The english learner's guide to chinglish 中式英语之鉴(读者对象 初 ...

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The english learner's guide to chinglish 中式英语之鉴(读者对象 初 ...

  1. 1. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com The English Learners Guide to Chinglish 中式英语之鉴 (读者对象: 初~中级学习者) (不断补充、修订中) 朋友:转载此贴时,请注明来自: 雨巷寻香英语角 http://www.rainlane.comSources:.1.《中式英语》戴丹妮 主编2.《翻译的技巧》钱歌川 编著3.《汉英词语翻译漫话》陈忠诚 著4.《现代英语用法词典》张道真 编5.《英语惯用法大词典》王福祯 徐达山 主编6.《英语常见问题解答大词典》赵振才 编著7.《实用英语正误词典》本词典编写组 编8.《英语典型错落100句》晓夏编辑室 编著9.《向左向右学英语常见错误》叶硕 著10. World Talk, Common Errors in English From A to Z---Co-authored by Liming Jing and Dennis James Le BoeufCollected and Edited by 山定子.Original Posting is at:http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardID=11&ID=12354&page=1说明:所谓[正]和[误],是为便于比较而设的形式而已,是想借此形式为学生学习巩固英语常用习惯用法起助记提醒之作用。所谓[正]、[误]是个相对概念,不是绝对的,有很多表达只是得体与不得体、地道与不地道的问题。考虑初学者接受能力有限,一个单项不益搞得面面俱到或超出能力范围,他们读到的一条只是相对较为得体的一种表达法而已,随着不断的学习,想必其知识自然会扩展和深入的。总之,我们学的是英语,所以就要尽量按英语的表达法说话、造句,克服中式英语自然是我们努力的目标。欢迎网友对本 thread 中的错误和不当之处进行批评指正,在此表示感谢。Index:Page 01: 1-100http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&star=1&replyid=1412&id=12354&skin=0&page=11.扫帚星 2.萝卜青菜,各有所爱 3.嘴硬 4.嘴甜 5.拍马屁 6.把...给甩了 7.社会主义的现代化强国 8.白酒 9.国家主席 10.南北 11.山望着那山高 12.令我们热血沸腾 13.别听他们胡说八道 14.婚外恋 15.掌上明珠 16.懒虫 17.资本 18.休息处 19.怀疑 20.蹲饭吃 21.教得很烂 22.拖后腿 23.找麻烦 24.原来如此 25.迷路了 26.无耻的女人 27.东施效颦 28.不切实际的幻想 29.不大可能 30.一群蚂蚁 31.人口超过12亿 32.网虫 33.夜猫子 34.海龟(归)派 35.情话 36.工作狂 37.记在我的账上 38.挥金如土 39.这只表很贵 40.玩得很愉快 41.冒着大雨 42.演员休息室 43.感到痛 44.亚洲四小龙 45.百里挑一 46.睡得晚 47.一饮而尽 48.去冒险 49.新郎新娘 50.去弄些水来 51.灰心 52.行业的前沿 53.如履薄冰 54.一个舒适的家 55.点名 56.我的学习很忙 57.当二把手 58.几乎没有 59.戴绿帽子 60.站在...身旁 61.毫无价值 62.房间里有... 63.空话 64.死敌 65.名义上 66.信仰 67.感到羞耻 68.十字路口 69.逻辑主语 70.这是我们应该做的 71.您先请 72.布衣蔬食 73.红光满面 74.该吃晚饭了 75.跟着音乐跳舞 76.病情好多了 77.常给我写信 78.0比4的比分 79.有历史意义 80.经典 81.任何人 82.不感到兴奋 83.一个中国人 84.母狼 85.对...略知一二 86.成家 87.宁做鸡头,不做凤尾 88.骄傲的公鸡 89.瘦得像猴子 90.望子成龙心切 91.矮小的房屋 92.爱发脾气 93.按捺激动的心情 94.眼红 95.白开水 96.把课本忘在家里了 97.半决赛98.半饥半饱的 99.母语 100.奔75的人了Page 02: 101-200 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&star=2&replyid=1469&id=12354&skin=0&page=1
  2. 2. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com101.笨鸟 102.笔误 103.口头表决 104.一条瘸腿 105.胃病 106.种子选手 107.把落下的课补上 108.交通繁忙 109.很久以前 110.不要脸 111.擦亮眼睛 112.树上有两只麻雀 113.一块菜地 114.吃顿便饭 115.测量海水的深度 116.超级大国 117.舞池 118.住处 119.淡茶120.主谓一致 121.18栋楼4单元2号 122.有失身份 123.每个月的单号 124.大舌头的人 125.人物 126.大路 127.打开思路 128.攒三聚五129.从生下来一直到死 130.查字典 131.船厂 132.当心碰到脑袋 133.鞋油 134.第三者 135.口误 136.三思而后行 137.口头禅 138.生命短暂而艺术永恒 139.过河莫忘搭桥人 140.习惯成自然 141.上梁不正下梁歪 142.聊胜于无 143.忧愁伤身 144.完蛋了 145.穿一条裤子 146.资质平平 147.搬起石头砸自己的脚 148.信口开河 149.八字还没一撇 150.给人当头泼凉水 151.鸡毛蒜皮的小事 152.软心肠153.我们俩 154.平安无事 155.众口难调嘛 156.明日复明日,明日何其多 157.一日不见,如隔三秋 158.有情人终成眷属 159.多用耳朵,少用嘴巴 160.人言可畏 161.五十步笑百步 162.一粒老鼠屎,坏了一锅汤 163.小人物,大人物 164.三个臭皮匠,顶个诸葛亮165.文人相轻 166.一个巴掌拍不响 167.江山易改,本性难移 168.酒肉朋友 169.白手起家 170.她的靠山 171.心里有数 172.被骂得狗血淋头 173.吹牛 174.别杞人忧天 175.拣了芝麻,丢了西瓜 176.魂不守舍 177.累断了腰 178.物以类聚 179.隔墙有耳 180.半途而废181.最喜欢吃 182.猴年马月 183.请自重 184.从头至尾 185.隐形眼镜 186.月夜 187.天壤之别 188.被人笑话 189.张三李四 190.车速越来越快 191.本来面目 192.又打又拉 193.小菜一碟 194.背黑锅 195.支持你 196.素食者 197.杀鸡取卵 198.三言两语 199.鸡皮疙瘩200.十之八九Page 03: 201-210http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&star=3&replyid=1402&id=12354&skin=0&page=1201.一层漆 202.牛钦 203.山穷水尽 204.贫富 205.大海捞针 206.极其喜爱的 207.失之东隅,收之桑榆 208.塞翁失马,焉知非福 209.此地无银三百两 210.红糖Page 04: 211-220http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&star=4&replyid=1412&id=12354&skin=0&page=1211.红茶 212.三个和尚没水喝 213.人才流失 214.笑掉大牙 215.对牛弹琴 216.白马王子 217.红扑扑的脸 218.被罚了100美元 219.挂羊头卖狗肉 220.像热锅上的蚂蚁Page 05: 221-260http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&star=5&replyid=1422&id=12354&skin=0&page=1221.想要认识格林先生 222.用“it”来作主语 223.用“it”来作宾语 224.结婚 225.跳舞迷 226.有多少人口 227.希望我的父母长寿228.红色的和白色的玫瑰花 229.若干,许多 230.一位很有经验的教师 231.假期从明天开始 232.很高兴接受你的邀请 233.最好 234.错误显然是在你那一边 235.用电力照明 236.你是怎么认识他的 237.我从小就认识他 238.有自己的一幢房子 239.我父亲的朋友 240.该校有三千名学生 241.希望全部破灭了 242.你有必要这样去做 243.囚犯的处死 244.战争结束后 245.介词 after 246.集合名词 247.意义上的主语 248.原因 249.冠词的单数名词 250.一个舞会 251.这机器要修理 252.以分数为主语 253.猫把家里的老鼠一扫而光 254.喝得大醉 255.问路 256.全家人 257.嫁给一个阔人 258.日暮途穷 259.服装不大入时 260.类比Page 06: 261-350http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&star=6&replyid=1432&id=12354&skin=0&page=1261.入不敷出 262.中国制造 263.投生于某家 264.青年 265.语气一致 266.骨瘦如柴 267.守口如瓶 268.沉鱼落雁,闭月羞花 269.瓮中之鳖 270.稳健的货币政策 271.添油加醋 272.独生子女 273.情敌 274.弱肉强食是自然法则 275.科学根据 276.蔬菜变黄了 277.洗钱278.网恋 279.误把...当成... 280.教练车 281.训诫,说教 282.人的贪欲是个无底洞 283.许多观众 284.在报上 285.战争爆发 286.你认为...怎么样 287....如下 289.是...中最热心的 290.不要打扰他的工作 291.首先 292.她脸黄黄的 293.收发信件 294.男男女女 295.病从口入 296.死猪不怕开水烫嘛 297.苦尽甘来 298.详细地 299.从头到脚 300.困境之中 301.交际花 302.酒后之勇 303.笑得肚子都痛了304.昙花一现 305.自己打自己的嘴巴 306.生活有所提高 307.取得了很大成就 308.学知识 309.朝...瞄准 310.发表意见 311.强硬政策312.省吃俭用 313.被风吹病了 314.茶树 315.淡季 316.大事 317.虚拟语气 318.拜年 319.第三产业 320.低调 321.恭喜发财 322.口是心非 323.早恋 324.一刀切 325.一次性筷子 326.摇钱树 327.希望工程 328.无氟冰箱 329.水墨画 330.身体素质差 331.神州行电话卡332.股票上市 333.三角债 334.不能共患难的朋友 335.朦胧诗 336.不正之风 337.副教授 338.站票 339.君子之交淡如水 340.虎父无犬子 341.这件事告诉我们 342.花茶 343.人的生活问题 344.特价品 345.竹制品 346.行动 347.落汤鸡 348.面如土色 349.免费入场 350.母细胞和子细胞Page 07: 351-400http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&star=7&replyid=1442&id=12354&skin=0&page=1351.人和动物不同 352.烂醉如泥 353.以卵击石 354.天网恢恢,疏而不漏 355.掩面而泣 356.知道分寸 357.了解内幕 358.卷铺盖走人359.目光相遇 360.伴君如伴虎 361.咬紧牙关 362.无米之炊 363.地道的美国人 364.易如反掌 365.截然不同 366.铁公鸡 367.令他惊喜的礼物 368.“八”字 369.大概有三四个孩子 370.陪年迈的祖父去看电影 371.犯了一个拼写错误 372.任何人都不得 373.主要特点374.在艺术界 375.刷新以前的纪录 376.不要再费口舌了 377.引狼入室 378.坐冷板凳 379.死胡同 380.死不瞑目 381.善意的谎言 382.鬼迷心窍 383.嘴皮都磨破了 384.白吃白喝 385.中圈套,眼中钉 386.昨天晚上 387.你今年多大了 388.产量逐年增加 389.坚持一切正确的东西 390.小说的作者 391.敬献花圈 392.许多人受伤了 393.过去的状态 394.should + 动词原型 395.would rather后面跟从句时396.would rather 后接 have + 过去分词 397.客气的询问 398.你喜欢... 399.未来的教师 400.would you please do zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  3. 3. Page 08 zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.comhttp://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&star=8&replyid=1452&id=12354&skin=0&page=1Page 09: 401-440http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardID=11&ID=12354&star=9&page=1401.有价值的访问 402.那座寺庙值得一看 403.有价值的 404.他值得我们尊重 405.值得的 406.it is worth buying 的句型 407.非常值得408.你得容忍他 409.惊人的记忆力 410.be able to 411.摒弃旧习俗 412.1977年前后 413.我们正要动身 414.大约八九岁 415.不做,不屑,不至于 416.从海外来 417.他在吗---不在 418.吸收知识 419.寻找住处 420.由...陪同 421.自愿 422.依我看 423.达到了目标 424.认识 425.过河 426.干了件...事 427.行为 428.当前的一个问题 429.国际事务 430.接待室 431.润色 432.比...有很大优点 433.广告 434.建议开车去 435. 病人 436.产生 437.影响 438.容许 439.两个星期后 440.最后Page 10: 441-480http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&star=10&replyid=5885&id=12354&skin=0&page=1441.老教师 442.在晚年 443.批准 444.赞同 445.在某件事上同意某人的意见 446.助听器 447.达到目标 448.目的是做一名教师 449.英国之行的目的 450.打算 451.空中 452.房间通风不好 453.安装了空调 454.两架飞机 455.相反 456.外国人 457.相似的 458.都很疲劳459.把它们都吃了 460.从...起,雨一直下个不停 461.所有的孩子 462.整个夏天 463.双亲 464.工农业生产 465.都没 466.不允许抽烟467.几乎没有 468.几乎不... 469.几乎 470.独立工作 471.仅有一棵树 472.准备好 473.改变 474.山高两千米 475.一起 476.不断地抓挠477.一直帮助 478.我搞错了 479.漂亮的美国小女孩 480.友好地Page 11: 481-482http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&star=11&replyid=5950&id=12354&skin=0&page=1481.介词 between 482.我们和他之间Page 12: 483-520http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&star=12&replyid=5975&id=12354&skin=0&page=1483.慰问团 484.误用add 485.足够的 486.花去的钱数额 487.数量随...增加 488.自己快乐 489.使人愉快 490.等等 491.对“事”生气492.too...to do 结构 493.她是个忙人 494.法律宣布 495.任何一个人 496.有什么重要的内容吗 497.比...其他任何人都 498.被...山景迷住了 499.他显得很伤心 500.不要以貌取人 501.无辜的面孔 502.apply oneself to... 503.深感赞赏的 504.非常感谢你的厚意 505.非常感激 506.我从不赞成的 507.易于...的 508.一大笔钱 509.15分钟 510.已经发生了困难 511.现代艺术 512.有审美力的 513.趁打折时买的 514.她是个明星 515.插座 516.我的女朋友 517.办公室很宽敞 518.我有很多男性朋友 519.公寓大楼 520.地勤人员Page 13: 521-540http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&id=12354&star=13#6079521.他很有趣 522.减价 523.是个好消息 524.一则重要的消息 525.医生 526.走着去大约只有十分钟的路 527.依...来看 528.影响 529.我到了之后 530.两周后 531.在50岁时 532.有三年了 533.三年 534.不许抽烟 535.都说英语 536.又花了三天时间 537.不胜感激 538.向乘客保证 539.出席 540.劣行Page 14: 541-http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=11&replyid=6079&id=12354&page=1&skin=0&Star=14541.打(篮)球01.有他这颗扫帚星,什么事情都办不成。[误] With a comet like him, nothing can be accomplished.[正] With a jinx like him, nothing can be accomplished.注:“扫帚星”是中国人对“慧星”(comet)的俗称,因其后面象拖着的一条像扫帚一样的长尾巴而得名。在中国古代,“扫帚星”被认为是灾难的预兆,并被用来比喻不吉利的人或事;祸根:(person or thing that is thought to bring)bad luck(to sb/sth);curse。英语的 comet 虽然没有这层含义,但却有一个对应的说法,即 jinx。 例:Theres a jinx on/Someones put a jinx on this car: its always giving me trouble. “这辆汽车上有什么妨人的东西,总给我找麻烦”。02.萝卜青菜,各有所爱。[误] Some prefer radish but others prefer cabbage. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/[正] Tastes differ.
  4. 4. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com注:Tastes differ/vary 是句英语谚语,除此以外,原句还可翻译成:No dish suits all tastes. / You can never makeeveryone happy. / All things fit not all persons. / Every man has his hobbyhorse[liking]. / Every man[one] tohis(own) taste. / It is difficult to cater for[to] all tastes. / It is hard to suit all tastes. / No dish suits alltastes. / Some persons like to eat radishes, others prefer cabbages--peoples tastes are various. / There is noaccounting for tastes. / There is no disputing about tastes. 等。《新概念英语》第三册第23课的标题是:One mansmeat is another mans poison.03.他一向嘴硬,从不认错。[误] He has always got a hard mouth and never admit a fault.[正] He never says uncle.注:say (cry) uncle: to give up or in; to surrender; to admit defeat. Mainly used by boys, as when fighting。主要是男孩们打架时的用语,当一方想制服另一方时,就用命令的口气说:“Say uncle!”这时,有的孩子为了表示不服输,就是不说。后来,say uncle 就成了“服输”的代名词,而 not say uncle 就相当于“嘴硬”了。http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardID=11&ID=20626&page=1以下是引用Yeti在2006-4-29 5:57:35的发言: The Chinese translation is not entirely correct. To say (or cry) “uncle” is to yield or surrender.So it may or may not be just 嘴特别硬. See “Cry Uncle” Comics Quiz#9http://www.rainlane.com//dispbbs.asp?boardID=27&ID=6792  http://www.rainlane.com//dispbbs.asp?boardID=27&ID=6792以下是引用Yeti在2003-9-22 9:47:22的发言:The single word the American GI uttered was not U.N. cle, but "uncle."The satire is that he (i.e. the American Government) is not calling the U.N. for help, but rather, "crying uncle" or "saying uncle."Since the dictionary can explain it better than I can, I will just quote the answerdirectly from a dictionary.Source: http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=say%20uncleIdiom:cry/say uncle InformalTo indicate a willingness to give up a fight or surrender:Example: tickled my brother until he cried uncle.04.老师很喜欢这个嘴甜的小姑娘。[误] The teacher likes this sweet-mouthed little girl very much.[正] The teacher likes this honey-lipped little girl very much.注:中国人喜欢说“嘴甜”,但 honey-lipped 更符合英美人的语言习惯。05.同学们都很讨厌他,因为他经常拍老师的马屁。[误] The student all dislike him because he often pats the teachers ass.[正] The students all dislike him because he often licks the teachers boots.注:以前在欧洲,臣民见到国王与王后往往要葡匐到在,亲吻他们的靴子。后来,人们将 lick the boots 引申为“为了某种目的而讨好某人”,它与汉语的“拍马屁”含义一样。在美国英语中,“拍马屁”还有另一种说法,即 polish the apple,它典出以前的学生用擦亮的苹果来讨好老师。06.你听说了吗?迈克把他的女朋友给甩了。[误] Have you ever heard that Mike broke up with his girlfriend.[正] Have you ever heard that Mike dumped his girlfriend.注:break up with sb. 虽然表示“与某人分手了”,但并没说明是谁先提出来的。而 dump 的原意指“倾倒垃圾”,用在这里则表示像倒垃圾一样地甩掉。07.我们要把祖国建设成为社会主义的现代化强国。[误] We will build our motherland into a socialist modern powerful country.[正] We will build our motherland into a modern powerful socialist country. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/注:形容词作为修饰语在汉语和英语中都很常用,但使用的先后次序却有所不同。在英语中我们一般遵循“靠近原则”,即越能说
  5. 5. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com明本质属性的修饰词越靠近它所修饰的名词,当从这一点看不出区别时,就靠词的长短来决定,短的在前,长的在后。原文中最能说明“国家”本质的定语是“社会主义的”,所以 socialist 要最靠近它所修饰的中心词。08.我想要一点白酒。[误] Id like a little bit of white wine.[正] Id like a little bit of liquor.注:汉语的“酒”可指任何酒,包括白酒、葡萄酒、啤酒,甚至米酒;但英语中则要分别用 liquor,wine,beer及 rice wine表示。所以要注意,英语的wine与汉语的“酒”是有区别的,它仅指点葡萄酒。而且 red wine 是红葡萄酒,white wine 是白葡萄酒。***此题待商榷。请参见:http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardID=11&ID=10536 ***09.中华人民共和国主席[误] Chairman of the Peoples Republic of China[正] President of the Peoples Republic of China注:以前,我们一直将“主席”翻译为 chairman,例如:great leader Chairman Mao(伟大领袖毛主席)。其实“主席”与chairman 并不等义,chairman 在英语中通常指会议或某一具体组织的负责人,它的权力和重要性不及中文的“主席”。这就是为什么1983年,在我国《宪法》的英译单行本中开始使用 President一词,并沿用至今。另外,国内仍有不少词典把“班/级长(学校的)”译为“class monitor”,这是“四人帮”时代的产物,那时的“班长”是专司监管学生的,所以译作“monitor”。而“班长”的正确译文应该是“class president”。10.转战南北[误] fight south and north[正] fight north and south注:在地理方位的表达习惯上,中英文有一定的区别。中国人习惯于先“东西”后“南北”,而且在涉及“南北”时,习惯于先说“南”,再说“北”,如:“南征北战”、“南来北往”等。而英美人与此正好相反,如“江苏在中国的东南部”英文是 Jiangsu is inthe south-east of China, 而“新疆在中国的西北部”应译为 Xinjiang is in the north-west of China。11.人都是这山望着那山高,对自己的现状没有满意的时候。[误] Almost all people think that the other mountain is higher than the one hes standing on. They never feelsaisfied with what theyve already got.[正] Almost all people think that the grass is greener on the other hill. They never feel saisfied with whattheyve already got.注:“这山望着那山高”是指人不满足于现状的心理,它在英语中已经有了现成的说法,即 the grass is greener on the otherhill(他山的草更绿),因此我们借用即可,这样既方便又更有利于与西方人沟通。12.北京申奥成功的消息令我们热血沸腾。[误] Beijings winning the bid for the Olympics makes our blood boil.[正] Beijings winning the bid for the Olympics makes us excited.注:make ones blood boil 是指“激怒某人”,而非“使人激动”。英语中“使人激动”的说法除了 make one excited,还有较为口语化的 make ones spine tingle。13.别听他们胡说八道,根本就没那回事。[误] Dont listen to their babbling. Nothing of the sort.[正] Dont be fooled by their babbling. Nothing of the sort.注:原文中的“听”不能用 listen to 来表示,因为 listen to 指“听”的动作,而原文中的“别听”不是不让他“听”,而是劝告他“不要听信”,因此,用 not be fooled by 才更达意。14.我们这儿的人都觉得他有婚外恋。[误] Pepple around here all feel that he has affairs outside his own marriage.[正] Pepple around here all feel that he is leading a double life. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/注:affair 本身就指“私通”或“暧昧关系”,当然是“婚外”的事,所以 outside ones own marriage 无疑是多此一举了。英语
  6. 6. zycnzj.com/中“有婚外恋”的地道说法应该是 lead a double life。 www.zycnzj.com15.别看别人不把她当回事,在家里她可是父亲的掌上明珠。[误] Although other people never take her seriousy, she is the pearl on her fathers hand at home.[正] Although other people never take her seriousy, she is the apple of her fathers eye at home.注:中英文常用不同的喻体表明相同的喻义,“掌上明珠”与 the apple of ones eye 就是一个很好的例子。这种情况我们一般应尊重各国文化和习俗,翻译时取目的语的固定说法,而不必直译,这有助于将意思更有效地传达给读者。the apple of oneseye 源自圣经《旧约》,当时人们用 apple 指人的瞳孔。尽管瞳孔现在已经用 pupil 来表示,不再是 apple 了,但这一用法却延续了下来。16.都十点钟了。起床了,懒虫![误] Its ten oclock. Get up, lazy worm![正] Its ten oclock. Get up, lazy bones!注:“懒虫”并非真是一条虫,只不过被用来形容人很懒惰罢了。英语里与之对应的说法是 lazy bones(懒骨头)。注意,这里的 bone 应以复数形式出现,也许是因为不会只有一根骨头懒吧!17.我唯一的资本就是勤奋。[误] My only capital is diligence.[正] My only means to success is diligence.注:原文的“资本”是借喻,实际指“可以依靠并取得成功的手段”。而英语的 capital 指 money used to produce morewealth or for starting a business,并没有中文那样的引申意思。所以,这里的“资本”不能与 capital 画等号。也有人用advantage 来翻译“资本”,虽然不尽意,但至少可以让读者理解。18.这家商店开辟了休息处,受到顾客的称赞。[误] This department store has set up a resting-place, much to the customers appreciation.[正] This department store has set up a lounge, much to the customers appreciation.注:英语的 resting-place 虽然有“休息处”的意思,但更经常的是用来指“坟墓”,即“最后安息之处”。因此,把公共场所的“休息处”译为 resting-place 不很合适。也有人将它译为 rest-room,但那更不妥当,因为英语中的 rest-room 是“厕所”的委婉说法,而“休息处”不是这个意思。19.大家都怀疑汤姆是个间谍。[误] Everyone doubts that Tom is a spy.[正] Everyone suspects that Tom is a spy.注:doubt 作“怀疑”讲,是“不相信”的意思;而 suspect 作“怀疑”讲,是指“对...有所察觉”。第一句译文犯了两个错误:首先,doubt 不能接 that 从句,只有not doubt that 和 doubt if/whether;其次,它所表达的意思是“大家对汤姆是间谍这件事表示怀疑”,即“大家不相信汤姆是间谍”,与原文的意思恰好相反。20. 我们俩关系最好,他经常来我这儿蹲饭吃。[误] We are best friends. He always comes here to have meals for free.[正] We are best friends. He always comes here to bum meals off me.注:第一句只表明“他常到我这儿来白吃白喝”,但朋友这间那种亲密关系没有体现出来。而 bum sth. off sb. 指向非常熟的朋友要一些不起眼的小东西,而朋友也不会介意还不还。21. 这个教授教得很烂。[误] The professor teaches badly.[正] The professor is so terrible.注:有人认为第二句的意思是“这个教授很可怕”,其实不然。英语中 terible 意思很灵活,例如:feel terrible 指身体“不舒服”; The food is terrible 则是说食物“难吃极了”。而第一句纯属中文式的表达。22. 我希望你不要拖我的后腿。 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/[误] I hope that you wont pull my leg.
  7. 7. zycnzj.com/[正] I hope that you wont hold me back. www.zycnzj.com注:pull ones leg 是“愚弄某人,开某人的玩笑”的意思,相当于 make fun of sb.。英语中与“拖后腿”相对应的表达是 holdsb. back 或 be a drag on sb. 等。23. 学校里,那些长得人高马大的家伙常来找我的麻烦。[误] At school, those big and strong guys always come to find my trouble.[正] At school, those big and strong guys always come to pick on me.注:find my trouble 是“发现我的难处”的意思,而英语中“找某人的麻烦”用短语 pick on sb. 它不仅表示“挑剔某人、找某人的碴”,而且还包含 tease(取笑、戏弄)或 bully(威胁、欺侮)的意思。24. 原来如此。一经你解释我就明白了。[误] So it is. I understand soon after your explanation.[正] So thats how it is. I understand soon after your explanation.注:So it is 的意思是“的确如此”,它是用来表示对对方观点的赞同的。例如:A: It is a fine day today!B: So it is.而在表达恍然大悟时,英文要用 So thats how it is 或 So that explains it, 或更简单地道的说法 Oh, I see.25. 先生,您是不是迷路了?[误] Hello, monsieur, get lost?[正] Hello, monsieur, got lost?注:这两句译文表面上看只是时态上存在差异,其实它们的含义也截然不同。get lost 是俚语:“走开,别捣乱”的意思,gotlost才是“迷路”。难怪当你友好地问外宾 "Get lost?"时,他并不领情呢!Please see:http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp?boardid=8&id=13364&star=1#65796(1) get lost!: go away"I wish hed get lost and stop bothering me. I dont want to talk to him!"---Dennis Olivers Idioms: http://www.eslcafe.com/idioms/id-g.html(2) Get lost! INFORMALused to tell someone forcefully and quite rudely to go away:Tell him to get lost!(from Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary) http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?dict=CALD&key=47316(3)《英汉大词典》p.1055:We got lost in the woods. 我们在森林中迷路了。(4) 张道真《现代英语用法词典》p.820-821:He lost his bearing(迷失方向)in the strange city.(5) 在...中迷路,迷失在...We were lost in the forest.We are lost in the woods.* lost onee way 迷路She had lost her way.Dont lost your way in the storm. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/(6)《汉英大词典》上海交大版;金山词霸2005:
  8. 8. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com均收录了 get lost 为“迷路”;而“金山词霸2005”把“get lost”和“got lost”均列为“迷路”。但都没有例句。有关迷路的常见说法:1) to get lost(常用)I wouldnt have gotten lost, if I had asked for directions.要是我问过路,就不至于迷路了。2) to lost ones way(正式)The child had lost his way.那个小孩迷路了。3) to take the wrong road(不常用)Finally we found ourselves having taken the wrong road.最后,我们发觉我们迷路了。4) to go the wrong way(常用)I am afraid we are going the wrong way.恐怕我们走错路了。5) so lose ones bearings(正式)One might lose his bearings in an unfamiliar place.一个人在不熟悉的地方最容易迷路。6) cant find ones way(常用)They went on in the desert until at last they couldnt find their way.他们在沙漠里继续走,直到他们最后迷了路。7) to stray(正式)They strayed in the woods.他们在森林中迷路了。(to go astray:走入迷途,走上歧途)Today I came across get lost in The Invisible Man ---H. G. Wells:"Im not trying to run away, I swear," protested Marvel tearfully. "I dont know these roads and I dont wantto get lost."=================================================================26. 我没料到这个无耻的女人居然同她好友的丈夫调情。[误] I had not expected that this shameful woman should flirt with her best friends husband.[正] I had not expected that this shameless woman should flirt with her best friends husband.注:shameful 通常指某事物是“可耻的,丢脸的”,而 shameless 表示 having or showing no feeling of shame;immodest or impudent,它一般用来指人“不知羞耻的,不要脸的”或“伤风败俗的”。原文也可译为:Its shameful that thewoman should flirt with her best friends husband.27. 东施效颦。[误] Doingshi imitates Xishi.[正] The ugly imitates the beautiful in such a distorted way that the ugliness of the ugly becomes worse.注:把原文按照字面意思直译过来,恐怕只有中国人能够理解。要想让外国人明白这个中国成语,就要对译文进行解释性加工了。同样,“情人眼里出西施”不是 Xishi is in the eye of the beholder,而是 Beauty is in the eye of the beholder。28. 你不好好学习,还想去牛津上大学。这可真是个不切实际的幻想哟![误] You dont study hard, yet you want to go to Oxford. What an impractical illusion![正] You dont study hard, yet you want to go to Oxford. What an illusion!注:汉语中的修饰语往往用的很多,目的在于加强语气,但这种表达习惯在翻译时必须进行处理。illusion 本身就有impractical 的含义,而英语中在表意已经很明确的情况下是无需重复的。 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/29. 想让他答应这样的要求恐怕不大可能。
  9. 9. [误] Im afraid it is impossible for zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com him to agree to such a request.[正] Im afreaid it is unlikely for him to agree to such a request.注:impossible 表示“完全不可能”,所以与原文有出入。在英语中,probable 表示的可能性最大,其次是 possible,再次是likely。而常用的句式为 it is probable/possible/likely for sb. to do sth.,或 sb. be likely to do sth.。30. 一群蚂蚁[误] a group of ants[正] a colony of ants注:表示群体时,group 通常指人或物,而 colony 才指生物群体。The Chinglish Files have been featured in the U.K. newspaper "The Telegraph" and on the BBC radio program"The World Today."Chinglish: The humorous version of English that appears (often in instructions for assembling or usingproducts) after a translation from the original Chinese (or any other language) fails to come across in"normal" English.The term Chinglish is a fusion of the "Chin" from Chinese and the "glish" from English. Chinglish is not a racistor bigoted term and should not be taken as such. If anything, The Chinglish Files are a way of poking fun athow difficult our flawed English language can be to translate at times. It is not intended as a dig at theintelligence or linguistic capabilities of other nations. Anyway, thats enough "serious" discussion already...time for some fun:(a * indicates the more popular featured pieces of Chinglish - The newest pieces of Chinglish are at thebottom of the page)http://www.silverladder.com/literature/chinglish/chinglish.htm<a%20target=_blank%20href=http://www.cjvlang.com/Spicks/fengqing.html>http://www.cjvlang.com/Spicks/fengqing.html</a>http://www.cjvlang.com/Spicks/fengqing.html31. 最近的人口统计显示中国人口已超过12亿。[误] The latest census shows that Chinas population has surpassed 1.2 billion.[正] The latest census shows that Chinas population exceeds 1.2 billion.注:surpass 和 exceed 译成中文虽然都是“超过,胜过”的意思,但出现具体数字时要用后者。32. 我每天都要在网吧里呆上10个小时,是个不折不扣的网虫。[误] I spend 10 hours in the net bar every day, and I am indeed a net bug.[正] I spend 10 hours in the net bar every day, and I am indeed a netter.注:“网虫”要是直译成 net bug,很容易使人联想到计算机病毒,如:the millennium bug(“千年虫”病毒)。所以,英语中与之相应的说法是 netter/nettle。在《剑桥国际英语词典》里,对 netter/nettle 的解释是:regular user of Internet,perhaps one who spends too much time in this occupation。nethead 和“网虫”的意思差不多,它表示“网痴,网迷”;而 netizen 则可以用来指所有的网民,尤其是互联网的用户,它是由 net(网络)和 citizen(公民)组合而成的。还有一个时髦的词是 netsurfer,即“网上冲浪者”。33. 每次考试来临的时候,约翰就变成了一只夜猫子,但这并不是一个好的学习方法。[误] John becomes a night cat every time the examination is coming. However, this is not a good way to learn.[正] John becomes a night owl every time the examination is coming. However, this is not a good way to learn.注:owl 是“猫头鹰”的意思,即一种深夜不睡,睁一只眼,闭一只眼,准备随时捕捉田鼠的动物。英语中用 night owl 来比喻经常熬夜的人,就像我们习惯用“夜猫子”一样。不论叫你“夜猫子”还是 a night owl,“开夜车”(burn the midnight oil)总是免不了的。34. 现如今,由于出国深造的人越来越多,“海龟(归)派”也不像原来那样吃香了。[误] Nowadays as more and more people study abroad, the overseas students are not so popular as before. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/[正] Nowadays as more and more people study abroad, the returnees are not so popular as before.
  10. 10. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com注:“海龟(归)派”是指那些在国外留学以后又回来的人,是个非常形象的新名词。但 overseas student 是指正在国外学习的“留学生”,意思正好相反,所以要换成 returnee。这个词本身就包含在海外学习过的意思。35. 在皎洁的月光下,那个花花公子在我耳边悄悄说着情话。[误] The playboy whispered love words to my ear with a bright moon in the sky.[正] The playboy whispered sweet nothings to my ear with a bright moon in the sky.注: 因为“情书”是 love letter,“情歌”是 love song,所以不少人以为“情话”就应该是 love words,其实并非如此。英语中“情话”常用 loversprattle 或 sweet nothings 来表达。prattle 有“孩子话,废话”的意思,所以 lovers prattle 指“恋人之间孩子气的废话”;sweet nothings 更是一目了然,有“甜蜜而不中用”的意思。36. 比尔.盖茨平均每天工作15个小时,他简直就是一个工作狂。[误] Bill Gates works 15 hours a day on average, and he is crazy about his work.[正] Bill Gates works 15 hours a day on average, and he is a workaholic.注: crazy 虽然可以作“疯狂的,狂热的”讲,但 be crazy about/on sth. 的意思却是“热衷于...,对...着迷”;be crazy for也不行,因为它表示“渴望(某物);迷恋(某人)”。可见,它们都与“工作狂”有一定区别。而 workaholic 是从 alcoholic(嗜酒成癖者)派生出来的,表示像酗酒者离不开酒精一样地离不开工作。现在人们将 -holic 作为一个后缀,表示“对...上瘾,嗜好...成癖”,并构成了许多新词。例如:movie-holic(嗜好电影成癖的人),telehokic(看电视成癖的人)等。37. 给这们女士来杯威士忌,记在我的账上。[误] Whisky for this lady, and put it on my bill.[正] Whisky for this lady, and put it on my tab.注: 我们可以说 Could we have the bill, please? (请给我们账单好吗?)或 pay the bill(埋单),但“记在某某的账上”却不用 bill,而要用 put...on ones tab 表示。tab 是“小纸片”的意思,因为过去小店的生意都是靠住在附近的老主顾,赊账时有发生,于是老板们通常把每个人的赊账情况记在各自的小纸片上,也就是 put...on ones tab,以防遗忘。渐渐地,该词组就成了一种习惯用法。38. 哈罗得挥金如土,没有一点积蓄。[误] Harold spends money like dirt, and has no savings.[正] Harold spends money like water, and has no savings.注: 英国是一个岛国,离不开水;而我们中国的许多地区深处内陆,人们的生活离不开土地。所以,英语中有许多习语与“水”有关,而汉语却常常拿“土”作比。这就是为什么同样是比喻花钱浪费,大手大脚,英语是 spend money like water,而汉语却是“挥金如土”。此外,英语中还有很多有关船和水的习语,例如:rest on ones oars(暂时歇一歇),keep ones headabove water(奋力图存),be all at sea(不知所措)等等。39. 这只表的价钱很贵。[误] The price of the watch is dear.[正] The watch is dear. /The price of the watch is high.注: 以物品为主语时用 dear 或 cheap,以定价为主语时就说 high 或 low.40. 昨天晚上我们玩得很愉快。[误] We played very pleasantly last night.[正] We enjoyed ourselves very much last night./ We had a good time last night.注: 玩牌,打球,演戏之类就用 play,汉语这儿说的玩是指度过一个愉快的时候,最好译成 enjoy oneself 或 have a goodtime.41. 她和男朋友吵了一架,冒着大雨跑了出去。[误] She quarreled with his boyfriedn and ran out in the big rain.[正] She quarreled with his boyfriedn and ran out in the heavy rain.注: 汉语中的“大”可以修饰很多名词,如“大风”、“大浪”、“湿气大”等,但在英语里却不能一一对应。例如,“大雨”就不能译成 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/big rain,因为那会被人误以为是雨点大,而不是雨大。英美人形容雨大习惯用“重”(heavy),heary rain(大雨),heavy
  11. 11. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.comclouds(云雾大),heavy moisture(潮气大)等,这也许是因为他们认为有些事物用重量来衡量比用体积更好吧。42. 歌迷们冲进演员休息室,抢着同凯莉.米纳合影。[误] The fans rushed into the rest room trying to take photos with Kylie Minogue.[正] The fans rushed into the greenroom trying to take photos with Kylie Minogue.注: 伦敦西区的特鲁街剧院是英国最古老的剧院,据说为了让演员们长时间处于舞台强烈灯光照射下的眼睛得到休息,那里的演员休息室被漆成了绿色。后来,greenroom 就逐渐成了“(剧场)演员休息室”的代名词。而 rest room 可不是这个意义上的“休息室”,它其实是“厕所”的一种委婉说法。43. 我感到很痛。[误] I am painful.[正] I feel great pain.注:“我感到高兴”是 I am happy,“我感到累了”是 Im tired,但“我感到很痛”却不是 I am painful。因为 painful 表示“使人痛苦的,让人疼痛或讨厌的”,它的主语往往不是人,而是事物或人体的某个部位,如:The foot is painful(脚痛),Thelessons are painful(教训是惨痛的)等。所以没有 I am painful 这个说法,如果你非要这样说,别人会以为你全身带电或浑身长刺,别人碰了你就会疼,是你让别人痛苦,而不是你自己痛苦。44. 亚洲四小龙。[误] the Four Little Dragons of Asia[正] the Four Little Tigers of Asia注: 在我国古代传说中,龙是降雨和惩治妖魔鬼怪的神奇动物,是吉祥和力挽狂澜的象征。很多汉语成语与“龙”有关,如“龙飞凤舞”、“龙凤呈祥”、“藏龙卧虎”等,而且多为褒义词。但如果把“四小龙”直译成英文却不行,因为西方人对“龙”的联想和看法与中国人完全不同。“龙”(dragon)在西方是贬义词,是邪恶的免征,西方人不会理解为什么要把亚洲经济的四个强国说成“四个小魔鬼”,所以要用 tiger 进行替换。在西方人眼里,tiger “是朝气蓬勃、坚忍不拔、努力奋斗、充满希望”的免征,所以用 tiger才能准确表达原文的意思。45. 百里挑一。[误] one in a hundred[正] one in a thousand注: “百里挑一”常被用来形容“很特别,很出众”或“与众不同”,one in a thousand 也有相同的含义。但值得注意的是,汉语用“百”,而英语则以十倍于百的 thousand 来夸张。同样,汉语的“十分感谢”或“万分感谢”,英语则说 a thousand thanks(千分感谢)或 thanks a million times(百万次的感谢)。可见,英语比汉语要夸张。这也许反映了两个民族不同的思维方式:中国人崇尚中庸之道,凡事避免走极端,即使夸大其词也不太过火;而英美人追求标新立异和充分考虑表现自我,这在语言中自然也有体现。46. 周末许多人睡得很晚。[误] Many people sleep late at weekends.[正] Many people go to bed very late at weekends.注: 第一句译文错在没弄懂 sleep 的真正含义。英语动词有短暂动词和持续动词之分,它们分别表示短暂动作和持续的动作或状态。sleep 是典型的持续动词,表示“在睡觉”。而汉语的“睡”既可表示“上床睡觉”的短暂动作,如:我昨天11点才睡;也可以表示“在睡觉”的持续动作和状态,如:他睡了整整10个小时。原文属于前一种情况,即表示“上床睡觉”的短暂动作,故应该使用 go to bed。47. 干杯!要一饮而尽。[误] ---Cheers! Bottom up.[正] ---Cheers! Bottoms up.注: bottoms up 虽然只比 bottom up 多一个 s,但是两个词组的意思却相差十万八千里。bottoms up 里的 bottom 是指“(酒杯的)底部”,那么杯朝天就是“一饮而尽”的意思,而且因为干杯时肯定不止一人一饮而尽,所以要用复数;而 bottomup 表示“屁股朝天”。48. 这个任务很危险,但总得有人去冒险。[误] The task is really dangerous. But someone has to take the adventure.[正] The task is really dangerous. But someone has to bell the cat. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/注: adventure 指军事历险、探险旅行等惊险活动或投机活动。而 bell the cat 源自一个故事:一窝老鼠想在猫脖子上套一个
  12. 12. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com铃铛,这样猫一来他们就会听到,并及时逃命。但主意虽好,却苦于没人去套这个铃铛(bell the cat)。后来,bell the cat被人们反复引用,表示“为大家的事去承担风险”,并成了表示原文意思最贴切的英语习语。49. 一辆白色轿车前来接新郎新娘去教堂。[误] A white car turned up to take the groom and the bride to the church.[正] A white car turned up to take the bride and the groom to the church.注: 汉英两种语言均有各自固定的词序,因此,在翻译时要根据各自的语言习惯进行适当的调整,此处就是一个很好的例子。之所以将新娘放在前面,也许是西方文化中“女士优先”的又一体现吧!又如:“衣食住行”译成英语是 food, clothing, shelterand transportation; 同样,“左顾右盼”翻译成 look right and left。50. 你去弄些水来。[误] Go and bring some water.[正] Go and fetch some water.注: bring 虽然表示“带来”,但它是让某人在来的时候将某物带来(但说话时人还没来);而 fetch 则是让身边的某人“去取某物”,它包括往返的两段路程。51. 嘿,小伙子,千万别灰心。[误] Hey, lad, dont lose your heart.[正] Hey, lad, dont lose heart.注: lose ones heart (to sb.) 是“心被...俘虏去,爱上...”的意思,而 lose heart 才表示“灰心丧气,丧失勇气或信心”。52. IBM公司一直处在电脑行业的前沿。[误] IBM is always in the front line of computer industry.[正] IBM is always at the cuttting edge of computer insustry.注: front line 是“前线,第一线”的意思,常指最危险或最艰苦的地方。例如:Many doctors are in the front line of thefighting against SARS(许多医生战斗在抗击“非典”的第一线)。at the cutting edge 最早出现在20世纪50年代,它最初指“锐器的锋利部位”,现在常隐喻“处在(高科技的)最前沿。53. 一位有经验的教师曾经说,上课之前他觉得如临大敌,上课时他是如履薄冰,只有上完课后他才会如释重负。[误] An experienced teacher once said that before class he felt as if faced with a formidable enemy, in class hefelt like walking on ice, and only after class would he feel relieved.[正] An experienced teacher once said that before class he felt as if faced with a formidable enemy, in class hefelt like walking on eggs, and only after class would he feel relieved.注: 中文的“如履薄冰”是比喻一个人“做事十分小心谨慎或战战兢兢”,而英语的类似说法却是 walk on eggs 或 tread oneggs,要注意中英文喻体的不同。54. 我有一个舒适的家。[误] I have a cozy family.[正] I have a cozy home.注: family 和 home 虽然翻译成汉语时都是“家”,但它们在英语中却不是同义词。family 主要指家庭成员;而 home 主要指居住地,即“住宅”。原文中用“舒适的”来修饰“家”,显然是指“舒适的房子”。如果原文是“我有一个和睦的家”,就应该翻译成 Ihave a harmonious family 了。55. 每节课老是都会点名。[误] The teacher will call our names in every period of class.[正] The teacher will call the roll in every period of class.注: 英语的“点名”是 call the roll,而 call ones name(s)的意思是“谩骂某人”。rool 有“名册”的意思,又如:removesb.s name from the rool(把某人除名)。56. 我的学习很忙。[误] My study is very busy. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  13. 13. zycnzj.com/[正] I am very busy with my study. www.zycnzj.com注:第一句译文完全套用汉语的结构和语序,却犯了英文的句法错误。因为在英语中,study(学习)是一个行为,并不懂得忙不忙,感到忙的应是进行这一行为的人。所以,be busy with sth. 或 be busy (in) doing sth. 才是地道的英语表达。57. 给他当二把手我看也值得。他太能干了。[误] I feel it worth being a second hand to him. He is so capable.[正] I feel it worth playing second fiddle to him. He is so capable.注:英语的 second hand 作名词指“中间人”、“旧货”或“助手工人”,而汉语的“二把手”是“副手”,即“第二负责人”的意思,所以二者不是一回事。play second fiddle 则源于管弦乐队中第一提琴手(first violin)不在的时候由第二提琴手负责,并被人们引申为“当主要领导人的副手”,也就是我们所说的“当第二把手”。由此,不难猜出“当一把手”译成英语应该是 paly firstfiddle了。58. 电车上十分拥挤,几乎没有立足之地。[误] The tram was so crowded that there was hardly sufficient room for you.[正] The tram was so crowded that there was scarcely sufficient room for you.注:副词 hardly 和 scarcely 虽然都含有“几乎不”等否定含义,有些时候也可以互换,如:I could hardly/scarcelyrecognize her(我几乎认不出她来了),但仍有细微的差异。如在强调数量“不足”时只能用 scarcely,这时它常与 enough、sufficient等词连用。59. 他被戴上了绿帽子。[误] He is made to wear a green hat.[正] He is a cuckold.注:中文的“戴绿帽子”是指某人之妻与他人私通,但直译成英文西方人只会按字面意思理解为“某人头上被戴了顶绿色的帽子”,无论如何也不会理解汉语的喻义。而英语的 cuckold 是指“奸妇的丈夫”(a man whose wife deceives him by having asexual relationship with another man),所以用 be a cuckold 才能正确表达原文的意思。60. 我在新闻片里看到你站在总裁的身旁。[误] I saw you stand by the president in the newsreel.[正] I saw you stand beside the president in the newsreel.注:stand by someone 的意思是“支持某人”(to support someone);to stand beside someone 才是“立于某人旁边”(to stand by the side of someone)。但是,如果 stand by 后面的宾语不是人,那倒是可以与 stand beside 互换,表示“在...之旁”,例如:Their house stands by a forest(他们的房子在森林旁边)。除此之外,stand by 还有“袖手旁观”之意,例如:How can you stand by and watch while your allies are attacked?(当你们的盟友受到攻击时,你们怎能袖手旁观呢?)61. 那本书毫无价值可言。[误] That book is invaluable.[正] That book is valueless.注:invaluable 和 valueless 一个是在形容词 valuable(有价值的)之前加上否定形容词前缀 in-;另一个是在名词 value(价值)的后面加上否定形容词 -less,但它们的意思却刚好相反。invaluable 是指“非常贵重的,无价的”(highlyvaluable, precious),其同义词是 priceless;valueless 的意思却是“毫无价值的”,相当于 worthless。现将这两个词用在同一个句子中,以便区别:The book that he considered valueless proved invaluable to us(他认为毫无价值的那本书对我们来说却是无价之宝)。62. 房间里有一张床、两张桌子和五把椅子。[误] There are one bed, two desks and five chairs in the room.[正] There is one bed, two desks and five chairs in the room.注:there be 句型中,be 动词的单复数取决于离它最近的那个词。原文虽然一共列举了八件家具,但是根据英语的谓语就近原则,one bed 决定了应该使用 is。63. 我不想听他那些空话。 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/[误] I dont want to hear his empty words.
  14. 14. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com[正] I dont want to hear his hollow words.注:虽然 empty 和 hollow 都有“空洞的”之意,但表达“空话”时,英语习惯用 hollow words 或 empty talk。64. 他是我们的死敌。[误] He is our dead enemy.[正] He is our deadly enemy.注:dead 作形容词时表示“死的,无感觉的”,而 deadly 才表示“致命的,不共戴天的”。65. 奥斯本名义上是个医生,但他整天都呆在股票交易所里。[误] Osborne is a doctor by name only, but he stays in the stock exchange all day long.[正] Osborne is a doctor in name only, but he stays in the stock exchange all day long.注:by name 和 in name 虽然形似,但涵义却有区别。by name 相当于 by the name of,常放在专有名词之后,表示所说的人或事物的确实名称。例如:There was a great poet in China, Qu Yuan by name(中国有个伟大的诗人,名叫屈原)。而 in name 是贬义词,表示“名义上的”或“徒有虚名”。66. 我们是不信上帝的。[误] We do not believe God.[正] We do not believe in God.注:believe 和 believe in 虽然都有“相信”的意思,但表示“信仰”的时候只能用后者。67. 你做这样的事难道不感到羞耻吗?[误] Arent you ashamed for doing such a thing?[正] Arent you ashamed of doing such a thing?注:be ashamed for 一般是指“对他人的行为或外在事物感到羞耻”,而 be ashamed of 则是“由于自己的所作所为而感到羞耻”。68. 车祸发生在十字路口。[误] The accident took place at a crossroad.[正] The accident took place at a crossroads.注:crossroad 是“交叉路,横马路”的意思,而 crossroads 才是“十字路”或“十字路口”,它前面也可以用 a,但 -s 绝不能丢掉。69. 要学好英语,大量的练习是必要的。[误] To learn English well, a great deal of practice is necessary.[正] To learn English well, one needs to have a great deal of practice.注:英语中非谓语动词的逻辑主语要与句子的主语一致,本例句中不定式 to learn English well 的逻辑主语应该是“人”,而句子的主语却是 practice,两者不相一致,违背了英语习惯,所以必须将句子的主语改为 one,并做其它相应的调整。70. ---谢谢你带我们到办公室来。---不用谢,这是我们应该做的。[误] ---Thank you for guiding us to the office.---Not at all, its my duty.[正] ---Thank you for guiding us to the office.---Not at all, its a pleasure. /Im glad to be of help.注:汉语的回答实际上是句客套话,如果把它直译为 Its my duty,就会让西方人误以为你并不想帮他,只是因为职责才不得已而为之,这与汉语的愿意有很大出入。所以,恰当的回答应该是 Im glad to be of help 或 Its a pleasure,其意思是“我很乐意为您效劳”。71. 车来了。您先请。 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  15. 15. zycnzj.com/[误] Here comes the car. You go first, please. www.zycnzj.com[正] Here comes the car. After you.注:第一句译文虽然把“请”翻译出来了,但还是带有命令的口吻。地道的说法应该是 After you。另外,不少人以为汉语的“请”等同于英语的 please,其实并非如此。例如,在餐桌上请人吃菜或喝酒就不用 please,地道的说法是 Help yourself。72. 布衣蔬食。[误] cotton clothes and vegetables[正] coarse clothes and simple fare注:“布衣蔬食”是形容一个人生活俭朴,但直译成英文却会令人难以理解。因为现在的英、美等国,cotton clothes andvegetables(棉布衣服和青菜)已没有“生活俭朴”的任何联想了,它们早已成了富翁们的最爱,而且价格也比其他产品贵,没钱人还享用不起呢!而第二句译文不仅忠实于原文,而且 fare 一词作“食物”讲还略带古色,恰好反映出了原文的风格。73. 你真是红光满面。[误] Your face is all red.[正] You are in ruddy health.注:“红光满面”是说一个人身体很好,而 You face is all red 则指对方满脸通红,似乎“不好意思”或“牌窘境”,皮肤过敏也未可知,总之与原句不符。a ruddy complexion 虽然有“面色红润”的意思,但没能充分表达出汉语“身体健康,精力充沛”的意思。当然,除了第二句译文,还可以用 You look so healthy and full of pep 或 You look the very picture of healthand energy 来表达。74. 你该吃晚饭了。[误] Its time to eat your dinner.[正] Its time to have your dinner.注:不是所有的“吃”字都能翻译为英语 eat 的,英语中有许多固定搭配,如:take ones medicines(吃药);lead an idlelife(吃闲饭);be very popular(吃香);I had some meat for lunch(午餐我吃了些肉)等。eat:“进餐”,在英国不常用,但在美国却常见。例如:Eat your dinner.He ate his breakfast quickly, then ran up to his room again.75. 我们一起跟着音乐跳舞吧![误] Lets dance with the music.[正] Lets dance to the music.注:英语一般说 dance with sb.,即“跟某人一起跳舞”,“音乐”是无生命的东西,怎么能跟它 dance 呢?这里正确的说法是用介词 to。又如:sing to the piano 等。76. 他的病情好多了。[误] His sick condition is much better.[正] His condition is much better.注:在英美人看来,sick 只是一种无意义的重复,因为去掉它以后意思一亲清楚,而且还更地道。我们甚至可以更简单地翻译为 He is much better。77. 经常给我写信。[误] Write letters to me often.[正] Write to me often.注:中文动宾结构的宾语在翻译成英文时常常省略,因为这些英语动词本身已经包含了中文宾语的意思,不言自明,除非需要强调,否则可以省略,不省略反而与英语习惯不符。上面的例句就是个很好的例子。又如:“你会唱歌吗”(Can you sing);“我会付钱给你”(Ill pay you);“他花很多时间读书”(He spends a lot of time reading)等。78. 挑战者以0比4的比分输了与冠军队的那场比赛。[误] The challengers lost the game by zero to four to the champion.[正] The challengers lost the game by nil to four to the champion. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/注:zero 和 nil 虽然都可以表示“零”,但 zero 多用于电话号码或邮政编码,而 nil 则特指比赛的比分。同样,0比0就应该翻译
  16. 16. 成 nil to nil。 zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com79. 在一次具有历史意义的表决中,北京羸得了申办奥运会的机会。[误] In a historical vote, Beijing won the bid for the Olympics.[正] In a historic vote, Beijing won the bid for the Olympics.注:historic 表示“历史上著名的,有历史意义的”,而 historical 则表示“有关历史的,历史学的”。80. 你读没读过菲尔丁的经典长篇小说《汤姆.琼斯》?[误] Have you ever read Fieldings classical novel Tom Jones?[正] Have you ever read Fieldings classic novel Tom Jones?注:classic 即可作形容词,表示“经典的,第一流的”,又可作可数名词,表示“经典作品”;而 classical 却是一个没有比较级和最高级的形容词,常指“(建筑,文学,音乐等方面)古典的,传统的”。81. 未经允许,任何人不得入内。[误] Anybody can not come in without permission.[正] Nobody can come in without permission.注:“任何......都不”是汉语中常用字的否定句式,而在英语中,any 构成的合成词及其所修饰的词语作主语时,谓语动词是不能用否定形式的。因此,any ... not 的用法不符合英语的表达习惯,须用“否定形式的主语+肯定形式的谓语”替换。但是,any构成的合成词及其所修饰的词语作主语时,如果带有后置定语,那么其谓语也可以用否定形式。如:Anyone who does thatisnt honest(干那种事的人都是不诚实的)。82. 听到这个消息,没有一个人不感到兴奋。[误] Having heard the news, nobody did not feel excited.[正] Having heard the news, everybody felt excited.注:汉语中把主、谓语同时否定以表示肯定,但这不符合英语习惯,所以 nobody...not 的结构在英语中是不正确的。翻译这类句子时,可像上面正确的译文那样,把主语和谓语都改成肯定形式;也可用“there be + 否定的主语 + 否定形式的定语从句”来表达,即:There was nobody who did not feel excited 或者 There was nobody but felt excited.83. 我是一个中国人。[误] I am a Chinese.[正] I am Chinese.注:第一句译文是不地道的,正确的说法应该去掉不定冠词,或者说 I am a Chinese man。同样,He is an English 也没有He is English 或 He is an Englishman 好。84. 母狼为了保护幼崽同猎豹展开了殊死的搏斗。[误] The female wolf fights against the leopard so as to protect her whelps.[正] The she wolf fights against the leopard so as to protect her whelps.注:汉语一般用“公”、“母”或“雌”、“雄”来区分动物的性别,而英语中,有一部分动物是雌雄各有其名,例如:cock(公鸡)和hen(母鸡),stag(雄鹿)和 doe(雌鹿)等;而另一部分则是用 male 和 female 加以区分,如:male leopard(公豹),female panda(母熊猫)等;当然,也有例外的情况,如:bull elephant(公象)和 cow elephant(母象),hewolf(公狼)和 she wolf(母狼)等。85. 使我高兴的是,我儿子对意大利语也略知一二。[误] To my joy, my son know a thing or two about Italian.[正] To my joy, my son knows something about Italian.注:有些英语词语在字面上同汉语十分相似,但实则貌合神离,如果不求甚解很容易出错。例如,know a thing or two 就不表示“略知一二”,而是“很有经验,精明强干”的意思。86. 你希望什么时候成家呢?[误] When do you want to start a family?[正] When do you want to get married?zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  17. 17. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com注:中文的“成家”是“结婚”的意思,而英文 start a family 的含义却是“生第一个孩子”,二者完全不是一回事。87. 宁做鸡头,不做凤尾。[误] Better be the head of a cock than the tail of a phoenix.[正] Better be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion.注:每种语言中都有许多约定俗成的表达,没有什么道理好讲,但使用时则需遵照各自的语言习惯。中文是“鸡头”和“凤尾”比,而英语中却要用“狗头”和“狮尾”。88. 海伦就像一只骄傲的公鸡,从来不爱搭理别人。[误] Helen is proud as a cock, and she never talks to others.[正] Helen is proud as a peacock, and she never talks to others.注:“孔雀”在中国人眼里是美丽和吉祥的象征,而公鸡因为常把头昂得高高地,尾巴翘到了天上,摆出一副盛气凌人的架子,因此成了“骄傲”的化身。但西方文化不注重孔雀美丽的一面,认为它们很骄傲,所以英美人在形容一个人骄傲、狂妄和爱慕虚荣时,就把他(她)比作 peacock。89. 因为没有吃的,那个索马里的小男孩瘦得像猴子。[误] That Somali boy is as thin as a monkey because of the lack of food.[正] That Somali boy is as thin as a shadow because of the lack of food.注:同一事物,在不同的文化里可能引起不同的联想,具有不同的内涵。所以,在一种语言中用这种事物作比喻,而在另一种语言中很可能会有不同的表达。这样的例子中英文还有很多,例如:as timid as a hare(胆小如鼠),as strong as a horse(力大如牛),as poor as a church mouse(一贫如洗)等。90. 索菲娅望子成龙心切,给儿子报名参加了许多补习班。[误] Sophia hopes to see her son become a dragon, therefore she enters his name for many classes ofsupplementary schooling.[正] Sophia hopes that her son will have a bright future, therefore she enters his name for many classes ofsupplementary schooling.注:“龙”在中国人心目中象征着神圣和万能,但在西方人的印象中却是可怕的,《圣经》里就把“龙”描述成了罪恶的象征。所以在翻译“望子成龙”时需要意译。91. 由于街道的扩建,道路两旁矮小的房屋全部被拆除了。[误] The short and small houses on both sides of the road have been demolished due to its widening.[正] The low and small houses on both sides of the road have been demolished due to its widening.注:英语中,形容人或树等的高矮要用形容词 tall 和 short;但是指山峦、房屋或其它建筑物的高矮,我们通常用 high 和low。92. 爸爸总爱发脾气。[误] Dad always likes losing his temper.[正] Dad is apt to lose his temper.注:like doing something 表示“喜欢干某事”,一般用来说明某人的兴趣爱好;而 be apt to do sth.则表示“常常发生某种行为”或“容易发生某种变化”。根据原文的意思显然应该用后者。93. 欧文按捺不住激动的心情,大声喊道:“我中奖了!”[误] Owen couldnt hold back his exciting feeling, and he shouted, "Ive got the winning number in the bond!"[正] Owen couldnt hold back his excitement, and he shouted, "Ive got the winning number in the bond!"注:exciting feeling 这种搭配很不地道,虽然“振奋人心的消息”是 exciting news,“有趣的故事”是 interesting story,但“激动的心情”却要用名词形式 excitement 来表达。94. 丹尼斯自己不努力,还老是眼红别人的成就。[误] Denis himself doesnt work hard, however, he is always red-eyed of other peoples achievements. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/[正] Denis himself doesnt work hard, however, he is always green-eyed of other peoples achievements.
  18. 18. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com注:中国人说一个人嫉妒用“眼红”,但英美人则用“眼绿”来形容。英语的 green 除了表示颜色之外还有“嫉妒”的意思,又如:Iwas absolutely green (with envy) when I saw his splendid new car(我看到他那辆漂亮的新车非常眼红)。其实,英语中许多表示色彩的词汇都有特殊的含义,不能照字面去理解。再比如:He gave me a black look(他恶狠狠地蹬了我一眼);She visits us once in a blue moon(她难得来看我们一次)等。95. 夏天要多喝白开水。[误] You should drink more white boiled water in summer.[正] You should drink more plain boiled water in summer.注:“白开水”不是指“水的颜色是白色”,而是指“水中没有添加其他的东西”。而 plain 正是指“没掺杂其他东西的,单纯的”,所以能确切表达原文的含义。96. 对不起,我把课本忘在家里了。[误] Sorry, I forgot my textbook at home.[正] Sorry, I left my textbook at home.注:原文中的“忘”是指“落在家里”的意思,不能翻译成英文的 forget,而应用表示“把...留在某地,丢下,落下”等的意思的leave。97. 中国足球队击败了日本队,从而取得了参加半决赛的资格。[误] The Chinese football team beat the Japanese team, and is qualified to play in the half-finals.[正] The Chinese football team beat the Japanese team, and is qualified to play in the semifinals.注:semi- 是英语里的一个前缀,表示“半”,例如:automatic 是“自动的”,那么 semiautomatic 就表示“半自动的”;diameter 指“直径”,那么 semi-diameter 就指“半径”;monthly 指“月刊”,那么 semi-monthly 就表示“半月刊”。以上这些都跟 semifinal(半决赛)一样,是约定俗成的。98. 在自然灾害期间,绝大多数人都过着半饥半饱的生活。[误] During the natural calamity, most people were half hungry, half full.[正] During the natural calamity, most people were underfed.注:under- 是一个英语前缀,表示“......不足的”,如:underdeveloped(经济发展不充分的),underage(未到法定年龄的)等。所以,underfeed 表示“未喂饱的,食物不足的”。汉语中“半......半......”的结构可以翻译成 half...half...,例如:As for this matter, I am half-believing, half-doubting(对于这件事我是半信半疑的);This composition is halfliterary, half vernacular(这篇文章写得半文不白的)。99. 汉语是我们的母语。[误] Chinese is our mother language.[正] Chinese is our mother tongue.注:tongue 除了指“舌头”,还可以用来指“语言,方言”,如 the Spanish tongue 并非指“西班牙舌头”,而是指“西班牙语”。我们常说的有“语言天赋”,英语里相应的表达是 the gift of tongues。“母语”在英语中用 mother tongue 表达,还可以说parent language 或 linguistic parent,但 mother language 的说法却是不地道的。100. 我爷爷是奔75的人了。[误] My grandpa is running for seventy-five.[正] My grandpa is getting on for seventy-five.注:run for 有“竞赛,竞选”之意,如:run for Congress(竞选国会议员),run for the presidency(竞选总统)等。而get on for 才表示“接近”,它通常用进行时态,后面一般跟年龄或者时间,如:Its getting on for midnight(快到半夜了)等。***(1). push thirty[forty,etc.]已经快到三[四...]十岁了:She would like you to think so, but shes pushing thirty.You wouldnt think so to look at him, but hes pushing 40.(2). get on for[towards]快到(某时间),快(多少岁):Its getting on for nine oclock.He must be getting on for forty now. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/Here you are getting on toward thirty.
  19. 19. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com(3). 年龄的一些说法:1) Im twenty.(常用)2) Im twenty years old.(常用)3) Im twenty-year-old.(不常用)4) Im twenty years of age.(书面)5) Im aged twenty (years).(书面)6) My age is twenty (years).(不常用)7) I come into the age of twenty.(不常用)8) Im in my teens.(不常用)in ones early teens(不常用)在十三四岁年纪not yet out of ones teens(不常用)还没有到20岁101. 正如中国的一句俗话:“笨鸟先飞”。[误] As an old Chinese saying goes, "Stupid birds have to start flying early."[正] As an old Chinese saying goes,"Clumsy birds have to start flying early."注:“笨鸟先飞”常用来比喻那些能力差的人,因为做事怕落后,所以就提前行动。这里的“笨”并非 stupid(智力低下的,愚蠢的)的意思,而用 clumsy(笨拙的,不灵巧的)更恰当。102. 艾达把“发音”一词拼写错了,不过只是个笔误。[误] Ida misspells the word "pronunciation", however, it is only a mistake of pen.[正] Ida misspells the word "pronunciation", however, it is only a slip of the pen.注:与 mistake(错误,误会,过失)相比,slip 更侧重于由于不经意或疏忽而造成的错误,所以“口误”一般译为 a slip ofthe tongue,同样,“笔误”就翻译成 a slip of the pen。103. 我们将口头对这一问题做个表决。[误] We shall take an oral vote on this problem.[正] We shall take a voice vote on this problem.注:voice 除了指“说话声,嗓音”之外,还有“(公开或正式表达出的)意见,愿望”的意思。voice vote 又叫“呼声表决”,即参加表决者叫喊“同意”或“不同意”,按呼声响亮的一方决定。而 oral 则强调“以口头的方式”,例如:oral practice(口头练习),oral examination(口试),oral report(口头汇报)等,但“口头表决”英语却没有 oral vote 之说,而习惯用 voicevote。104. 内德有一条瘸腿。[误] Ned has a lame leg.[正] Ned is lame in one leg.注:lame 作“瘸的,跛的,残废的”讲,一般用作表语,且其主语往往是人或动物,例如:go lame(变成瘸子),be lamein/或 of one leg(一条腿跛的)。当 lame 用作定语时,它常表示“站不住脚的,有缺陷的”,例如:a lame excuse(站不住脚的借口),a lame imitation(低劣的仿制品)。105. 我舅舅的胃病又犯了。[误] My uncle has got another attack of stomach disease.[正] My uncle has got another attack of stomach trouble.注:英语同汉语一样,也有很多约定俗成的表达法。同样是“病”,心脏病可以说 heart disease,但胃病、肝病、眼病等就习惯说成 stomach/liver/eye trouble。106. 奥尼尔是首位进入决赛的种子选手。[误] ONeil is the first seed player to reach the final.[正] ONeil is the first seed to reach the final. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  20. 20. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com注:seed 的愿意是“种子,萌芽”,后被引申为“种子选手”,所以这时不必再加 player。类似的词还有“植物人”(vegetable),它被翻译成英语时“人”字也不必译出。107. 因为玛吉请了三天病假,所以她必须把落下的课补上。[误] Since Maggie asked for a sick leave of three days,she should make up for her lost lessons.[正] Since Maggie asked for a sick leave of three days,she should make up her lost lessons.注:同样表示“弥补,补偿,补足”,make up 后面一般接具体的名词,如:make up a missed lesson(补课),a make-up examination(补考)等;而 make up for 后面的名词通常比较抽象,如:make up for the lost time(弥补时间上的损失),make up for ones defects(补其所短)等。108. 对不起,因为交通繁忙,我迟到了20分钟。[误] Excuse me, I am twenty minutes late because of the busy traffic.[正] Excuse me, I am twenty minutes late because of the heavy traffic.注:busy 的确可以作“繁忙”讲,如:the busy farming season(农忙季节),a busy day(繁忙的一天)等,但“交通繁忙”却是约定俗成的说法,要用 heavy 形容 traffic,而不是 busy。在大城市,交通一般都比较繁忙,尤其在 rush hours(上下班的高峰期),常常会出现 traffic jam(交通阻塞)。如果要表达“街上车辆很少”,可以说 There is little traffic on theroads。109. 在很久以前,这里曾经有座宫殿。[误] There used to be a palace here before long.[正] There used to be a palace here long before.注:不要想当然地以为 before long 是指“在很久以前”,恰恰相反,它的意思是“不久以后”,例如:Harry Porter will bepublished before long(《哈利.波特》不久就要出版了)。而 long before 才相当于 long,long ago,表示“在很久很久以前”。110. 你真是不要脸,居然干出这种事。[误] You are so faceless that you should have done such a thing.[正] You are so shameless that you should have done such a thing.注:虽然 -less 主要附在名词或动词后面构成否定形容词,表示“没有,无,不”,如:fearless(无畏的),careless(不小心的),doubtless(无疑的)等,但 faceless 的意思却是“姓名不详的,匿名的,不露面的”。而“伤风败俗的,无耻的,不要脸的(人)”则要用 shameless 来表达,而 shameful 一般用来指“可耻的,丢脸的(行为)”,例如:shameful conduct(可耻的行为),a shameless exploiter(无耻的剥削者)。111. 你们必须擦亮眼睛,弄清楚事情的真相。[误] You should wipe your eye and find out the truth.[正] You should remove the scales from your eyes and find out the truth.注:英语里确实有 wipe ones eye 这一短语,但它表示“先发制人”或“使某人看到自己的狂妄”,而且这里的 eye 要用单数形式。而 scale 用作复数可比喻“障眼物”,英文的 remove the scales from ones eyes 才对应于中文的“擦亮眼睛”。112. 瞧,树上有两只麻雀。[误] Look, there are two sparrows on the tree.[正] Look, there are two sparrows in the tree.注:英语中,只有“长”在树上的东西才用介词 on,例如:There are lots of apples on the tree;其余均用介词 in,例如:The primitive built houses in the tree(原始人在树上建房子)。本例句也不例外。113. 裘德在乡下有一块菜地。[误] Jude has a piece of vegetable field in the countryside.[正] Jude has a piece of vegetable plot in the countryside.注:英语里 field 的确可指“(一块)田地”,如:a paddy field(一块稻田),terraced fields(梯田)等,但“菜地”却习惯称为 vegetable plot,而不是 field。 plot 指“小块土地,小块地皮”,如:an experimental plot of cotton(一块棉花试验田)。 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  21. 21. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com114. 我妻子总喜欢留朋友吃顿便饭。[误] My wife is fond of asking her friends to stay for a casual meal.[正] My wife is fond of asking her friends to stay for a light meal.注:casual 可作“不拘礼节的,非正式的”讲,如:clothes for casual wear(便服)。但“便饭”人们习惯用形容词 light,该词也有“随便的,不重要的”之意,如:a light conversation(闲谈)。115. 要测量海水的深度不是一件容易的事情。[误] It is a tough job to measure the depth of the sea.[正] It is a tough job to fathom the depth of the sea.注:要测量某人的身高,某人物体的长、宽、高,某两点间的距离,某物体的运动速度等,都可以用 measure 一词,例如:The room measures 10 meters across(这房间10米),但惟有测量水深时不用 measure,而要用 fathom。116. 美国是个超级大国,不少人都梦想着能移民到那儿。[误] The United States is a super country, and many people dream of immigrating into it.[正] The United States is a superpower, and many people dream of immigrating into it.注:super- 是一个前缀,表示“特大的,超级的”等含义,例如:supermarket(超市),superstar(超级明星),superman(超人)等。superpower 是“超级大国”的习惯表达,power 本身也有“强国,大国”的含义,如:an industrialpower(工业强国),the imperialist powers(帝国主义列强)等。用 super country 表示“超级大国”是中国式的英语。117. 哈罗德邀请一位女士到舞池里跳舞。[误] Harold invites a lady to dance in the dance pool.[正] Harold invites a lady to dance in the dance floor.注:pool 在英语里是指“水塘”或“水池”,如 swimming pool(游泳池)等。而中文的“池”意思就多了,它在“舞池”中就指“旁边高中间低的地方”,再加上许多约定俗成的说法,所以,翻译时要具体情况具体对待。如:“舞池”英文是 dance floor,而“乐池”则为orchestra pit。118. ---我们这是上哪儿去?- ---去我的住处。[误] ---Where are we going to?- ---To my living place.[正] ---Where are we going to?- ---To my dwelling place.注:虽然 live 有“居住”的意思,但 living place 却是指“(房屋里)可居住的地方”,因为 living 作形容词所表达的意思是“适于居住的”。而 dwelling 本身就是名词,指“住处”或“寓所”,它也可以再修饰其他名词,如:dwelling house 或 dwellingplace 等。119. ---想喝点什么?- ---来杯淡茶吧![误] ---What would you like to drink?- ---A cup of light tea, pleas.[正] ---What would you like to drink?- ---A cup of weak tea, pleas.注:一般说来,形容食物“清淡”用 light,例如:light soup(清汤),a light diet(清淡的饮食)等。形容烟、酒等“味淡的”则要用 mild,例如:The tobacco is very mild(这烟草儿很淡)。而“淡茶”的表达是 weak tea。与“淡”相对的是“浓”,可以翻译成 strong,例如:strong drinks(烈性酒),strong tea(浓茶);也可以译成 thick,例如:thick soup(浓汤)等。120. 有人看见一位妇女和两个孩子朝路那边走去。[误] A woman with two children were seen walking down the road.[正] A woman with two children was seen walking down the road.注:在英语中,主语由 as well as, with, along with, together with 等连接时,谓语动词要与这些连接词前面的名词或代词保持一致。 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  22. 22. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com121. 我们的班主任住在18栋楼4单元2号。[误] Our head-teacher lives in Building 18, Entrance 4, No. 2.[正] Our head-teacher lives in No. 2, Entrance 4, Building 18.注:英语地址的写法同汉语相反,汉语是从大到小,而英语却是从小到大。例如:Bill Clinton lives in the Little Rock,Arkansas.(比尔.克林顿住在阿肯色的小石城)。122. 如果你也那样做可就有失身份了。[误] You would lose your identity if youd follow suit.[正] It would be beneath your dignity if youd follow suit.注:identity 是可以翻译成汉语的“身份”,如:The police made sure of his identity(警察查明了他的身份)及 anidentity card(身份证)等,但它所表示的“身份”是“正身”或“个人及家庭的基本情况”。而“有失身份”的“身份”是指“一个人所处的地位和应有的尊严”,所以它不能翻译成 lose ones identity,而应用 beneath ones dignity 来表达。“在某人的尊严之下”(beneath ones dignity)不就是“有失身份”的意思吗?当然,它还可以用 not up to ones status/dignity/fame 之类的短语来表示。123. 每个月的单号我们都有一场比赛。[误] We have a match on single-numbered days of each month.[正] We have a match on odd-numbered days of each month.注:single 是“单一的,单个的”意思如:single-eyed(独眼的),single-handed(独手的,单枪匹马的)等。而 odd 才表示“单数的,奇数的”意思,如:odd houses(单号门牌的房子),odd month(有三十天的月份)等。124. 大舌头的人发音都很糟糕。[误] Big-tongued persons have terrible pronunciations.[正] Thick-tongued persons have terrible pronunciations.注:tongued 常和其他词构成复合词,如:loose-tongued(铙舌的,随口乱说的),silver-tongued(能言善辩的)等。说一个人是个口齿不清的“大舌头”,除了可用 a thick-tongued person 来表达,还可以用 a lisper 表达相同的意思。125. 你可真是个人物啊![误] You are really a person.[正] You are really a personage.注:person 仅仅指一个普通的“人”,如:a young person(一个年轻人),a courageous person(一个勇敢的人)等。所以第一句译文的意思是“你真的是一个人”,好像在讽刺人似的。而 personage 指“要人,名流,显贵”,用这个词才能准确表达原句的意思。126. 你为什么不走大路偏走小路呢?[误] Why dont you take the big road instead of the small one?[正] Why dont you take the main road instead of the path?注:英语里常用 main 表示“主要的”,如:main line(铁路的主要干线);main stem(河流的主要河道);mainland(对小岛和半岛而言的“大陆”)等。而中文的“大路”就是“主干道”的意思,所以也应用 main 修饰。127. 在动笔之前,你必须先打开思路。[误] You should open your mind before you begin to write.[正] You should broaden your mind before you begin to write.注:open 表示“打开,张开”时,后面通常跟具体名词,而 broaden 表示“拓宽,扩大”,其后既可以跟具体名词搭配,又可以接抽象名词,如:broaden ones horizon(开阔眼界),The street broadens here(街道在这里变宽了)。mind 是个抽象名词,所以应与 broaden 搭配。128. 那些人攒三聚五地聚在一起干嘛呢?[误] What are those people gathering in threes and fives for?[正] What are those people gathering in threes and fours for? zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/注:汉语中有些数词可以直接翻译成英文,如:“沧海一粟”(a drop in the ocean),“一箭双雕”(kill two birds with one
  23. 23. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.comstone)等。但是,也有不少数词不能进行等值翻译,上面所列的就是一例。除此之外,还有“乱七八糟”(at sixes andsevens),“再三考虑”(on second thought),“三三两两地”(by ones and twos)等。129. 我爷爷的爷爷从生下来一直到死都没有离开过这座大山。[误] My great great-grandfather had never left the mountain from birth to death.[正] My great great-grandfather had never left the mountain from the cradle to the grave.注:“从......到......”常可以翻译成 from ...to...,如:from ancient times to the present(从古至今),frombeginning to end(从头到尾),from dawn to dusk(从早到晚)等。第一句翻译错就错在将“生”和“死”翻得太直白了,不符合英语的习惯。130. 要想学习英语,必须首先学会查字典。[误] In order to learn English, one must learn to look up the dictionary first.[正] In order to learn English, one must learn to look up words in the dictionary first.注:look up 表示“(在字典、词典、参考书等中)查找,查寻”,后面要跟查找的对象。所以,第一句译文搭配不正确,让人误以为是要“找字典”。原文还有另外一种表达方式,即 consult the dictionary,因为 consult 表达的正是“查阅(字典、书籍等)”。131. 盖奇在船厂工作了30年。[误] Cage has been working in a ship factory for thirty years.[正] Cage has been working in a shipyard for thirty years.注:英语中的 factory 与汉语的“厂”有时候可以对应,如:clothing factory(服装厂),chemical factory(化工厂),food products factory(食品厂)等,但也有例外,除了“船厂”要用 yard 以外,还有“酿酒厂”(brewery),砖瓦厂(brickfield),电厂(power plant)等。132. 当心碰到脑袋。[误] Take care of your head![正] Mind your head!注:英语里提醒别人注意可以说:Take care! /Look out! /Be careful! 等,但 take care of 却表示“照顾,照料(某人或某物)”。而 mind 用作及物动词时表示“注意,留心,当心”,也有提醒注意的意思。如:Mind the wet paint(当心,油漆未干)等。133. 买鞋油的钱你先垫着,我以后还。[误] Please pay for the shoe oil for me. Ill pay back later.[正] Please pay for the shoe polish for me. Ill pay back later.注:鞋油的“油”不用 oil 表达,而要用 polish。polish 可以作“擦光剂”讲,也可以作“磨光,擦亮”讲,如:a desk with ahigh polish(表面光泽极好的书桌)。134. 由于第三者插足,这对夫妻离婚了。[误] The couple divorced because of the third person.[正] The couple divorced because of a third party.注:序数词一般常跟定冠词 the 连用,表示“第几”;而序数词和不定冠词 a 连用时表示的则是“另一个”。如:He won thethird prize(他得了个三等奖),He won a third prize(他第三次得奖)。135. 这是个口误。[误] It is an oral mistake![正] It is a slip of the tongue!注:“口误”要用 slip of the tongue(舌头滑了一下)表达,而 misake 一词太严重了,与汉语的内涵有出入。136. 三思而后行。[误] Think three times before you act![正] Think twice! zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  24. 24. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com注:汉语中以“三”言其多,英国人却只要求“转念”即可,所以用 twice(二)。若将中国的思维强作移植,只恐果实滋味无人懂。137. 这是她的口头禅。[误] This is her habitual phrase.[正] This is her pet phrase.注: 习惯的短语?宠物的短语?若是像对宠物一般珍视和不离,这短语自然就是中国人所谓的“口头禅”了!138. 生命短暂而艺术永恒。[误] Life is short, and art is long.[正] Art is long, and time is fleeting.注: 这是一句传诵千古的名言,若直译成英文会显消极和晦气,没有了原汁原味的神韵。139. 过河莫忘搭桥人。[误] Dont forget the builder of the bridge when you cross the river.[正] Prise the bridge he goes over.注: 第一句虽不算错,但第二句意象一转,层面一变,可就简练形象多了!140. 习惯成自然。[误] Habit forms nature.[正] Habit is second nature.注: 第二句颇有后天习得之意味,妙处也就在于此。141. 上梁不正下梁歪。[误] If the upper beam is crooked, the one below is necessarily so.[正] Fish begins to stink at the head.注: 鱼要腐烂头先臭?西方人把中国人赋予建筑的喻义转接到了食物身上,异曲同工吧!记得不要直译哦!142. 聊胜于无。[误] Few is better than none.[正] Half a bread is better than none.注: 中国的四字成语言简意赅,而英文却将此形象化于西方人所熟悉的面包,亲切可触。143. 忧愁伤身。[误] Worry hurts body.[正] Care killed the cat.注: 既然莎翁(莎士比亚)用了一只可怜的猫,那么,就用猫好了。144. 他输了这场球。一切都完蛋了。[误] He has lost the game. The egg is over.[正] He has lost the game. It has gone belly up.注: 我们不知道中文“完蛋”二字的源头,但是英文表达里的 belly up 源自漂在水中的死鱼。怎么样?很生动吧!千万不要用鸡蛋把外国人搞得丈二和尚摸不着头脑哦!145. 他俩好得能穿一条裤子。[误] They are so close as if they could wear the same trousers.[正] They are hand in glove.注: 中国人的这一表达在西方人看来简直是莫名其妙,他们相应的说法是像手在手套里一样亲密无间。 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  25. 25. 146. 他资质平平。 zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com[误] He has a normal intelligence.[正] He has an average intelligence.注: normal 言其正常,average 言其平庸。貌似一般,但内涵不同,绝对不可滥用。147. 他这次可是搬起石头砸自己的脚。[误] This time, he has carried a stone and let it fall on his own feet.[正] This time, he has shot himself in the foot.注: 中文和英文都用了“脚”,可是一个要用“石头”,一个要用“枪”。别记错了!148. 他老是信口开河。[误] He is always making his mouth flow like a river.[正] He is always shooting off his mouth!注: 中国人的这一比喻西方人是无论如何也理解不了的,他们不仅体会不到其中的夸张,还会以为这个人整天口水直流呢!149. 这事儿八字还没一撇呢![误] I have not drawn the first part of the letter eight![正] It has not got to the first base!注: 这句话与汉字形状有关,直译成英文真是要多怪有多怪。幸好英文里有一个类似表达,那就拿来用吧!150. 她最爱给人当头泼凉水了。[误] She loves pouring cold water over others head.[正] She loves throwing a wet blanket on others.注: wet blanket 在英语中指“令人扫兴的人或事”,而中文的“泼凉水”在这里也不是直泼,也是“令人扫兴”的意思。所以在某些时候,中国人的“泼凉水”等同于西方人的“抛湿毯子”呢!151. 她老是为一些鸡毛蒜皮的小事烦心。[误] She is always worrying over chicken feather and garlic skin.[正] She is always worrying over nickel and dime.注: 中文里拿细碎小物作比,英文中则用零钱碎钞为喻,两种文化,表达自然不同了。152. 他是个软心肠。[误] He is a soft-hearted man.[正] He is a pushover.注: 心肠软,其实也就是听不得别人几句好话,外力一推就身不由已了。在这里,英文不言局部的“心”,而只谈整体的“人”,与汉语的这个区别要记一记。153. 我们俩得为这个错误负责。[误] You and I am responsible for this mistake.[正] I and you are responsible for this mistake.注: 老师常常强调英文中要“先人后己”,但表达承担责任或接受指责等倒霉事时却例外,反其道而行之,这你知道吗?154. 她儿子终于平安无事地回来了。[误] Her son has finally come back, safe and eventless.[正] Her son has finally come back, safe and sound.注: “平安”可以用 safe 表达,可是“无事”呢?不要直译,因为 safe and sound 在英文里已经是固定搭配,直接拿来用吧,很地道的!155. 别太沮丧了,众口难调嘛。 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/

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