“A comparative analysis of social marketing
and community development approaches
for Māori suicide prevention.”
Aims and Objectives
• Define the terms: social marketing and community development
with respect to Māori suicide prevention.
• Identify forms of social marketing and community development
currently in practice.
• Identify and analyse suicide trends within indigenous populations,
with particular emphasis on Māori.
• Perform a comparative analysis of social marketing and communitybased intervention through discussion with experts in the field of
mental health with particular emphasis on Māori suicide.
Aims and Objectives
• Investigate the cost-effectiveness of social marketing and community
development in Māori suicide prevention and the economic, social,
cultural, and political costs of Māori suicide.
• Discuss the logistics of community development and social
marketing as forms of intervention.
• Produce a set of recommendations for the Mental Health
Foundation based on the findings of the study.
• “Application of commercial marketing technologies to the
analysis, planning, execution and evaluation of
programmes designed to influence the voluntary or
involuntary behaviour of target audiences in order to
improve the welfare of individuals and society” – Donovan
and Henley (2003)
• Benefit lies with society rather than the marketer or
“Start the Conversation Today”
• “The concept of community development involves a
group of people with a shared identity interacting in
order to come up with ideas, ways to improve and
also solutions to problems” (Cavaye, 2006).
The Kia Piki te Ora o te Taitamariki
• Keri Lawson-Te Aho authored and
developed ‘Version One’.
• MoH implemented programme (2000).
• Māori-tailored approach aimed at reducing
taitamariki (youth) suicide.
• Achieved strengthening of whānau, hapū
and iwi by focussing on community
• In 2010 the programme evolved into an all
ages strategy (Kia Piki) - mainstreaming.
Māori Suicide Statistics
• 82 Māori suicide deaths in 2008.
• 2008 Māori suicide rate was 13.3/100,000 population, while
non- Māori rate was 10.6/100,000 population.
• 2008 Māori youth (15-24y) suicide rate was 27.6/100,000
compared to non-Māori youth – 16.4/100,000.
• Greatest disparity between Māori and Non-Māori exists in the
younger population (15-24 y).
• Māori suicide rates show no downward trend over time unlike
Māori Suicide Statistics II
• Māori male suicide rates were 2.25 times higher than female
Māori suicide rates in 2008.
• When comparing Māori with non-Māori male suicide rates,
Māori were higher. Similar in Females.
• Globally, suicide rates among indigenous populations is a
• In all these countries indigenous suicide rates are higher than
Age-standardised Suicide Rate,
by Ethnicity and Gender 1996-2008
Rate per 100,000 population
Youth Suicide Rate, by Ethnicity 1996-2008
Rater per 100,000 population
Māori Suicide Risk Factors
• Historical Trauma
• Population Age Structure
• Welfare Services
• Reduced Contact with Healthcare Services
• Social marketing initiatives in New Zealand:
Land Transport Authority campaign
“It’s About Whānau” anti-smoking
Like Minds Like Mine
• Social marketing targeting suicide:
“Start the Conversation Today” – Māori TV Campaign.
“Reachout” – Internet-based campaign targeting
• In NZ, should work within Māori communities, at the
whānau, hapū and iwi levels.
• Cultural development as a protective factor against
• International studies
Increase in awareness (Allen et al 2010
Utilize local knowledge, skills, resources (Smith et al 2003)
Can be self sustaining (Lucke et al 2003)
Difficult to assess results
Key Informants List
• Professor Sir Mason Durie, Pro Vice Chancellor, Massey University
• Dr Huirangi Waikerepuru, Taranaki Kaumatua
THE CLIENT - MENTAL HEALTH FOUNDATION
• Materoa Mar, Chair, Mental Health Foundation
• Judi Clements, CE, Mental Health Foundation
• Witi Ashby, Manager, Māori Resource Development, Suicide
Prevention and Information
MĀORI SUICIDE PREVENTION CLINICIANS
• Eliza Snelgar, Clinician, CASA
Key Informants List
MĀORI SUICIDE PREVENTION RESEARCHERS
• Professor Sunny Collings, Dean, University of Otago, Wellington School
• Associate Professor Jo Baxter, Director Ngāi Tahu Māori Health
Research Unit, University of Otago
• Dr Nicole Coupe, Director, Te Ira Tangata, Māori Suicide Prevention
Programme, CEO Hapai te Hauora Tapui Limited
• Keri Lawson-Te Aho, Lecturer, Hauora Māori, University of Otago, Māori
suicide prevention policy writer, PhD candidate
• Keri Newman, Master’s graduate, Victoria University of Wellington
• Paea Paki, Clinician, Multi-level Intervention Suicide Prevention Study
• Dr Denise Steers, Clinician , Multilevel Intervention Suicide Prevention
Key Informants List
MĀORI COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT EXPERTS (WHĀNAU, HAPŪ, IWI
• Pahia Turia, Director, Taipak Development Aotearoa
• Emma Kutia, Project Manager, Te Ao Hou, Kia Piki Te Ora, Eastern Bay of
• Michael Naera, Project Manager, Kia Piki te Ora, Ngāti Pikiao
• Irene Walker, Te Ao Hou, Kia Piki Te Ora, Eastern Bay of Plenty
INDEPENDENT MĀORI EXPERTS
• Mike King, TV personality and mental health commentator
• Gordon Matenga, Coroner
Social Marketing: The Benefits
Social Marketing: The Disadvantages
services if illprepared
Ineffective if no
access to media
Most effective if
“(there is) a concern that suicide can be contagious”
- Professor Sir Mason Durie
“Those don’t work for Māori (cigarette packet graphic pictures) but if you put a
picture of mokopuna on them, that would work.”
- Michael Naera
Community Development: The
to the people
‘”Community development is revolutionary; it
is about change, it is about relocating the
locus and power of control into the hands of
those most affected by the issue”
Keri Lawson-Te Aho
Community Development: The
$$ & Resource
Other Important Themes
Te Pae Mahutonga
• Health model based on the Southern Cross.
• Four central stars used to represent the four key tasks of
Mauriora – cultural identity
Waiora – physical environment
Taiora – healthy lifestyles
Te Oranga – participation in society
• Two pointers:
Ngā manakura – community leadership
Te Mana Whakahaere – Autonomy
• Potential value:
Concrete quantitative evidence
Informing policy makers
Better design of interventions for the future
Lack of quantifiable data
Future research needed
Economic Costs of Suicide
• Economic Cost:
$448,250 (Des O’Dea 2005)
Māori likely to be more due to younger
age of suicide.
• Life-years Lost:
39.68 DALY for non-Māori vs. 44.02 DALY
Political, Social and Cultural Costs
Low priority issue for political parties.
“Political hot potato”.
Grief for whānau and friends.
Potential conflict among dealing with suicide.
Loss of cultural identity.
Some Māori believe that those who commit
suicide should be condemned.
• Culturally respectful kaupapa.
• Key informants interviewed were selected
across a variety of fields – providing insight
into both sides of the argument;
community development and social
• Lack of objective comparison – due to
insufficient objective data.
• Exclusion of logistics modelling.
• Community development vs. Social
• Combined Approach?
• Culturally appropriate interventions
• Due to deficits identified within the published literature, we
recommend that further research needs to be done into the
effectiveness of social marketing and community development
interventions as Māori suicide prevention strategies.
• Future suicide prevention initiatives need to utilize both social
marketing and community development strategies in order to
have the most successful outcomes in preventing Māori suicide.
• When designing suicide prevention strategies it is important to
design them around a Māori health framework to ensure they
are culturally relevant to Māori people.
• When designing suicide prevention strategies at the
community level, involve community leaders and harness the
strengths already present within the community. This aids to
ensure wide dissemination and utilization of these services by
the members of the community.
E ngā iwi, e ngā reo, tēnā koutou ngā rau rangatira ma. E ngā tini aitua kua wheturangitia ki te
kupenga wairua, haere, haere, haere atu ra. Nā rātou i whakatakoto tēnei kaupapa, ko te
hauora, hei huarahi mō ngā tamariki mokopuna e whai ake nei.
Tēnei te mihi ki ngā pukenga kua tautoko i tēnei kaupapa. Tēnā koutou mō tō whakapau kaha ki
te hapai i tēnei kaupapa oranga whānau. He taonga katoa te whānau.
He mihi kau atu ki te Mental Health Foundation, Te Tari Hauora Tūmatanui, me Te Rōpū
Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pomare. Tēnā koe Kerry Hurley mō tō tautoko i a mātou.
He mihi hoki ki a mātou kaiako, ko Keri Lawson Te Aho rātou ko Sarah Mckenzie ko Pania Lee, mō
tō mahi tautoko kia oti pai. Ka nui te aroha ki a koutou.
Ko te pae tawhiti, whāia kia tata.
Ko te pae tata, whakamaua kia tina.
Hutia Te Rito
Hūtia te rito
Hūtia te rito o te harakeke
Kei hea te kōmako e kō
Kī mai ki ahau, ahau
He aha te mea nui
He aha te mea nui, o te ao
Maku e kī atu
He tangata, he tangata, he tangata