicki, E.K., Tanney, B.L., & Silverman, M.M. (1996). Beyond the Tower of Babel: A nomenclature for suicidology. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 26, 237-252.Rossen, F.V., Lucassen, M.F.G., Denny, S., & Robinson, E. (2009). Youth’07 The health and wellbeing of secondary school students in New Zealand: Results for young people attracted to the same sex or both sexes. Auckland: The University of Auckland.Russell, S., & Joyner, K. (2001). Adolescent sexual orientation and suicide risk: Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health, 91(8), 1276-1281.

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