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Biometrics For Security Systems
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Biometrics For Security Systems

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  • (e.g., face, fingerprint,iris, retina, hand geometry) (e.g., voice, gait)

Biometrics For Security Systems Biometrics For Security Systems Presentation Transcript

  • Presented by SuhasDeshpande
    Dr. Druzgalski
    EE 507
    Advanced Topics in
    Biomedical Systems
    Fingerprint Identification Systems
  • Overview
    Biometrics- different types
    Use of biometrics history
    Fingerprints
    Sensors
    Algorithms
    System on chip design
    Real life products
    US government Fingerprint programs
    FingerChip Project
    Companies
    References
  • Biometrics
    “Biometrics refers to automatic identification of people based on their distinctive physiological and behavioral characteristics”
    “Biometrics is enabling technology that will make our society safer, reduce fraud and lead to user convenience”
    A typical biometric system is comprised of five components: A sensor, Signal processing algorithms,data storage component, A matching algorithm and a decision process.
    1,3
  • History
    Babylonians (500B.C.) used clay tablets with fingerprints for business transactions
    Handprints used as signatures in drawings found inside caves about 31000 yrs old
    15thcentury:Chinesestarted using fingerprints to settle business transactions
    1892: Classification system for fingerprints (Galton)
    1896: Another classification system for fingerprints (Henry)
    1903: NY state prison uses fingerprint identification
    1963:A paper on Fingerprint automation published (Hughes)
    1969: FBI goes for the Automated Fingerprint recognition
    1975:FBI fund for minutiae ans sensor development for fingerprint identification
    1994: IAFIS held Fingerprint identification competition
    1999: FBI’s IAFIS components become operational
    1,2,3
  • Fingerprints
    Finger skin is made of friction ridges which make different pattern in each individual
    There are main features like Arch, Loop and Whorl
    There are Minutiae like core,ridge ending, island, crossover, pore, bifurcation and delta
    Biomedical signal and image processing/Najarian
  • Acquiring Fingerprints
    Rolled finger
    Static sensing
    Sweep reading
    (3)
  • Sensors
    Optical sensors
    Capacitive sensors
    Electro optical readers
  • Sensors
    Thermal sensors
    Tactile MEMS
    Ultrasound
    (7),(8)
  • Fingerprint matching
    Minutiae based algorithms detect different Minutiae like delta, pores etc. It is difficult to detect and hence match the minutiae with poor quality of image
    Some algorithms use the shapes of the ridges after dividing the image in smaller cells. Ridge direction, phase and pitch are extracted
    (3)
  • Fingerprint matching
    Correlation based algorithms follow the pattern o the ridges of the template to support or reject the fingerprint
    Some algorithms imply features such as ridge count and distance
    (3)
    http://biometrics.cse.msu.edu/fingerprint.html
  • Problems !!!
    Poor quality images
    Some skin diseases like Psoriasis cause problems in fingerprint identification
    There are examples of people having no fingerprints
    Livelihood or enforcement has to be checked
  • System on Chip
    With increase in number of application need for automation integrating the sensor and the algorithms
    The silicon chip is designed with the microprocessor, on chip memory and software algorithms
    (6)
  • FingerChip Project
    The project started by Dr. Mainguet(Thomson) in 1995
    The Fingerchip sensor was rod shaped instead of shape of finger
    It used the sweep sensing technology
    It induced many aplications such as Laptops, USB drives, smart cards,
    (3)
  • US government Programs
    US-VISIT's biometric procedures
    NIST Special Publication 800-76
    Integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS)
    Fast Capture of Rolled-Equivalent Fingerprints and Palm Prints
    1,3
  • Companies
    Atmel AT77C104B
    Authentec AES2510
    Validity Fingerprint sensor VFS301
    Fujitsu MBF 200
    Bio-Key biometrics solutions
    Notebooks
    Peripheral accessories USB drives
    Safes
    Time attendance
    Cars
    PDAs phone etc
  • References
    1) http://www.biometrics.gov/Documents/biofoundationdocs.pdf
    2) http://www.biometrics.gov/Documents/BioHistory.pdf
    3) http://pagesperso-orange.fr /fingerchip /biometrics /types/fingerprint.htm
    4) A. Jain, "Biometrics: A grand challenge," Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 935, 2004
    5) S. Hiratsuka, “The intelligent fingerprint authentication system SecureFinger,” NEC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, vol. 43, pp. 11, 2002
    6) J. Mainguet, "Fingerprint recognition based on silicon chips,” Future Generation Computer Systems” vol. 16, pp 403–415, (2000)
    7) Ji-Song Han,“Thermal Analysis of Fingerprint Sensor Having a Microheater Array, ” Department of Micro System Engineering, Nagoya University
    8) MitraDamghanian, “Analysis and design of a wide micro beam as a pressure gauge for high sensitivity MEMS fingerprint sensors” MicrosystTechnol, 2009