International Cooperation to
Achieve the Education for All Goals
October 8th, 2013
Faculty of Social Science, CUHK
- Strategies and Challenges for UNICEF
and its Partners in Kenya -
• EFA goals and Education Situation in Kenya
• How we work together
• Corruption and SWAP
3. Who is left behind
4. Approach: Are projects right answers? What should
be done under human rights approach
5. What I did not know about education development
6. What should we do? Post 2015 agenda
Located in Eastern Africa.
Bordered with Somalia,
Ethiopia, South Sudan,
Uganda and Tanzania.
Population: 42.7 million
GDP Per Capita: US1,776
Arid and Semi-Arid
• Goal 1: Universal access to learning
• Goal 2: A focus on equity;
• Goal 3: Emphasis on learning outcomes;
• Goal 4: Broadening the means and the scope of basic education.
• Goal 5: Enhancing the environment for learning
• Goal 6: Strengthening partnerships by 2000
• ECDE & Primary education, Learning outcomes, Equity, Youth,
2. How Education Development Policies are
implemented: Partnership Structure at Edu Sector Level
UNESCO JICA CIDA DFID WB, NGO, etc
• Constitution of Kenya 2010
• Government Strategic Paper – VISION 2030
• Education related Acts
– Basic Education Act 2013
– University Act 2013
– Teacher Service Commission Act 2013
– Sports Act 2013
– Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development Act 2013
• Education Policies
– Nomadic Education Policy
– Alternative Provision of Basic Education Policy
– Gender and Education Policy
– Special Needs Education Policy
• Sessional Paper (policy paper)
• Strategic Plan: Kenya Education Sector Support Plan (KESSEP 2013-2017)
• Programs, activities, monitoring
Sector Level Matters
SWAP, Politics, and Education
– Pressure groups: MPs, Civil Society, People, sometimes DPs
– Deal with DPs, embassies (Israel), companies (PCs, milk - innovation or mare
– Multilateral – some are driven by HQ
– Bilateral – driven by the politics of home country. e.g., DFID spends money for
Non-public actors, Impact evaluation.
• In order to access to FTI money, the former education sector plan KESSIP
was developed by the WB.
– Free Primary Education was the most critical political commitment of National
Rainbow Coalition which won the Presidential Election in 2002
– Joint Financial Agreement (WB, DFID, CIDA and UNICEF).
– “Corruption” in 2008 (46 million USD).
– Joint WB, CIDA, DFID vs MOE (UNICEF was floating around quietly).
– Relationship has not been fully recovered. DPs are seen as enemy by the MOE
officials (c.f., UNESCO, UNICEF, USAID).
• GPE changed its philosophy from FIT.
– Fund implementation plan
– Inclusive discussion
– “Seed” Money
3. Who is left behind?
• Abolition of School Fee:
– Free Primary School Policy in 2003.
– Free Day Secondary School Policy 2007.
– Provision of capitation to Pre-schools, partially started in 2012.
• ECDE National Policy
– Education, Health, Nutrition
• Nomadic Education Policy
• Alternative Provision of Basic Education
• Gender in Education Policy
• Special Needs Education Policy
• Refugee Education Policy (on-going)
• Sports Act (Talent Academy)
• But who is really left out?
– Nomadic Populations
– Children with disabilities
ECDE and Devolution
• NER of ECDE is 42% in 2009. Why so low?
• Became a part of compulsory basic education
under Basic Education Act 2013.
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
• ECDE and Youth Polythec
were devolved in 2012.
• Issues: Capacity, finance,
• Huge Regional Disparity, masked by national
• Mobile School
• Low Cost Boarding School
• County Level SWAP
• Partners :DFID & CIDA (over 11 million USD in
…and children with disability
• There is a policy: SNE policy
• Constitutional commitment: Disability representatives at county and
• Organizational commitment (AusAID, UNICEF, DFID, GPE, WB etc etc)
• The 2012 4W (who, what, where, when) of EDPCG has no organization
implementing any disability related program.
• Assuming 3% of children have disabilities, and 50% of them are out-of
school, 1.5% of school-going age children are not attending school.
• Negligible? 96% NER=4% of OOSC. 1.5/4=38% of OOSC have disability?
• OOSCI: Only 1 report have in-depth analysis of disability
• Why systematically neglected?
– Least developing countries?
– Countries like Kenya?
• Critical issue: DATA!!
4. Human Rights and Education: Issues of
in the CRC/COK
Education Sector Related Rights
- Are all the rights monitored regularly?
- Do we know the situation at county
- Are the set of indicators that monitor
rights agreed among stakeholders?
- Are we consistent in measuring rights
Programme approach has a limitation in
terms of monitoring all the rights
UNICEF and MOE’s efforts towards establishing
Rights Based Monitoring System
Meriting Tool + Changes the education sector into
Child-Friendly Education System
ESQAC + Data Collection =
Education Act 2013
•Nomadic education policy
Family tree of human rights in
education sector in Kenya
the Right of the
National and County Level Analysis to
make informed decisions
• Chinese Philosopher
• Human nature has an innate
tendency towards goodness, but
moral rightness cannot be
instructed down to the last
detail. This is why merely
external controls always fail in
Mèng Zǐ (B.C.372-298)
BC: Hindu, Babylonian Code, the Bible, Quran,
1945: End of WWII. Establishment of UN
1989: Convention of the Rights of the Child
2010: Constitution of Kenya
2013: Education Act
English Bill of Rights (1689)
It took a few thousands years to establish human rights as a
modern legal system.
Human being had to go through Colonization, the World Wars to
establish the rights-based international organization.
It is only 1989 when Convention of Rights of the Child developed
It is only last 3 years, Kenya promulgated CoK and enacted the
Basic Education Bill.
It is, to my best knowledge, the first time in the human history
that Education Sector is (will be) equipped with the tool and the
national systems to monitor all the human rights to actualize all
the rights for children.
I call it a true innovation in the scale of human history.
The Key Partner: Head Teacher’s
• Highly recommended, please visit these sites.
5. What I did not know before I went to Kenya
• Development is a second name of Peace
• Emergency is a part of daily life in Kenya.
– 2008 Post Election Violence
– 2011 Horn of Africa Drought
– 2012-13 Inter-community conflicts
– Periodical floods and Droughts
– Frequent Terror attackS
• Imagine how much education is disrupted.
Disaster Risk Reduction
Structure of UNICEF KCO DRR in Education
National and Sub-
Emergency Preparedness and Response
Education Cluster Capacity
Youth life skills
UNICEF Trained all
developers of Kenya
Education in 2012
DRR is essential for…
For Sustainable Development
My Recommendation for
Post 2015 Agenda
– Nomadic education
– Second chance in education
– Youth vocational training
– Life skills
• Mainstreaming human rights in the education
system (standards, accountability, capacity)
• Massive increase in number of children in
primary school during last decade.
• The children are attending school but very little
learning is taking place.
• only three out 10 children in Class Three can read
a Class Two story [in English], while slightly more
than half of them can read a paragraph (UWEZO).