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Business History: Defining Concepts on Immigrant Entrepreneurship
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Business History: Defining Concepts on Immigrant Entrepreneurship


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  • 1. Entrepreneurship Nur Suhaili RamliUniversity of York, UK
  • 2.  Key factor in economic development Not understood as part of specific social class Not restricted to any certain occupational background Positive characteristics Organized and manage business undertaking Risk for the sake of profit Opportunity, makes plan, start business
  • 3.  Identify needs that newcomer community has not had satisfied Low profit margin Long working hours Chain migration Niche business Process of globalization Important role in disseminating innovative new products and processes
  • 4.  Various obstacles that prevent to find a job Lack of capital  No access to formal financial sources  Rotating Credit Association Long work hours spent Co ethnic employees (solidarity) Ethnic market niche (e.g. ethnic products) Middle-age male immigrants Endogamous marriage (provide help in business)
  • 5.  Start business to take advantage of business opportunity Highly educated  Hold a host-country university degree Part of culture in the business Contribution to the economy Proficient in English Industries of mainstream entrepreneurs of the host country Hire host country employees Middle-age male immigrants Better access to start-up capital Integrated in their host country
  • 6.  Determination and commitment Premigration entrepreneurial mentality Ethnic network Ethnic market niche Risk management Managerial skills Innovative ideas Government pro-immigrant business programs
  • 7.  Most important factor by Schumpeter. He defines “ such changes in economic life as are not forced upon it from without but arise by its own initiative, from within.” (Schumpeter, 1961).
  • 8.  Opportunities in foreign market Lack of business aid source in home country ( e.g. bias) Looking better business survival Opportunity immigrant entrepreneurs International networking and market Frustration Motivation
  • 9.  United States 42.8 millions Russia 12.3 millions Germany 10.8 millions Saudi Arabia 7.3 millions Canada 7.2 millions United Kingdom 7 .0 millions Spain 6.9 millions France 6.7 millions Australia 5.5 millions India 5.4 millions
  • 10.  India 19.3% Poland 14% China 10.0% Pakistan 6.0% Romania 4.9% United States 4.8% Germany 4.1% Ireland 3.7%
  • 11.  Definite job  High skilled workers been relocated Looking for work  Either with tertiary education or no education Family (Accompanied the entrepreneurs) Student (Formal tertiary study) No reason stated Others (working holidays, asylum)
  • 12.  Passenger survey 2007 Development Prospects Group, UNDP 2009 The Economist Pocket World in Figures 2013 Edition The success factors of necessity immigrant entrepreneurs: in search of a Model by Elie Chrysostome, 2010. Entrepreneurs because they are immigrants or immigrants because they are entrepreneurs? A critical examination of the relationship between the newcomers and the establishment by Prescott C. Ensign and Nicholas P.Robinson, 2011