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     Bav group11 airtel Bav group11 airtel Document Transcript

    • Product  and  Brand  Management  Project   Submitted  to  :  Prof.  Govindrajan     Submitted  by  :   Ashwin  Kumar  V  :  DM15210   Gaurav  Dutta  :  DM15219   Suhasini  Jain  :  DM15256   Vidhit  Bhatia  :  DM15264   G r e a t   L a k e s   I n s t i t u t e   o f   M a n a g e m e n t           Brand  Asset  Valuation  
    • Contents:       1)  Brand  Asset  Valuation                                                                         2)  Executive  Summary   3)Airtel:  Brand  History  and  Brief  Timeline   4)  Research  Methodology   5)  Questionnaire   6)  Results  and  findings  of  BAV                                         7)  Zaltman  Metaphor  Elicitation  Technique:  Methodology   8)Results  and  Analysis                                      
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   3     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   Airtel  is  an  Indian  company  founded  by  Sunil  Bharti  Mittal  in  the  year  1983,  currently   present  in  19  countries  in  Asia  and  Africa.  It  is  a  telecommunication  provider  and  has   leveraged  its  services  in  Digital  TV  and  Internet  services.  Airtel  is  best  known  for  its   connectivity  and  availability  and  is  currently  the  market  leader  in  the  Indian  market  with   healthy  competition  from  Vodafone.     In  the  first  phase,  we  have  attempted  to  determine  the  current  status  of  the  brand  and  its   identity  in  the  minds  of  the  consumers.  A  variant  of  Brand  Asset  Valuation  has  been  used  to   identify  the  current  status  of  the  brand  with  respect  to  its  Indian  counterparts.  In  addition  to   that,  we  have  used  the  Zaltman  Metahpor  Elicittion  Technique  to  adjudge  the  identity   created  by  the  brand  in  the  minds  of  the  consumers.     The  BAV  model  measures  the  value  of  the  brand  along  4  dimensions  namely  Differentiation,   Relevance,  Esteem  and  Knowledge.  Differentiation  and  Relevance  together  comprise  of  the   brand  strength  while  Esteem  and  Knowledge  build  up  the  Brand  stature.  For  BAV  a  sample   of  30  was  surveyed  using  a  questionnaire.     Mercedes  Benz  shows  high  figures  on  differentiation  but  relatively  low  figures  on  relevance,   esteem  and  brand  knowledge  in  comparison  to  Vodafone.  The  brand  is  definitely  a  power   brand   but   has   certain   issues   with   the   service   which   has   a   direct   impact   on   the   customer   satisfaction  levels  in  the  market  segments.       The  ZMET  technique  was  used  as  the  qualitative  research  tool  to  gauge  the  brand  identity  of   Airtel,   A   total   of   6   interviewees   were   selected   and   their   interviews   (laddering)   were   scheduled  for  different  times  so  each  interviewee  can  be  spoken  to  individually.  Airtel  is  a   youth  brand  associated  with  trust  and  high  connectivity.  Its  a  trendy  and  highly  energized   brand  and  most  of  our  respondents  like  the  brand’s  promotional  efforts  and  spirit.                        
    •   Brand  Asset  Valuation     Brand  Asset  Valuation  as  a  metric  is  being  used  since  the  1900s.The  presence  of  multiple   brands  for  a  single  category  makes  it  even  more  important  for  stakeholders  to  assess  a   brand’s  current  achievements  and  stature.  It  is  even  more  powerful  when  the  future   potential  of  a  brand  can  be  measured  as  well.  Y&R’s  Brand  Asset  Valuator  offers  this   opportunity.  It  measures  Brand  Strength  (Differentiation  and  Relevance)  &  Brand   Stature  (Esteem  &  Knowledge).         Young  and  Rubicam’s  Brand  Asset  Valuator  (BAV)  model  is  defined,  as  “A  brand  is  a  set   of  differentiating  promises  that  link  a  product  to  its  customers.”  It  has  the  largest  study   on  brands  &  their  relationship  to  people.  More  than  700,000  persons  across  49  nations   have  been  surveyed  for  approximately  44,000  brands.  It’s  a  metric  applied  to  measure   brand  value  of  an  entity.  It  measures  a  brand  under  two  major  heads  of  Brand  strength   &  brand  stature.     Brand  strength   It  is  a  relationship  between  a  brand’s  differentiation  &  relevance  aspects  is  the   benchmark  for  brand’s  growth  potential  -­‐  the  Brand  Strength.  A  “significant  difference”   is  essential  for  dynamic  &  successful  in  building  a  brand.     Brand  Stature   Esteem  &  knowledge  show  the  association  with  a  brand  -­‐  Brand  Stature.  It  is  the  critical   device  of  the  goodwill,  which  a  brand  enjoys.  Properly  managing  these  relationships  is   the  key  to  successful  brand  building  and  to  retention  of  brand  value.     Both  of  these  heads  can  be  further  divided  to  have  the  following  parameters  for  judging   the  brand            
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   5           1.        Differentiation   It  is  the  ability  of  a  brand  to  stand  apart  from  its  competitors.  Differentiation  has  three   constituents  to  it.  These  are   • Different-­‐  refers  to  how  do  the  brand’s  offering  differs  from  its  competitors.   • Unique-­‐  refers  to  the  brand’s  quality  &  conveys  the  essence  of  its  existence.  It  has  more   to  do  with  the  authenticity,  credibility  &  originality  of  the  idea  that  the  brand  carries.   • Distinctive-­‐  refers  to  the  worthiness  of  a  brand.       2.        Relevance   It  refers  to  how  closely  can  the  consumers  relate  to  the  brand’s  offering  and  is  a   significant  driver  for  a  brand’s  penetration.   3.        Esteem   This  refers  to  the  customer  perception  regarding  the  brand.  If  the  brand  is  popular  or   not,  if  it  delivers  what  it  states-­‐  all  of  this  contribute  in  forming  up  brand’s  esteem.   4.        Knowledge   It  talks  about  the  degree  of  awareness;  a  brand  has  in  the  minds  of  its  consumers.  This  is   essential  while  constructing  a  brand  &  making  the  consumers  understand  of  what  the   brand  really  stands  for  &  its  implied  message  to  the  consumers.        
    •     Airtel:     For  the  telecom  sector,  the  transaction  merely  starts  when  you  purchase  a  product  .The   sector  requires  high  penetration  for  it  to  be  able  to  reach  and  sustain  its  position  as  a   power  brand.  In  the  Indian  context,  Airtel  and  Vodafone  have  maintained  a  clear  edge  in   the  market  due  to  the  following  factors:     • First  mover  advantage   • Big  pockets   • Aggressive  customer  service   • Consistent  and  efficient  network  across  the  country       Brand  History:     Sunil  Bharti  Mittal’s,  Bharti  Airtel  is  an  Indian  company,headquartered  in  Delhi  with   operations  in  about  19  countries  including  some  in  South  Asia  and  Africa.  It  is  one  of   the  leading  providers  of  telecommunication  and  also  offers  Digital  TV  and  IPTV   services  .The  company  operates  in  four  strategic  business  units,  namely  Mobile,   Telemedia,  Enterprise  and  Digital  TV.Airtel  is  the  world's  2nd  larges   telecommunication  service  provider  with  over  275  million  subscribers  across  20   countries  as  of  August  2013.     Brief  Timeline:   • 1983:Sunil  Bharti  Mittal  founder  the  Bharti  Group     • 1986:Sunil  Mittal  incorporated  Bharti  Telecom  Limited  (BTL)  and  the  company   became  the  first  Indian  company  to  offer  push  button  telephones.    
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   7     • 1992:Bharti  won  a  cellular  bid  to  build  a  cellular  network  in  Delhi.     • 1995:  Bharti  incorporated  the  cellular  operations  as  Bharti  tele-­‐ventures  and   launched  the  service  in  Delhi  .Gradually  the  service  was  extended  to  Himachal   pradesh,Karnataka,Andhra  Pradesh,Chennai  and  finally  to  all  29  states  of  the   country.     •  2001  -­‐  Bharti  Tele-­‐Ventures  acquired  NYLIF's  3%  equity  interest  in   Bharti  Cellular    -­‐  Bharti  Telesonic  entered  into  a  joint  venture,  Bharti  Aquanet,   with  SingTel  for  establishing  a  submarine  cable  landing  station  at  Chennai    -­‐   Bharti  Tele-­‐Ventures  issued  additional  equity  for  approximately  US$  481.30   million  to  SingTel,  Warburg  Pincus,  AIF  group,  IFC,  NYLIF,  and  Seejay  Cellular  and   Bharti  Telecom     • 2002:  The  enterprise  went  public  and  the  company  got  listed  on  the  Bombay   Stock  Exchange  and  National  Stock  Exchange  of  India.     • 2003:The  cellular  operation  were  rebranded  under  the  single  Airtel  Brand       • 2009:  They  launched  their  services  in  Sri  Lanka  and  later  in  17  other   international  markets.     • 2010:  Introduced  the  3G  spectrums  in  9  of  13  circles.       • 2011:Llaunched  various  new  and  innovative  products  and  services,  such  as  Airtel   money,  Airtel  call  manager,  Airtel  voice  blog,  Airtel  world  SIM,  Live  Aarti,  Learn   Next,  IPTV,  Airtel  broadband  TV,  Unified  Service  Management  Centre  (uSMC),   Global  Data  Services,  Airtel  digital  TV  recorder,  MAMO  (My  Airtel  My  Offer)  and  i-­‐ Care  directly  and  through  its  subsidiaries.     Airtel  underwent  a  re-­‐branding  process  in  2010-­‐2011  when  it  changed  its  logo   and  look  .The  new  look  was  introduced  to  signify  celebration,  youthfulness  and   liveliness  adding  excitement  to  the  Brand  manifesto.     Major  Achievements  :   • Bharti  Airtel  has  been  voted  as  India  's  most  innovative  company,  in  a  survey   conducted  by  The  Wall  Street  Journal.   • In  the  year  2011  ,Airtel  won  the  'Most  Preferred  Cellular  Service  Provider  Brand'   award  in  the  CNBC  Awaaz  Consumer  Awards  2010  for  the  6th  year  in  a  row.     • Airtel  has  been  voted  the  2nd  Most  Trusted  Service  Brand  in  the  Annual  Economic  
    • Times-­‐Brand  Equity,  Most  Trusted  Brands  survey.   • Airtel  bagged  'Wireless  Service  Provider  of  the  Year'  award  at  the  2008  Frost  &   Sullivan  Asia  Pacific  ICT  Awards.   • Sunil  Bharti  Mittal  adjudged  the  Business  Leader  Transforming  India,  2008  at  the   NDTV  Profit  Business  Leadership  Awards     • Airtel  is  the  market  leader  in  India  with  almost  193.4  million  customers  as  of   2013     Through  the  course  of  our  study,  our  objective  was  to  analyze  the  position  of  the  brand   with  respect  to  its  biggest  competitor  in  the  market:  Vodafone.  Added  to  that,  we  wanted   to  see  where  the  rest  of  the  brands  stood  with  respect  to  the  market  leader  Airtel.   We  surveyed  30  individuals  including  20  females  and  10  males.We  measured  our  results   upon  4  metrics  :  Differentiation,  Relevance  ,  Esteem  and  Knowledge     About  52%  of  our  respondents  use  postpaid  services  and  48%  of  our  respondents  use   prepaid  services.  This  study  more  or  less  focuses  on  an  equal  share  of  the  two  kinds  of   services  offered  by  various  telecom  companies.  This  is  very  different  from  the  actual   stats  of  the  country,  which  reflect  that  96%  of  the  consumers  use  prepaid  services  and   4%  of  them  use  postpaid  services.                                
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   9     QUESTIONNAIRE   1. Name:     2. Gender:   • Male   • Female   3. How  much  is  monthly  expenditure  on  your  mobile  usage?   • 0-­‐300         • 300-­‐1000       • 1000-­‐1500       • 1500  and  more     4. What  is  your  occupation?   ________________     5. Which  telecom  service  provider  are  you  currently  using?  (Esteem,  Relevance)   • Airtel   • Reliance   • BSNL   • Docomo   • Vodafone     6. Which  type  of  service  do  you  use?   • Prepaid             • Postpaid     7. For  how  long  have  you  been  using  these  services?   • Less  than  6  months       • 6  months-­‐1  year       • More  than  1  Year     8. When  you  think  of  telecom  connectivity,  which  are  the  4  brands  that  come  to  your   mind?  (Relevance)   • BRAND  1:   • BRAND  2:   • BRAND  3:   • BRAND  4:   9. Name  3  brands  that  come  to  you  mind  when  you  think  of  telecom?  (Knowledge)   • BRAND  1:   • BRAND  2:   • BRAND  3:   • BRAND  4:    
    • 10. Name  3  telecom  brands  that  come  to  you  mind  when  you  think  of  best  customer  care?   (Knowledge)   • BRAND  1:   • BRAND  2:   • BRAND  3:     11. Name  3  telecom  brands  that  come  to  you  mind  when  you  think  of  best  value  added   services?  (Knowledge)   • BRAND  1:   • BRAND  2:   • BRAND  3:     12. Name  3  telecom  brands  that  come  to  you  mind  when  you  think  of  best  value  for  money?   (Knowledge)   • BRAND  1:   • BRAND  2:   • BRAND  3:     13. How  much  do  you  care  about  your  choice  between  different  telecom  services?  (1-­‐  Not  at   all,  10-­‐  A  lot)  (Differentiator)     14. Which  of  the  following  is  the  brand  that  you  trust  most?  (Esteem)   • Airtel   • BSNL   • Reliance   • Docomo   • Vodafone     15. The  quality  of  understated  brand  is  the  best  (Esteem)   Ø Airtel   Ø BSNL   Ø Reliance   Ø Docomo   Ø Vodafone     16. Consider  Airtel  as  a  brand;  please  tell  me  if  you  feel  if  one/more  of  the  following  brands   have  quite  similar  offerings.  (Differentiator)   Ø Reliance   Ø Aircel   Ø BSNL   Ø Docomo   Ø Vodafone   Ø None     17. Rate  the  following  attributes  in  the  order  of  importance  that  you  would  give  while   purchasing  a  SIM  .(Rank  1-­‐5)  (Relevance)  
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   1 1     Ø Price   Ø Network   Ø 3G  Availability   Ø Customer  Service   Ø Value  Added  Services     18. If  you  consider  Airtel  as  a  brand,  rate  the  following  attributes  from  5  to  1  on  the  basis  of   the  brand  fulfilling  the  criteria.  -­‐  do  this  for  every  other  brand.    (Rank  1-­‐5)  (Relevance)   Ø Price   Ø Network   Ø 3G  Availability   Ø Customer  Service   Ø Value  Added  Services     19. Which  brand  delivers  the  brand  promise  the  most?  (Esteem)   Ø Airtel   Ø Reliance   Ø Docomo   Ø BSNL   Ø Vodafone     20. When  it  comes  to  telecom  provider,  which  of  the  following  would  you  recommend?   (Esteem)   Ø Airtel   Ø Vodafone   Ø Docomo   Ø Reliance   Ø BSNL     21. If  you  consider  BSNL  as  a  brand,  rate  the  following  attributes  from  5  to  1  on  the  basis  of   the  brand  fulfilling  the  criteria.-­‐  do  this  for  every  other  brand.    (Rank  1-­‐5)  (Relevance)   Ø Price   Ø Network   Ø 3G  availability   Ø Customer  Service   Ø Value  Added  Services       22. If  you  consider  Docomo  as  a  brand,  rate  the  following  attributes  from  5  to  1  on  the  basis   of  the  brand  fulfilling  the  criteria.-­‐  do  this  for  every  other  brand.    (Rank  1-­‐5)  (Relevance)     Ø Price   Ø Network   Ø 3G  availability   Ø Customer  Service  
    • Ø Value  Added  Services     23. If  you  consider  Vodafone  as  a  brand,  rate  the  following  attributes  from  5  to  1  on  the   basis  of  the  brand  fulfilling  the  criteria-­‐  do  this  for  every  other  brand.    (Rank  1-­‐5)   (Relevance)     Ø Price   Ø Network   Ø 3G  availability   Ø Customer  Service   Ø Value  Added  Services       24. If  you  consider  Idea  as  a  brand,  rate  the  following  attributes  from  5  to  1  on  the  basis  of   the  brand  fulfilling  the  criteria.  -­‐  do  this  for  every  other  brand.    (Rank  1-­‐5)  (Relevance)     Ø Price   Ø Network   Ø 3G  availability   Ø Customer  Service   Ø Value  Added  Services                                
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   1 3     Results  and  Analysis  of  BAV:     The  percentile  scores  of  all  the  individual  brands  were  calculated  across  differentiation,   relevance,  esteem  and  knowledge  and  then  converted  into  graphs.  Then  the  graphs  were   compared  using  the  below  mentioned  graph  to  find  out  which  category  these  brand  lie   in.                                                               Brand  :Airtel     Competitors:  Vodafone,  Idea,  DOCOMO,  BSNL   Power   Leaders   Mature   Leaders   Niche/   Momentum     New/Undefined     Eroding/Declining    
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   1 5     Airtel:         We  observe  that  Airtel  as  a  brand  is  high  on  differentiation,  knowledge  but  relatively  low  on   esteem  and  relevance.  Airtel  is  the  first  brand  named  by  respondents  in  a  category  of  service   providers.  However  consumers  who  use  the  brand  have  reported  that  Airtel  isn’t  as  high  as  its   biggest  competitor  when  it  comes  to  delivering  brand  promise.  The  brand  has  been  one  of  the   initial  players  in  the  telecom  market  in  India  and  has  various  brand  properties  i.e.  Internet,   DTH  services,  landline  phones.  Also  despite  having  direct  competition  with  Vodafone  in  terms   of  market  share,  Airtel  has  been  able  to  maintain  its  unique  identity  on  the  differentiation  tab.   Users  have  a  differentiated  view  about  the  brand  with  respect  to  its  competitors.  This  makes   the   brand   arrive   at   a   very   high   score   on   Brand   Stature.   Airtel   is   just   two   the   right   of   the   borderline  of  being  a  power  leader  and  a  mature  leader  and  is  clearly  inclined  towards  the   mature  leader  segment  of  the  first  quadrant.                                   70   70   79   75   Esteem   Relevance   Knowledge   Differentiation   Airtel  
    •     Vodafone:             Vodafone  on  the  contrary,  our  respondents  have  rated  Vodafone  extremely  high  on  relevance   and  it  has  been  the  first  brand  that  crossed  their  minds  in  terms  of  recall  value.  As  a  direct   competitor  to  Airtel,  Vodafone  ranks  average  on  Esteem  and  Differentiation.  All  in  all,  these   scores  makes  the  brand  arrive  at  a  very  high  score  on  brand  strength.  Rather  Vodafone  has   been  rated  as  a  clear  Power  Leader  standing  at  the  first  quadrant  of  the  BAV  grid.     Idea:           90   90   83   92   Esteem   Relevance   Knowledge   Differentiation   Vodafone   50   50   64   58   Esteem   Relevance   Knowledge   Differentiation   Idea  
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   1 7     Although  Idea  has  been  in  the  Indian  market  since  a  decade  now,  its  penetration  has   been  extremely  low  with  respect  to  its  counterparts:  Airtel  and  Vodafone.  In  terms  of   percentile  scores,  it  ranks  somewhere  in  the  middle  with  respect  to  Esteem  and   Relevance  and  a  little             above  the  mid  point  in  term  of  Knowledge  and  Differentiation.  It  falls  into  the  category   of  an  undefined  brand  as  per  our  power  grid  statistics.       DOCOMO:           DOCOMO  was  a  late  entrant  into  the  segment  (2008)  and  has  encountered  an  already   established  market  share  of  Vodafone  and  Airtel.  Evidently  it  ranks  low  on  all  of  the  four   attributes  .It  ranks  relatively  high  on  Knowledge  as  compared  to  the  rest  of  the  three   tabs  on  its  graph.  This  indicates  that  while  people  know  about  the  brand,  they  haven’t   yet  shifted  their  telecom  consumption  to  DOCOMO.  This  has  a  direct  implication  on  the   relevance  of  the  brand,  which  stands  at  10  in  terms  of  percentile       BSNL:   30   10   50   25   Esteem   Relevance   Knowledge   Differentiation   DOCOMO  
    •             BSNL  is  a  government  player  in  the  telecom  sector  .Our  respondents  do  not  seem  to  be   big  on  this  brand  although  its  decently  high  on  differentiation  given  its  placement  on  the   BAV  grid  .This  means  that  the  respondents  identify  BSNL  as  a  de-­‐markated  brand   against  its  competitors  ie  Idea  and  BSNL  in  the  Undefine  quadrant  of  the  BAV   grid.However  BSNL  is  extremely  low  in  terms  of  top  of  the  mind  recall  value  and  esteem   value.        Analysis  of  the  4  attributes  measures:     Esteem:     10   30   7   42   Esteem   Relevance   Knowledge   Differentiation   BSNL  
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   1 9         While  Vodafone  has  the  highest  esteem  with  90  percentile,  this  doesn’t  necessarily  imply   that  Airtel  has  been  losing  out  on  brand  esteem  in  the  market.  The  sample  population   was  subjected  to  constraints  in  availability  of  telecom  networks  in  the  locality  as  most  of   them  were  of  a  particular  demographic  located  at  a  single  location.  The  brand  esteem  is   70  percentile,  which  shows  that  Airtel  is  considered  a  reliable  and  respected  brand.               For  deeper  insights,  we  tested  the  customer  experience  in  terms  of  trust,  quality,  and   deliverables  and  how  likely  would  they  recommend  the  brand  to  an  acquaintance.   Vodafone  has  the  highest  number  of  current  users  amongst  our  respondents  and  has   70   90   50   30   10   Esteem   Airtel   Vodafone   DOCOMO   BSNL   Others   0   5   10   15   20   25   airtel   vodafone     bsnl     docomo     idea   reliance   Currently  using   trust   quality   deliverables   recommendation  
    • established  a  high  trust  quotient  with  its  users,  with  Airtel  in  the  second  place.  Airtel  has   a  loyal  customer  base  which  can  be  deduced  the  fact  that  while  Airtel  has  low  current   users,  it  commands  a  higher  level  of  respect.  It  has  been  rated  as  a  quality  leader  with  a   promise  of  delivering  services  at  the  right  time.  Also  our  respondents  claim  that  they   would  recommend  the  brand  to  their  peers  further  on.     Knowledge:                     Brand  knowledge  shows  the  extent  to  which  the  consumers  have  internalized  the  brand   over  a  passage  of  time.  This  part  was  calculated  by  finding  the  top-­‐of-­‐mind  recall  of   customers  of     the  category  products.  It  also  measures  the  knowledge  that  a  respondent  posses  about   the  brand  with  respect  to  its  competitors.     From  the  survey,  we  see  that  amongst  all  brands  in  the  product  category,  Vodafone  is   the  most  well-­‐known  brand,  marginally  ahead  of  Airtel.  Such  high  brand  knowledge   comes  is  a  function  of  effective  customer  service,  high  media  spend  and  usually  comes   for  brands  which  have  been  around  for  a  very  long  time.     When  asked  about  the  1st  brand  that  comes  to  your  mind  when  you  hear  Telecom,   37.5%  people  named  Airtel  and  40%  said  Vodafone.  About  the  best  customer  care,  45%   respondents  voted  for  Vodafone  and  37.5%  for  Airtel.     For  best  value  added  service  provider  again  Vodafone  leads  at  47.5%  followed  by  Airtel   at  40%.  Only  when  asked  about  Best  Value  for  money,  Airtel  clearly  leads  the  pack  at   42.5%  followed  by  Vodafone  at  25%.   83%   79%   64%   50%   7%    Knowledge   Brand  Knowledge   Vodafone   Airtel   Idea   DOCOMO   Reliance  
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   2 1       This  indicates  that  the  brand  is  a  clear  favorite  when  it  comes  to  value  for  money,  but  it   needs  to  build  on  its  Customer  Relationship  and  package  its  value  added  services  and   offers  in  way  that’s  more  useful  for  the  consumer.       Relevance:   To  test  the  relevance  of  the  brand  we  asked  2  sets  of  questions  to  the  respondents.  The   first  was  a  simple  test  of  which  service  provider  were  our  respondents  using  and  what   which  brand  came  to  their  mind  at  the  mention  of  telecom  connectivity.  The  second  set   entailed  the  ranking  of  5  attributes  with  each  of  our  brands  (Airtel,  Vodafone,  Idea,   DOCOMO  and  BSNL)   Before  analyzing  the  above-­‐mentioned  question,  we  checked  for  the  usage  patterns  of   our  sample  size.  While  most  of  our  respondents  look  for  an  effective  network  while   choosing  a  service  provider,  the  least  importance  is  given  to  value  added  services.             On  the  basis  of  this  result:  we  picked  weights  for  the  various  attributes  in  question:   • Network:  0.61   • 3G  Services:  0.15   • Value  Added  Services  :0.  12   • Call  Rates:  0.09   • Customer  Care:  0.03       61%  15%   12%   9%  3%   Most  important  factor  while  choosing  a   service  provider   Network   3G  price/avialability   Value  Added  Services   Call  Rates   Customer  Care  
    •       The  aggregate  score  for  Airtel  turned  out  to  be  70  percentile  against  90  percentile  for   our  rival  brand  Vodafone.  The  most  important  metric  used  for  this  attribute  was  the   telecom  provider  that  our  users  were  currently  using.  The  results  for  this  were  clearly   skewed  towards  Vodafone  (66%)  followed  by  Airtel  (25%).  This  could  be  the  main   reason  why  our  respondents  couldn’t  relate  as  much  to  the  relevance  factor  for  Airtel  as   a  brand.  Nevertheless  the  brand  has  a  decent  sense  of  need  identification  of  its   consumers/target  market.  While  we  asked  our  respondents  to  rank  each  of  the  5  brands   on  5  attributes  namely:  Network,  Customer  Service,  3G  Availability/Price,  Value  added   services  and  customer  service;  we  observed  that  Airtel  lacked  the  quality  of  customer   service  that  Vodafone  has  been  offering  to  its  customers.  Also  wee  noticed  that  about   15%  of  our  respondents  had  witnessed  a  terrible  experience  with  the  brand,  which   made  them  add  adjectives  like  “greed”  and  “cheat”  with  respect  to  their  emotion  about   the  brand.    Nevertheless  Both  Airtel  and  Vodafone  totaled  upto  a  figure  of  24%  that   means  that  both  of  them  are  neck  to  neck  in  terms  of  a  aggregation  of  the  5  services   mentioned  above  (with  their  respective  weights).  Also  a  score  of  70  was  contradictory  to   our  predictions  because  Airtel  has  come  up  with  innovative  products  at  a  regular  basis   i.e-­‐  Create  your  own  postpaid  pack,  mobile  billing,  Airtel  money  etc.  Based  on  the  above   stated  graph,  we  believe  that  Airtel  as  a  brand  should  focus  on  the  changing  needs  of  the   consumers  from  a  100  ft  view  of  the  Brand  offerings             Differentiation:     90   70   50   10   30    Relevance   Relevance   Vodafone   Airtel   Idea   DOCOMO   BSNL  
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   2 3         We  exposed  the  respondents  to  5  different  likert  statements,  each  of  them  showing   Airtel  in  a  different  shades.  The  respondents  were  then  asked  as  to  how  important  were   these  statements  for  Airtel.  The  following  results  were  observed:     • The  Average  rating  was  7.42  out  of  10  for  the  customer’s  preference  between  different   telecom  services.  This  shows  that  there  is  lot  of  scope  for  brand  differentiation.   • Vodafone  got  the  highest  trust  of  58%  followed  by  Airtel  at  33%.  Airtel  needs  to  improve   its  position  in-­‐order  to  sustain  in  the  long  run.  Trust  is  very  important  for  Brand  Royalty.   • We  observe  Vodafone  is  the  main  competitor  to  Airtel  in  terms  of  offering  similar   services.  Airtel  must  come  up  with  new  ideas  to  maintain  its  position  as  a  market  leader.   • People  relate  Airtel  being  reliable  and  also  expensive.  Hence  Airtel  needs  to  convince   people  why  it  is  charging  a  premium  in-­‐order  to  be  differentiated.   • The  main  competitive  advantage  for  Airtel  is  its  Quality  followed  by  Network  Coverage.   If  Airtel  builds  upon  this,  it  can  achieve  high  degree  of  differentiation     However  despite  all  of  these  traits,  the  brand  differentiation  of  Airtel  turned  out  to  be  92   percentile  with  Vodafone  being  as  75  percentile,  quite  against  our  intuition.  The   respondents  did  perceive  Airtel  as  extraordinarily  differentiated.     It  also  shows  that  respondents  have  understood  the  true  essence  of  the  brand.    Airtel  is  a   very  mature  brand  and  needs  to  be  perceived  as  different  from  its  competitors.  This  is   because  declining  differentiation  is  a  dangerous  sign  and  will  lead  to  Airtel  losing  its   numero  uno  position  in  the  Telecom  market.  High  differentiation  will  enable  Airtel  to   earn  a  premium  and  have  an  increasing  operating  income.         92%   75%   58%   25%   42%   8%   Brand  Differentiation   Differentiation   Airtel   Vodafone   Idea   Reliance   DOCOMO   BSNL  
    •   ZMET(ZALTMAN  METAPHOR  ELICITATION  TECHNIQUE)     ZMET  (Zaltmen  1997,  Zaltman  &  Coutler,  1995)  is  a  technique  that  came  up  in  the  early   1990s  to  understand  customer  psychology  by  eliciting  metaphors  that  reveal  important   aspects  of  their  underlying  mental  model.  The  essence  of  a  metaphor  is  understanding   and  experiencing  one  kind  of  thing  in  terms  of  another.  As  per  Zaltman  ,  "A  lot  goes  in   our  minds  that  we  aren't  aware  of  ."Human  behavior  is  extremely  complex  and   multifaceted.  The  rationale  of  the  Zaltman  technique  says  that  at  some  level,  consumers   do  know  what  their  need  but  tools  like  questionnaires,  surveys  and  focus  group   discussions  somewhere  hamper  their  thought  process  and  act  as  a  barrier  for  them  to   express  what  they  want.  The  ZMET  technique  makes  use  of  non-­‐verbal  form  of   communication  with  forms  90%  of  our  overall  communication  everyday.  The  method   goes  further  to  describe  the  voice  of  the  respondent  and  the  concepts  and  ideas  in  the   mind  of  the  respondent.     This   allows   the   researcher   the   opportunity   to   look   at   the   data   in   a   more   varied   and   deeper  ways  than  through  a  traditional  laddering  study.A  study  that  makes  use  of  the   ZMET  approach  actually  leverages  the  mental  mode  of  the  respondent  and  explores  the   meaning  associated  with  various  subsections.       Why  ZMET?   • The  control  is  in  the  hands  of  respondent  and  not  researcher.   • Use  of  metaphor  helps  uncover  the  importance  of  non-­‐verbal  sensory  images.   • Hidden  feelings  and  thoughts  are  revealed.     • Detailed  study  so  more  reliable.   • Reduces  problem  of  consistency.   • Pays  attention  to  cognitive  and  emotional  sides  of  the  brain.   The  technique  specifies  that:   • Not  all  thoughts  get  converted  into  words,  they  occur  as  a  pattern  of  neural  activity   • Human  meaning  can  be  exchanged  non-­‐verbally   • Emotions  and  reasons  are  equally  important   • Cognitions  are  shared  socially     The  Zaltman  Metaphor  Elicitation  Technique  aims  to  measure  emotions  related  to  the   brand  using:   • Storytelling:  How  certain  pictures  relate  to  a  brand  and  the  interviewee's  thoughts  about   the  same   • Missed  Images:  Stories  connected  with  the  images  chosen   • Metaphor  Probe:  If  the  interviewee  could  expand  the  picture  in  all  directions,  what  all   would  he  picture       ZMET  Process  :   • The  interviewees  were  introduced  to  the  subject:  Airtel.  
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   2 5     • The   interviewees   were   than   asked   various   questions   related   to   the   brand   and   its   offerings.   • The   respondents   were   asked   to   collect   10   pictures   or   sketches   related   to   their   interpretation  of  the  question.  They  were  given  24  hours  to  think  about  the  questions   regarding  brand  perceptions.   • We  took  a  sample  size  of  6  respondents  and  each  of  them  was  spoken  to  at  length  at   separate  time  duration.   • Each  respondent  was  asked  to  describe  why  the  pictures  represented  the  question.  He   was   encouraged   to   talk   more   about   the   pictures   and   build   stories   around   them.   This   probing   was   done   to   ensure   that   the   stories   were   in   line   with   their   corresponding   purchase.   • The  respondents  were  also  asked  about  pictures  related  to  ideas  that  they  couldn’t  look   for  to  know  if  we  have  missed  out  on  a  certain  observation.   • Each   interviewee   was   asked   to   describe   why   each   picture   represents   the   concept,   question  or  answer  to  the  question  he  was  asked  to  think  about.  He  was  encouraged  to   get  active  and  tell  stories  related  to  the  pictures.  He  was  probed  to  ascertain  the  key   concepts  in  the  stories  he  told.   • Three-­‐four   random   images   from   among   those   provided   by   the   interviewee   were   selected.  He  was  asked  to  tell  you  how  two  of  the  pictures  were  similar/different  and   how  the  third  was  different/similar  than  the  first  two  in  how  they  relate  to  the  topic  or   question.     • One  of  the  pictures  was  selected  and  the  interviewee  was  asked  to  describe  what  other   actions   might   be   going   on   in   the   scenes   that   are   not   included   in   the   picture.   He   was   asked  to  imagine  himself  and  other  people  and  objects  in  the  scene  pictured,  what  he   would  do  and  how  they  would  feel.  He  was  then  asked  why  those  other  people  or  things   would  be  significant  to  him.     • The  interviewee  was  asked  to  describe  the  question  or  concept  in  nonvisual  metaphors.     • A   digital   collage   of   the   images   was   created.   The   collection   was   used   to   further   understand  the  thoughts  in  relation  to  one  another.                                
    •               Respondent  1         Respondent  2    
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   2 7         Respondent  3      
    •       Respondent  4:           Respondent  5:    
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   2 9         Respondent  6:  
    •       Common  Thoughts:   • Trust   • Loyalty   • Market  Leader   • Stylish/Trendy   • Passion   • Relationship/Service   • Stardom/Glamour   • Quality   • Connectivity   • Socializing/Sharing   • Sports/Sporty   • Speed   • Commitment       Differentiators:   • Worldwide   • Milestone  
    • Brand  Asset  Valuation  :  Airtel   3 1     • Energy   • Personalized   • Pride   • Music   • Speed     • Offers   • Sharing   • Fun   • Youth   • Staying  in  touch   • Peer  acceptance   • Affordable   • Innovative   • Friend   Indian   • Satisfaction       Through  the  course  of  the  exercise,  some  deep  metaphors  where  identified:   • Airtel  is  a  youth-­‐friendly  energetic  brand  that  is  easily  accessible  for  most  consumers.   Most  respondents  connected  the  brand  to  friendship  owing  to  their  recent  –  “Har  ek   friend  zaroori  hota  hai”  campaign.  For  most  of  our  respondents,  it’s  a  way  for  them  to   stay  connected  with  their  friends  and  family  even  if  they  aren’t  current  users  of  Airtel.   • Airtel  has  been  perceived  as  an  easy  going  and  approachable  brand  that’s  well  within   the  affordable  limits  of  our  respondents.  Also  the  respondents  seemed  to  be  well   satisfied  with  the  quality  of  network  coverage  provided  by  the  brand.   • Airtel  has  been  perceived  as  a  creative  brand  in  terms  of  their  advertising.  Also  it  has   been  perceived  as  a  flexible  brand  (reference  to  the  design  your  postpaid  plan).  The   brand  is  believed  to  have  a  high  style  quotient  amongst  its  respondents.   • Airtel  enhances  confidence:  Our  respondents  do  trust  the  brand  to  deliver  its  promise   and  help  them  stay  connected.  We  clearly  noticed  that  trust  has  been  a  common   adjective  associated  with  the  brand.   • However  the  conversations  revealed  that  there  was  a  clear  demarcation  between  Airtel   and  Vodafone  as  brands  when  it  came  to  the  positioning.     Key  Learning’s:     When  we  started  our  ZMET  analysis  we  initially  thought  people  would  relate  Airtel  with   Ease  of  availability,  Network,  Market  Leader  and  most  importantly  the  colour  Red.  We   conducted  this  exercise  with  6  people  .We  were  amazed  to  see  that  most  of  them  could   relate  to  brand  endorsers  like  Shahrukh  Khan  and  A.R  Rehman  .  Also  as  the  relationship   with  the  product  starts  after  the  product  has  been  purchased,  we  relased  that  users   exhibit  high  amount  of  brand  loyalty  to  the  brand  they  prefer.  Given  this  insight,  we  
    • realized  that  Airtel  has  done  a  good  job  in  de-­‐marking  its  service  with  respect  to  its   competitors  in  the  minds  of  the  consumers.  Some  people  related  brand  Airtel  to   initiatives  like  Half  Marathons,  Airtel  Internet  and  DTH  services  as  well.     Also  our  analysis  on  the  BAV  grid  displayed  Airtel  as  a  highly  desirable  brand,  though   completely  at  par  with  its  competitor,  Vodafone.