Discipline Science OR OR OR Craft Discipline applies to “…areas of inquiry that have been established over time and follow established paradigms.” (Ely, 1999). IDT is a field that is still changing and maturing. Science is “… the organized body of knowledge that is gained through research. (Wikipedia). Research through the collection and the analysis of data is an integral part of instructional design. A craft is a skill of doing something . Sometimes, instructional design is performed as a craft. However, in this case, the design cannot be generalized since it has not been rooted in research. One of the main components of IDT is research, where problems are analyzed and results are evaluated. Theory is a set of principles explaining a phenomena. IDT draws from many fields of study. It is grounded in their theories in order to answer to its different components. IDT is not yet a discipline. IDT is grounded in science IDT goes beyond craft to find scientifically based solutions to problems IDT is grounded in theory Theory
Instruction Education Learning Performance OR OR OR Instruction is the act of giving knowledge. (The Free Dictionary) Learning is the act of gaining knowledge. (Merriam-Webster) Education is the action of developing mentally, morally, or aesthetically especially by instruction. (Merriam-Webster) Performance is the action taken to accomplish something. IDT revolves around designing instruction that will result in learning that will produce education that will lead to performance. In IDT
Communication Psychology Education Educational Psychology IDT draws from the theories and the philosophies of educational psychology that explain how people learn. Theories and philosophies of learning include behaviorism, cognitivsm , and constructivism. IDT also draws from the communication theories that explains how the message design influence learning. The communication outcome is the result of the interaction between the message, the sender, the receiver of that message, and the medium through which the message is conveyed. OR OR
Systems Design Instruction Instruction is the act of giving knowledge. (The Free Dictionary) In IDT, a lot of emphasis is put on breaking down the instruction according to the different domains of learning (intellectual, affective, psychomotor) as well as the teaching activities that will promote learning in each domain. OR OR A system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities. (Wikipedia) In order to design effective instruction, IDT relies on a systems approach, where the interaction between the different components of the instructional design is studied to achieve the specified goals. These components are analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. A design is a detailed plan. In IDT, the approach in providing learning is achieved by laying down a detailed plan of how the different components will achieve the specified goals. IDT is the process of designing instruction in a systematic fashion in order to achieve the goals of the instruction.
Computers Technology Computers are high speed electronic devices that store information and perform operations at a very high speed. The advent of personal computers in the 1980s and later the Internet and the world-wide-web opened the door wide for their use in IDT. Technology is… “the knowledge and usage of tools or crafts…” (Wikipedia) to solve problems or to achieve work. In IDT, “tools” and “crafts” from educational psychology, communication theories, systems approach, graphic design, including and not restricted to computer technology, are used to create solutions to instructional problems. Instructional Design and Technology: the overlap OR
Leaders of the IDT field Contributions Model/Theory R. Atkinson and P. Suppes The use of computers in teaching B. Bloom Instructional design theories Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain E. Dale Communication process, relationship between audiovisuals and learning Cone of Experience W. Dick and L. Carey Instructional Design Model The model J. Dewey Constructivism R. Gagne Instructional design theories, cognitivism Five Domains of Learning , Nine Events of Instruction R. Glaser Instructional design theories E. von Glasersfeld Constructivism A. Lumsdaine Audiovisual Research R. Mager Writing behavioral objectives, criterion-referenced instruction D. Merrill Cognitivism Merrill’s Component Display Model G. Morrisson, S. Ross, J. Kemp Instructional Design Model The model J. Piaget Constructivism G. Pask Teaching Machines Conversation Theory C. M. Reigeluth Cognitivism, instructional design theories M. Scriven Formative and Summative Evaluation C. Shannon and W. Weaver Model of Communication The Shanon Weaver Model B.F. Skinner Behaviorism, programmed instruction D.L. Stufffelbeam CIPP Evaluation Model CIPP Checklist R. Tyler Behavioral Objectives l. Vytogsky Constructivism
Leigh, D. A Brief History of Instructional Design http://www.pignc-ispi.com/articles/education/brief%20history.htm Instructional Design Knowledge Base. Retrieved March 29, 2009 from http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/models_theories.ht Mappin, D., Phan, R., Kelyy, M. & Bratt,S. An overview of Instructional Design , 1998. Retrieved March 29, 2009 from. http://www.quasar.ualberta.ca/edit573/modules/module4.htm Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J.V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2 nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Clark, R. E. & Estes, F. (1998). Technology or craft: What are we doing? Educational Technology, 38(5), 5-11. Moore, D.,R. (2006). The technology/inquiry typology: Defining instructional technology. Jl. Of Interactive Learning Research, 17(4), 401-406 Ely, D. (1999). Toward a philosophy of instructional technology: Thirty years on. British Journal of Educational Technology , 30(4), 305-310. Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (2007). Handbook of research on educational communications and technology . Retrieved March 22, 2009, from http://www.aect.org/edtech/edition3/default.asp Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (2007). Educational technology: A definition with commentary . Retrieved March 22, 2009, from http://www.aect.org/publications/EducationalTechnology/Index.asp?pg=contents References Education. (2009). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary . Retrieved March 18, 2009, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/education Learning. (2009). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary . Retrieved March 18, 2009, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/learning Instruction (2009). In The Free Dictionary. Retrieved March 18, 2009 from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/instruction
Stufffelbeam, D.L. (2007). CIPP Evaluation Model Checklist , Retrieved March 29, 2009 from http://www.wmich.edu/evalctr/checklists/cippchecklist_mar07.pdf Vanderstraeten, R. & and Biesta, G. Constructivism, Educational Research, and John Dewey. Retrieved March 29, 2009 from http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Amer/AmerVand.htm Systems (2009). Retirieved March 18, 2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System Science (2009). Retrieved March 18, 2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science