Software Development Life cycle


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Software Development Life cycle

  1. 1.  Six Sigma is a set of practices originally developed by Motorola to systematically improve processes by eliminating defects. A defect is defined as nonconformity of a product or service to its specifications.  While the particulars of the methodology were originally formulated by Bill Smith at Motorola in 1986, Six Sigma was heavily inspired by six preceding decades of quality improvement methodologies such as quality control, TQM, and Zero Defects. Like its predecessors, Six Sigma asserts the following:
  2. 2.  Continuous efforts to reduce variation in process outputs is key to business success  Manufacturing and business processes can be measured, analyzed, improved and controlled  Succeeding at achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization, particularly from top- level management
  3. 3.  DMAIC Basic methodology consists of the following five (5) steps:  Define the process improvement goals that are consistent with customer demands and enterprise strategy.  Measure the current process and collect relevant data for future comparison.  Analyze to verify relationship and causality of factors. Determine what the relationship is, and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered.  Improve or optimize the process based upon the analysis using techniques like Design of Experiments.  Control to ensure that any variances are corrected before they result in defects. Set up pilot runs to establish process capability, transition to production and thereafter continuously measure the process and institute control mechanisms
  4. 4.  DMADV  Basic methodology consists of the following five steps:  Define the goals of the design activity that are consistent with customer demands and enterprise strategy.  Measure and identify CTQs (critical to qualities), product capabilities, production process capability, and risk assessments.  Analyze to develop and design alternatives, create high- level design and evaluate design capability to select the best design.  Design details, optimize the design, and plan for design verification. This phase may require simulations.  Verify the design, set up pilot runs, implement production process and handover to process owners.
  5. 5.  Executive Leadership includes CEO and other key top management team members. They are responsible for setting up a vision for Six Sigma implementation. They also empower the other role holders with the freedom and resources to explore new ideas for breakthrough improvements.  Champions are responsible for the Six Sigma implementation across the organization in an integrated manner. The Executive Leadership draws them from the upper management. Champions also act as mentors to Black Belts. At GE this level of certification is now called "Quality Leader".  Master Black Belts, identified by champions, act as in-house expert coaches for the organization on Six Sigma. They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. They assist champions and guide Black Belts and Green Belts. Apart from the usual rigor of statistics, their time is spent on ensuring integrated deployment of Six Sigma across various functions and departments.
  6. 6.  Experts This level of skill is used primarily within Aerospace and Defense Business Sectors. Experts work across company boundaries, improving services, processes, and products for their suppliers, their entire campuses, and for their customers. Raytheon Incorporated was one of the first companies to introduce Experts to their organizations. At Raytheon, Experts work not only across multiple sites, but across business divisions, incorporating lessons learned throughout the company.  Black Belts operate under Master Black Belts to apply Six Sigma methodology to specific projects. They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. They primarily focus on Six Sigma project execution, whereas Champions and Master Black Belts focus on identifying projects/functions for Six Sigma.
  7. 7.  Green Belts are the employees who take up Six Sigma implementation along with their other job responsibilities. They operate under the guidance of Black Belts and support them in achieving the overall results.  Yellow Belts are employees who have been trained in Six Sigma techniques as part of a corporate-wide initiative, but have not completed a Six Sigma project and are not expected to actively engage in quality improvement activities.
  8. 8.  Test plan identifier;  Introduction;  Test items;  Features to be tested;  Features not to be tested;  Approach;  Item pass/fail criteria;
  9. 9.  Suspension criteria and resumption requirements; Test deliverables; Testing tasks; Environmental needs; Responsibilities; Staffing and training needs; Schedule; Risks and contingencies; Approvals
  10. 10.  A software release is the distribution, whether public or private, of an initial or new and upgraded version of a computer software product. Each time a software program or system is changed, the software engineers and company doing the work decide on how to distribute the program or system, or changes to that program or system.
  11. 11.  The software release life cycle is composed of different stages that describe the stability of a piece of software and the amount of development it requires before final release. Each major version of a product usually goes through a stage when new features are added, or the alpha stage; a stage when it is being actively debugged, or the beta stage; and finally a stage when all important bugs have been removed, or the stable stage.
  12. 12.  Intermediate stages may also be recognized. The stages may be formally announced and regulated by the project's developers, but sometimes the terms are used informally to describe the state of a product. Conventionally, code names are often used by many companies for versions prior to the release of the product, though the actual product and features are rarely secret.
  13. 13.  Sometimes a build known as pre-alpha is issued, before the release of an alpha or beta. In contrast to alpha and beta versions, the pre-alpha is not "feature complete". When it is used, it refers to all activities performed during the software project prior to software testing. These activities can include requirements analysis, software design, software development and unit testing.
  14. 14.  In Open Source world, there are several types of pre-alpha versions. Milestone versions include specific sets of functionality and are released as soon as the functionality is complete. Nightly builds are versions that are usually automatically checked out from the revision control system and built, typically over night; these versions allow the testers to test the recently implemented functionality immediately, and find the new bugs.
  15. 15.  The alpha build of the software is the build delivered to the software testers, that is persons different from the software engineers, but usually internal to the organization or community that develops the software. In a rush to market, more and more companies are engaging external customers or value-chain partners in their alpha testing phase. This allows more extensive usability testing during the alpha phase.
  16. 16.  In the first phase of testing, developers generally test the software using white box techniques. Additional validation is then performed using black box or grey box techniques, by another dedicated testing team, sometimes concurrently. Moving to black box testing inside the organization is known as alpha release.
  17. 17.  beta version is the first version released outside the organization or community that develops the software, for the purpose of evaluation or real-world black/grey-box testing. The process of delivering a beta version to the users is called beta release. Beta level software generally includes all features, but may also include known issues and bugs of a less serious variety.
  18. 18.  The users of a beta version are called beta testers. They are usually customers or prospective customers of the organization that develops the software. They receive the software for free or for a reduced price, but act as free testers.
  19. 19.  eta version software is likely to be useful for internal demonstrations and previews to select customers, but unstable and not yet ready for release. Some developers refer to this stage as a preview, a prototype, a technical preview (TP) or as an early access. As the second major stage in the release lifecycle, following the alpha stage, it is named after the Greek letter beta, the second letter in the Greek alphabet
  20. 20.  Developers release either a closed beta or an open beta; closed beta versions are released to a select group of individuals for a user test, while open betas are to a larger community group, usually the general public. The testers report any bugs that they found and sometimes minor features they would like to see in the final version.