Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Three semicircular canals arrangedorthonormally to each other in three planes. Two set of these, one in each ear help in detecting the rotary motion of the head. Stabilizes the body system wrt the outer world.
  • http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/balance
  • Patient awareness system> Continual feedback> Compensators/indicators(Liquid Tubes); Programs;Output (Vibrators); and related circuitry.
  • Equilibrioception

    1. 1. Equilibrioception: Sense of balance<br />Presented by: SuhasDeshpande<br />EE 506 Theory & Practice Biomedical Instrumentation<br />Dr. Christopher Druzgalski<br />
    2. 2. outline<br />Importance<br />Balance as a sense<br />Vestibular system<br />Sensory factors affecting balance<br />Balance disorders<br />Postural diagnosis<br />Postural balance indicator<br />Research and applications<br />References<br />
    3. 3. Importance <br />Dizziness is a common symptom affecting about 30% of people over the age of 65<br />Difficulty in performing one or more activities of daily living<br />May have serious outcomes even death<br />Falls are the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal injuries for old age person <br />
    4. 4. Balance as a sense<br />A complex activity with interaction from various parts of the body.<br />Feedback control system<br />Vestibular system, Nervous system, Eyes, Muscles and tendons<br />www.ebaumsworld.com/pictures/view/80735176<br />
    5. 5. Vestibular system<br />Semicircular canals detect the rotation<br />The fluid in the canals moves as our body rotates to produce neurological stimulus<br />
    6. 6. Vestibular system<br />Otolith organs: Saccule and Utricle to detect linear acceleration<br />Movement of hair cells in the utricle and sacule innervate the neurons during the motion <br />
    7. 7. Vestibular system<br />Nervous system<br />Eyes: VOR (Vestibulo-ocular Reflex) <br />Stabilizes retinal image during rotation<br />Maintains the feedback gain of -1<br />
    8. 8. Sensory factors affecting balance<br />Vision<br />Provides necessary information for effective navigation<br />Provides input to the nervous system about the real world<br />
    9. 9. Sensory factors affecting balance<br />Vision<br />Vestibular sense<br />Helps in positioning the head<br />VOR helps in maintaining the visual fixation<br />
    10. 10. Sensory factors affecting balance<br />Vision<br />Vestibular sense<br />Proprioception<br />Sensory information from muscles, tendons provide feedback of joint position, movement and touch.<br />Lower limbs input contributes to standing balance. <br />
    11. 11. Sensory factors affecting balance<br />Vision<br />Vestibular sense<br />Proprioception<br />Central Nervous system<br /> Receives feedback from other organs<br />Sends motor response to other organs <br />
    12. 12. Balance disorders<br />Related to Ear<br />BPPV (Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo)<br />Meniere’s disease<br />Labyrinthitis (inner ear infection)<br />Related to brain<br />Traumatic Brain Injury<br />Disorders of CNS<br />Diseqillibrium<br />
    13. 13. Postural Diagnosis<br />Rotation Tests<br />ENG(Electronystagmography)<br />CDP(Computerized Dynamic Posturography)<br />MRI<br />CT Scan<br />
    14. 14. Postural Diagnosis<br />Posturography<br /> Non-invasive specialized technique<br />Study the contributions of vestibular inputs, visual inputs, somatosensory inputs, central integrating mechanisms and muscular system outputs for postural and balance control<br />
    15. 15. Postural Diagnosis<br />Posturography<br />Patient stands still in a set of conditions with eyes open/closed in fixed and sway referenced surface conditions<br />Three kinds of tests: Sensory Organization Test (SOT), Motor Control Test (MCT) and Adaptation Test (ADT)<br />
    16. 16. Postural Diagnosis<br />ENG<br />Electrodes placed around the eye<br />Detects the occurrence of a nystagmus (involuntary eye movement)<br />Ears flushed with warm and then cold water.<br />Amount of nystagmus measured.<br />
    17. 17. Postural diagnosis<br />Rotation tests<br />Patient is seated on a rotary chair<br />Chair rotates/moves in specific manner<br />The eye movements are monitored to diagnose the problem<br />
    18. 18. Postural balance indicator<br />Two level sensors: fluid filled tubes<br />Photo-resistor and an LED coupled detect the off balance position<br />Signal sent to respective vibrators (left or right or both)<br />The patient senses the vibrations to regain equillibrium<br />(1)<br />
    19. 19. Research and application<br />Application of human postural balance mechanism to humanoid robots<br />Study of the zero gravity condition and role of and effect on the human body for astronauts.<br />
    20. 20. References<br />P. Ingerson, "Postural balance indicator and associated feedback compensation system," Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings, vol. 26, pp. 2484, 2004.<br />V. Panzer, "Biomechanical changes in postural control concurrent with aging," J. Biomech., vol. 22, pp. 1067, 1989<br />F.Horak, "Clinical assessment of balance disorders", Gait & Posture, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 76-84<br />L. Kodde, "An application of mathematical models in posturography," J. Biomed. Eng., vol. 4, pp. 44, 1982<br />Hyon. "Integration of multi-level postural balancing on humanoid robots",2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1549, 1556<br />http://www.physpharm.fmd.uwo.ca/undergrad/sensesweb/L10Balance/L10Balance.pdf<br />http://vestibular.org/index.php<br />http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/balance/balance_disorders.asp<br />http://www.dizziness-and-balance.com/index.html<br />http://resourcesonbalance.com<br />http://spaceline.nasaprs.com/pdf/Astronaut_Study.pdf<br />