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Branding become important in the last fifteen to twenty years but
historically, it is much more longer than that!
In the nineteenth century, mass produced goods and hand-marked
goods were much further produced because of the world events; World
War, Industrial Revolution, Suez Canal, World Transport
Revolution, Civil Wars, etc.
Branding has developed from property and ownership, origin and
content of goods, values and reputations.
Differential developments in packaging and printing technology are
part of modern industrial nationhood, that differentiate countries like
America, Britain, Japan, Germany and others.
This difference including the different in social, political, economic
contexts of each country.
Therefore, the evolution of brand in history is much more longer than
expected because of the differences in every part of the world.
According to Mollerup (1997), brand-like marks existed long before
industrialization that include monogram, earmarks, ceramic marks,
hallmarks, watermarks and furniture marks.
Some of these marks have been traced to Ancient Greece and Rome.
It also indicate the ownership like people making their weapons or
early craftsmen marking their products.
It also indicate the origin of goods for example the material used to
produce the product, the way it made, the shape, colours, or craft. E.g
China, Persian, Rome.
Descriptive marks have been subject to detailed elaboration over
time, with rules developing, particular qualities, composition and date
The historical emergence of the brand-like marking of goods was
therefore fundamentally related to the expansion of empires.
Different region in the world has different perspective of marks –
depending on the empire on the time.
According to Anderson (2000), branding and tattooing were used in
South Asia as way of marking convicts and preventing them escaping
or passing themselves off as indentured labourers.
During this era, attractive design containers created the demand of the
According to Pavitt (2000), many of successful global brands
established during this era, such as Heinz, Coca-cola, Levi’s, etc.
The development of packaging was itself a major force in the shift
from local agriculture to corporate food production at the turn of
The turn of century is again refer to important world events like
Industrial Revolution, World War, Long Depression, Transport
Therefore, the values around mass-produced brand-name products
that began at this time became connected and established.
During the World War, some industries fallen down and some were
rose like tin, canned food, coal, and many more.
This had increased the productivity of food industry such as Heinz
Transportation like steamship, and trains were popular to deliver
products (goods) in big quantity.
Many important world events during that time were connected and
factors for a brand to be known.
According to Moor (2007), brand names and trademarks on packaged
goods became central to the ‘Americanization’ by newly arrived
immigrations and existing inhabitants living in rural American.
Therefore those brand names were often the most familiar and stable
features of a strange new environment.
People were encourage to buy those brands to show loyalty to the
Based on this, the brands that made in American has been supported
by their people had made the brands became important.
The creation of the Empire Marketing Board, which was set up in 1926
– part of a broader ‘Empire Free Trade Crusade’ – spent huge amounts
of money on poster and promotion.
To produce their own forms of imperial propaganda through their
advertising and other marketing techniques.
According to McClintock (1995), it is clear that the period from the end
of the nineteenth century to the beginning of the Second World War
saw a steady flow and concentrated effort on the part of government.
Therefore, we can see many tea, biscuit and tobacco companies
displayed various images of national and imperial identity on their
Both American and British has different approach – on their brands
In 1930s renewed effort by the British – series of British exhibitions was
displayed and promoted.
To locate the essence of Britishness in the pre-industrial past.
In contrast, industrial design in America was developing rapidly during
the interwar years, and taking on increasingly futuristic forms.
The changes were important to the development of branding which not
only for packaging and advertising but the product itself.
Impact of the Second World War on national economies meant that
American was well placed to exert a considerable influence on the
direction of industrial development.
Many countries received financial aid from American through Marshall
Plan and some German companies were controlled by American
Major Japanese industrialist (e.g. Soichiro Honda, employees of
Matsushita and chairman of Hitachi) visited America to study its
industrial organization and management techniques.
According to Woodham (1997), many American industrial designers
were invited to spend period of time in Japan.
American products (goods) became popular and more successful
global brand created from this country.
Anderson, C. (2000), ‘Godna: Inscribing Indian Convicts in the
Nineteenth Century’, in Jane Caplan (ed.) Written on the Body: The
Tattoo in European and American History, London: Reaktion.
McClintok, A. (1995). Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in
the Colonial Contest, New York and London: Routledge.
Moor, L. (2007). The rise of brands. Berg.
Mollerup, P. (1997), Marks of Excellence: The History and Taxonomy of
Trademarks, London: Phaidon.
Pavitt, J., ed. (2000), Brand New, London: V&A Publications.
Woodham, J. (1997), Twentieth Century Design, Oxford: OUP.