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讀者服務館員負面工作情緒之實證研究-以公共圖書館為例

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讀者服務館員負面工作情緒之實證研究-以公共圖書館為例

  1. 1. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 00-00 讀者服務館員負面工作情緒之實證研究 -以公共圖書館為例 An Empirical Study of Public Service Librarians’ Perceptions and Causes of Negative Emotions in Taiwan’s Public Libraries Chen Su-may Sheih 摘 要 10 Abstract Research has documented that, in service organization, effectiveness is thought to hinge partly on the emotions expressed by employees. In librarianship, emotions also play an important role in affecting librarian’s attitude to patrons and in turn his/her job performance. Librarians are the library’ s most effective representatives. Patrons judge the entire library by librarian’s behaviors. Thus, librarians’ expression of emotions is one of the key factors of library service. Moreover, research on feelings experienced and expressed by organizational members emphasizes emotions as indicators of well-being and happiness. Employing literature review and analysis, questionnaires, and statistics analysis, this study explored public service librarians’ perceptions and causes of negative emotions in the public library settings in Taiwan. Keywords: Negative Emotion; Public Service Librarian; Public Library Associate Professor, Department of Library and Information Science, National Taiwan University E-mail: synn@ntu.edu.tw 59 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  2. 2. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 壹、前言 Hochschild 1983 emotional labor emotional exhaustion job burnout 2007 1994 1998 1993 2005 1997 Harwell, 2008; Hochschild, 1983; Morris & Feldman, 1996 2005 Erickson, 2001 Goleman, 1995 1996 difficult patron problem patron psychosomatic illness Currie, 2002; Redfern, 2002 1999 A r n o l d, 1960 60 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  3. 3. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 2009 Chelton, 2002 Kupersmith, 1992 Shuman, 1989 self-fulfilling prophesy Ostler & Oon, 1989 Bartlett, 1995; Bunge, 1989; Caputo, 1991; Quinn, 1995; Sarkodie-Mensah, 1997 professional autonomy Nawe, 1995; Ollendorff, 1989; Williams, 1996 reality shock Bartlett, 1995; Redfern, 2002; Rothstein, 1964 Caputo, 1991; Shaughnessy, 1996 61 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  4. 4. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 1 stratified random sampling Bunge, 1989; 45 Quinn, 1995 94 5 10 769 94 7 516 67.1% 343 66.5% 10 貳、 研究設計與研究實施 SPSS 10.0 62 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  5. 5. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 3 0.9% 73 21.3% 89 25.9% 153 44.6% 25 7.3% 65 19.0% 278 81.0% web2.0 Library2.0 194 56.6% 146 42.6% 3 0.9% 3 94 5 7 120 35.0% 4 6 60 17.5% 7 9 31 9.0% 10 12 38 11.1% 13 15 28 8.2% 16 66 19.2% 31 9.0% 參、 研究結果分析與討論 312 91.0% 343 423 265 77.3% 78 22.7% 20 24 21 423 6.1% 25 29 51 14.9% 180 30 34 63 18.4% 35 39 42.6% 195 37 10.8% 40 44 64 46.1% 18.7% 45 49 56 16.3% 207 48.9% 50 54 34 9.9% 55 17 5.0% 63 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  6. 6. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 (%) (%) 78 22.7 194 56.6 265 77.3 146 42.6 3 0.9 20-24 21 6.1 25-29 51 14.9 3 120 35.0 30-34 63 18.4 4-6 60 17.5 35-39 37 10.8 7-9 31 9.0 40-44 64 18.7 10-12 38 11.1 45-49 56 16.3 13-15 28 8.2 50-54 34 9.9 16 66 19.2 55 17 5.0 31 9.0 73 21.3 312 91.0 89 25.9 153 44.6 65 19.0 25 7.3 278 81.0 3 0.9 343 100 37 8.7% 31 7.3% 28 6.6% 209 49.4% 13 3.1% 10 168 39.7% 124 29.3% 78 18.4% 72 17.0% 47 11.1% 64 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  7. 7. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com %1 %2 %3 * % 112 62.2 95 48.7 108 52.2 209 49.4 58 32.2 97 49.7 100 48.3 168 39.7 47 26.1 61 31.3 77 37.2 124 29.3 35 19.4 41 21.0 43 20.8 78 18.4 42 23.3 28 14.4 42 20.3 72 17.0 23 12.8 31 15.9 26 12.6 47 11.1 8 4.4 20 10.3 20 9.7 37 8.7 14 7.8 18 9.2 17 8.2 31 7.3 14 7.8 19 9.7 18 8.7 28 6.6 5 2.8 6 3.1 8 3.9 13 3.1 1 n 180 180 2 n 195 195 3 n 207 207 * 423 ( ) Alschuler & Alschuler, 1984 affective stress reaction 180 Ego-identity 112 62.2% 58 1991 2005 32.2% 47 26.1% 65 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  8. 8. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 42 23.3% 35 2. 19.4% 23 12.8% 14 7.8% 14 58 32.2% 7.8% 8 4.4% 5 2.8% 10 1. 180 112 62.2% 3. 47 26.1% 4. 42 23.3% 66 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  9. 9. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 7. 14 7.8% 5. 8. 35 19.4% 14 7.8% 9. 5 2.8% 6. 23 12.8% 10. 8 4.4% 67 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  10. 10. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 1. 97 49.7% ( ) 2. Arkoff, 1968 95 48.7% 1980 1993 2000 195 97 49.7% 95 48.7% 61 31.3% 41 21.0% 31 15.9% 28 14.4% 20 10.3% 19 9.7% 18 9.2% 6 3.1% 68 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  11. 11. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 3. 61 6. 31.3% 28 14.4% 4. 7. 41 21.0% 20 10.3% 8. 19 9.7% 5. 31 15.9% 9. 18 9.2% 69 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  12. 12. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 10. 100 48.3% 77 6 3.1% 37.2% 43 20.8% 42 20.3% 26 12.6% 20 9.7% 18 8.7% 17 8.2% 8 3.9% 1. 108 52.2% ( ) Freudenberger, 1974; Pines & Aronson, 1988 2007 Dworkin, 2001; Grosser, 1987; Maslach, 1982; Rathus & SARS Nevid, 1986 108 52.2% 70 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  13. 13. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 3. 61 31.3% 2. 100 48.3% ISO 4. 43 20.8% 5. 42 20.3% 71 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  14. 14. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 6. 26 12.6% 10. 8 3.9% 7. 20 9.7% 24 8. 19 8.7% 1. 9. 126 17 8.2% 72 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  15. 15. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 5. 2. 12 47 26 14 6. 6 7 1 3. 21 7. 2 1 1 4. 18 8. 3 73 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  16. 16. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 9. 3 7 3. 28 1. 92 4. 103 18 2. 41 2 74 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  17. 17. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 92 10 2003 94 2003 2003 2001 2003 2001 2003 Ferkol 1998 Ohio 101 15 8 53% 343 31 9% 312 91% 75 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  18. 18. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 94 5 7 2003 1989 Ostler Oon 1989 2003 Ostler Oon 15 Ostler Oon Caputo 1991 Caputo 76 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  19. 19. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 2001 2009 1987 Grosser 2003 2005 Grosser 1987 Grosser 2009 77 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  20. 20. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 1. service sabotage 207 2005 195 2005 2005 180 2. 肆、 結論與建議 78 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  21. 21. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 3. ( ) 1. 126 24 4. 92 2. 103 79 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  22. 22. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 5. 3. 6. 4. 7. 80 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  23. 23. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 2002 2. 8. preventive emotional management 3. ( ) 1. r a t i o n a l-e m o t i v e therapy, RET Albert Ellis 1993 6 Ellis 4. Ellis, 1962 81 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  24. 24. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 pleasure reading healing reading 5. social support system 伍、 結語 致謝 NSC 93-2413-H-002-027 註釋 1 h t t p : / / w w w. t p m l . e d u . t w / Ta i p e i P u b l i c L i b r a r y/i n d e x. 82 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  25. 25. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com php?page=chinese-weblink-index.php& subsite=chinese&opx=getfile&cid=310 [Gao ke ji yan far en yuan jian fu ye wu tui guang zhi gong 參考書目 zuo ya li tan tao: Yi gon ye ji shu yan jiu yuan] Unpublished Wang, Yun-Chi 2007 master ’s thesis Department of Labor Relations, Na- A study of sustainable development tional Chung cheng University tourism policies in green island - custom- Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi er-oriented perspective Lin, Miao-Hua 2001 Unpublished master’s thesis A study on Graduate In- the job anxiety of special librarians in stitute of Public Administration, National Taiwan Unpublished Dong Hwa University Hualien master ’s thesis Ho, James 1994 Graduate Institute of [Cong Library, Information and Archival Studies, wan quan pin zhi guan li lun tu shu guan National Chengchi University du zhe fu wu pin zhi zhi ti sheng] Taipei Journal of Information, Lin, Shong-Ling 1991 10 Communication, and Library Science 1 [Sheng qi yu gong ji] 1 23-31 Counseling & guidance 70 [Ho, Chang-Zhu] 1993 34-35 [He li qing xu zhi liao fa jin Lin, Wan-Ying 2005 jie] Taipei Da-Yang [Li, Shu-Qi] [Xu, Li-Yu] [Zheng, Lin] [Lin, Mei- The influence of employees’ self-esteem, Feng] [Zeng, Wen-Qi] emotional labor load and jaycustomers on [Xu, Shu-Zhen] et al. 1993 service sabotage - Taking front-line nurs- Psychology and mental ing staff as an example health Taipei Farseeing Unpublished master’s thesis Publishing Group Graduate [Li, Wan-Jing] 2001 83 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  26. 26. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 Institute of Marketing and Logistics Man- Sheih, Chen Su-may 2009 agement, National Chiayi University Chiayi A qualitative study of the types and char- [Lin, Shang-Ping] [Zhang, acteristics of difficult patrons in university Shu-Hui] 1998 1 libraries Journal of Li- [Qing xu lao wu yu brary and Information Science Research zu zhi ren li fa zhan zhi quan xi] 4 1 99-132 [Jen Li Fa Chan] 48 43-50 [Lu, Xin-Su] 1997 Arkoff, A. 1980 [Gong gong tu shu guan Adjustment and mental health de du zhe fu wu gong zuo] 2ed ed. [Wang, Zhong-He] Library Association of the Re- [Li, Qin-Chuan] [Yang, Qi] public of China Translated Taipei [Hai xia liang an tu shu Da-Yang 1968 Original guan shi ye yan tao hui lun wen ji] work published 1968 287-295 Taipei Goleman, D. 1996 EQ: Emo- Library Association of the Republic tional intelligence [Zhang, Mei- of China Hui] Taipei Chi- [Feng, Guan-Fu] 1995 na Times Publishing Co. 1995 [Qing xu xin li xue] Taipei Original work published 1995 Psychological Publishing Co., Ltd. Sheih, Chen Su-may 2002 Tsai, Shiou-Ling Yang, Chih- Rational- Shin 2007 Emotion emotive therapy and librarian's emotional management 2ed ed. management S h u Yu a n 52 Taipei Yang-Chih Book Co., Ltd. 1-14 Tsai, Meng-Yuan 2005 Sheih, Chen Su-may 2003 Difficult A qualitative study of librarians' negative customer, emotional labor and emotional emotions in Taiwan Jour- exhaustion: The moderating effect of job nal of Library and Information Studies 1 involvement and perceived organizational 2 41-57 support Unpublished 84 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  27. 27. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com master’s thesis librarians. Library Administration and Department of Psychology, Chung Yuan Management, 9(4), 226-230. Christian University Bunge, C. A. (1989, Summer). Stress in the Chungli, Taoyuan library workplace. Library Trends, 38(1), [Lai, Bao-Zhen] [Zhang, Li- 92-102. Zhong] [Zhou, Wen-Qin] Caputo, J. S. (1991). Stress and burnout in [Zhang, De-Cong] [Liu, Jia- library services. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx. Nian] 1999 [Jian Chelton, M. K. (2002). The problem patron kang xin li xue] Lujhou, public libraries created. The Reference Taipei National Open Librarian, 75/76, 23-32. University Currie, C.L. (2002). Difficult library patrons in Tai, Hsiu-Ching 2003 academe: It’s all in the eye of the beholder. The Reference Librarian, 75/76, 45-54. The study of the relationship D w o r kin, A. G. (2001, July). Perspectives among hospital employees, emotion labor on teacher burnout and school reform. load and customer-oriented behavior International Education Journal, 2(2), 69-78. Unpublished master’s the- E l l i s, A. (1962). R e a s o n a n d e m o t i o n i n sis psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart. Institute of Human Resource Management, Erickson, R. J. (2001, June). Emotional labor, National Sun Yat-sen University burnout, and inauthenticity: Does gender Kaohsiung matter?” Social Psychology Quarterly, Lin, Phylis Lan 2000 64(2), 146-163. Stress & coping Taipei Ferkol, H. C. (1998). An analysis of stress Youth associated with reference work in a public Alschuler, C.F., & Alschuler, A.S. (1984, Sep). library, Unpublished master’s thesis, Kent Developing healthy response to anger: The State University. counselor’s role. Journal of Counseling Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff burnout. and Development, 63(1), 26-29. Journal of Social Issues, 30(1), 159-165. Arnold, M. B. (1960). Emotion and personality. Grosser, K. (1987, Sep/ Oct). Burnout amongst New York: Columbia University. librarians and information workers. LASIE, Bartlett, V. (1995, Fall). Technostress and 18(2), 32-41. 85 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  28. 28. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com 8 1 99.06 Harwell, K. (2008). Burnout strategies for Pines, A., and Aronson, E. (1988). Career burn- librarians. Journal of Business & Finance out: Causes and cures. New York: Free. Librarianship, 13(3),379-390. Quinn, B. (1995, Nov). Reducing stressful Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: aspects of information technology in Commercialization of human feeling. public services. Public & Access Services Berkeley: University of California. Quarterly, 1(4), 1-34. Kupersmith, J. (1992, Summer). Technostress Rathus, S. A., & Nevid, J. S. (1986). Adjustment and the reference librarian. Reference and growth: The challenges of life (3rd Services Review, 20(2), 7-14. ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Maslach, C. (1982). Understanding burnout: Redfern, B. (2002). The difficult library patron: Definitional issues in analyzing a complex A selective survey of the current literature. phenomenon, in W. S. Paine (Ed.), Job, The Reference Librarian, 36(75/76), stress and burnout: Research, theory 105-113. and intervention perspective (pp. 29-40). Rothstein, S. (1964). Reference service: The Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. new dimension in librarianship, in A. R. Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1996, Oct.). Rowland (Ed.), Reference services (pp. T h e d i m e n s i o n s, a n t e c e d e n t s, a n d 35-46). Hamden, CT: Shee String. consequences of emotional labor. Academy Sarkodie-Mensah, K. (1997). The human side of Management Review, 21(4), 986-1010. of reference in an era of technology. The Nawe, J. (1995, Sep). Work-related stress Reference Librarian, 59, 131-138. among the library and information Shaughnessy, T. W. (1996, July). The library workforce. Library Review, 44(6), 30-37. director as change agent. Journal of Ollendorff, M. (1990, Jan). How much do Library Administration, 22(2/3), 43-56. librarians know about stress management? Shuman, B. A. (1989, Sep). Problem patrons Behavioral and Social Sciences Librarians, in libraries: A review article. Library and 8(1/2), 67-98. Archival Security, 9(2), 3-19. Ostler, L. J., & Oon, J. T. (1989, July). Stress W i l l i a m s, T. (1996, D e c). S t r e s s: I t s analysis: A case study. College and management and life in a library. Personal Research Library News, 50(7), 587-590. Training and Education, 13(3), 3-4. 2010 2 23 2010 3 18 86 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  29. 29. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com An Empirical Study of Public Service Librarians’ Perceptions and Causes of Negative Emotions in Taiwan’s Public Libraries An Empirical Study of Public Service Librarians’ Perceptions and Causes of Negative Emotions in Taiwan’s Public Libraries Chen Su-may Sheih* Extended Abstract 1. Introduction on librarians’ work-related emotions is needed to bridge the gap. This study identified the types Librarians are emotional labor whose and causes of negative emotions of the public work requires frequent suppression of personal service librarians in Taiwan’s public libraries feelings and emotions in order to provide as well as librarians’ coping strategies when satisfactory services to their patrons. Due to facing negativity. The findings of this study may the de-personalizing nature of emotional labor, contribute to the development of better emotion librarians may suffer from emotional exhaustion management strategies in libraries, thereby or job burnout. Lacking appropriate handling of creating a more human working environment the accumulating negative emotions and work for librarians who will provide quality and pressure, it may negatively affect the entire effective library services. library organization or the individual librarians. Traditionally, library education and librarian training programs have focused predominantly 2. Research Design on technical expertise required for library Questionnaire survey was used to work and less on emotion management that is investigate public service librarians’ negative extremely important for public service librarians emotions in the workplace. Based on the facing patrons everyday in their work. Research public libraries directory offered in Taipei * Associate Professor, Department of Library and Information Science, National Taiwan University E-mail: synn@ntu.edu.tw Note. This extended English abstract is supplied by the JLIS editors and approved by the author. To cite this article in APA format: Sheih, C. S.-m. (2010). An Empirical Study of Public Service Librarians’ Perceptions and Causes of Negative Emotions in Taiwan’s Public Libraries. Journal of Library and Information Studies, 8(1), 59-96. [Text in Chinese]. To cite this article in Chicago format: Sheih, Chen Su-may. “An Empirical Study of Public Service Librarians’ Perceptions and Causes of Negative Emotions in Taiwan’s Public Libraries.” Journal of Library and Information Studies 8, no. 1 (2010): 59-96. [Text in Chinese]. 87 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  30. 30. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com Journal of Library and Information Studies 8:1 (June 2010) M u n i c i p a l L i b r a r y ’ s w e b s i t e (N o t e 1), strategies and the effects of negative emotions. stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of 45 public libraries in the northern, 3. Findings central, southern, and eastern parts of Taiwan. 3.1 The demographic characteristics of the 769 questionnaires targeting public service respondents librarians were mailed to the selected libraries The demographic characteristics of the in May, 2005. 516 questionnaires were returned respondents are summarized in Table 1. in July, 2005 (recall rate: 67%), among which 343 (66.5% of the returned questionnaires) were 3.2 T h e t y p e s a n d c a u s e s o f n e g a t i v e effective for analysis. emotions The questionnaire was composed of This study investigated three major types two parts. The first part of the questionnaire of negative emotions and their causes. Based contained structured questions that investigated on existing studies, the negative emotions the types of negative emotions and their causes. were defined as follows. Anger is a feeling of Based on the existing literature, the investigators extreme and intense unpleasantness generated included three major types of negative emotions from an individual’s affective stress reaction in in the questions: anger, anxiety, and job burnout. negative encounters. A person may suffer from And the ten causes included in the questionnaire anger when in the state of frustration or when were: library patrons, work content, library his/her ego-identity is threatened (Alschuler administration, supervisors, colleagues, & Alschuler, 1984; Feng, 2005; Lin, 1991). subordinates, information technologies, work Expressions of anger, hatred, unfairness, changes, organizations outside the library, injustice, and surges of negative emotions and others. The second part comprised open belong to this category. Anxiety is associated questions inviting detailed description of with uncertainty and its symptoms may include respondents’ negative encounters in work, their nervousness, worry, fear, uneasiness, and coping strategies, and the effects of the negative pressure (Arkoff, 1968/1980; Lin, 2000; Li, encounters. Xu, Zheng, Lin, Ceng, Xu, et al., 1993). Job S P S S 10.0 w a s u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e burnout is a sense of physical, psychological, data generated from the structured questions. or emotional deprivation (Freudenberger, Qualitative coding was used on the textual 1974; P i n e s & A r o n s o n, 1988). F e e l i n g s answers to inductively summarize the coping like depression, powerlessness, frustration, 88 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  31. 31. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com An Empirical Study of Public Service Librarians’ Perceptions and Causes of Negative Emotions in Taiwan’s Public Libraries Table 1. the Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents Demographic No. of Percentage Demographic No. of Percentage Characteristics Respondents (%) Characteristics Respondents (%) Sex Marriage Status Male 78 22.7 Married 194 56.6 Female 265 77.3 Single 146 42.6 Age Other 3 0.9 20-24 years 21 6.1 Years of Library Work 25-29 years 51 14.9 Less than 3 years 120 35.0 30-34 years 63 18.4 4-6 years 60 17.5 35-39 years 37 10.8 7-9 years 31 9.0 40-44 years 64 18.7 10-12 years 38 11.1 45-49 years 56 16.3 13-15 years 28 8.2 50-54 years 34 9.9 More than 16 years 66 19.2 55 years & above 17 5.0 Administrative position Education Yes 31 9.0 High school 73 21.3 No 312 91.0 Vocational school 89 25.9 Professional Training Bacholor college 153 44.6 LIS educated 65 19.0 Masters’degree 25 7.3 Some high school or Non-LIS educated 278 81.0 3 0.9 below Total 343 100 helplessness, sadness, pessimism belong to this noted that each incident can be associated category. with more than one type of negative emotions. In this study, respondents were allowed to Therefore, respondents reported 180 incidents report more than one negative emotion incident of anger (42.6% of the 423 incidents), 195 in the questionnaire. This study collected 423 incidents of anxiety (46.1%; n=423), and 207 incidents of negative emotions. It should be incidents of job burnout (48.9%; n=423). 89 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  32. 32. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com Journal of Library and Information Studies 8:1 (June 2010) Respondents were also allowed to report (126 respondents); 2. talk to others to release multiple causes for each incident of negative (46 respondents); 3. actively communicate emotion. Consequently, the ten causes of with co-workers (21 respondents); 4. self negative emotions listed in the questionnaire encouragement and positive thinking (18 were checked 528 times. See Table 2 for the respondents); 5. temporarily retreat from the frequency distribution of the negative emotion center of conflict (12 respondents); 6. take incidents and the occurrences of causes for each the day off (7 respondents); 7. do other things negative emotion type. to advert attention, e.g., reading, listening to music, exercise, etc. (4 respondents); 8. cry (3 3.3 The coping strategies of the respondents respondents); 9. resign from the job in serious Respondents reported nine coping situations (3 respondents). In addition, 24 strategies in the open-ended questions: 1. respondents reported that they would choose to focus on the problem and look for solutions suppress their negative emotions and may not Table 2. The Frequency Distribution of the Negative Emotion Incidents and the Causes Reported by the Respondents Types of Negative Emotions Negative Emotion Cause Anger Anxiety Job burnout Incident Occurrence % (n=180) Occurrence % (n=195) Occurrence % (n=207) Number % (n=423) Library patron 112 62.2 95 48.7 108 52.2 209 49.4 Work content 58 32.2 97 49.7 100 48.3 168 39.7 Library 47 26.1 61 31.3 77 37.2 124 29.3 administration Superior 35 19.4 41 21.0 43 20.8 78 18.4 Colleagues 42 23.3 28 14.4 42 20.3 72 17.0 Information 23 12.8 31 15.9 26 12.6 47 11.1 technologies Others 8 4.4 20 10.3 20 9.7 37 8.7 Organizations outside 14 7.8 18 9.2 17 8.2 31 7.3 the library Work changes 14 7.8 19 9.7 18 8.7 28 6.6 Subordinates 5 2.8 6 3.1 8 3.9 13 3.1 90 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  33. 33. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com An Empirical Study of Public Service Librarians’ Perceptions and Causes of Negative Emotions in Taiwan’s Public Libraries do anything to release or soothe the negative (2) The major causes of anger in this study emotions. were inconsistent with those found in Sheih (2003). In Sheih (2003), the major 3.4 The effects of the negative emotions on causes of anger were mainly people- the respondents related – i.e., subordinates, superiors, Respondents reported four major library patrons, organizations outside different effects of negative emotions: 1. the library, and colleagues, while in this negative influences on their physical and study certain non-people related causes psychological health (92 respondents); 2. prevailed – e.g., work content, library declining work effectiveness or gradually administration, information technologies, passive attitudes toward library patrons, such etc. Subordinates as a cause of anger as inappropriate behaviors or lack of focus varied most in these two studies. The (41 respondents) 3. declining enthusiasm and differences were likely a result of the confidence in work (28 respondents); 4. eroded different composition of respondents in working relationships among peer workers the two studies. 53% of the respondents (18 respondents) and even disrupted family in Sheih (2003) were library managers, harmony (2 respondents). However, it should while only 9% of respondents were in be noted that 7 respondents viewed the second management positions in this study. effect (declining work effectiveness and service (3) The major cause of anxiety in this study attitudes) as positive because it forced them to was work content, followed by library reflect on their behaviors and devotion to the patrons, library administration, superiors, job. information technologies, etc. The findings were by and large consistent 4. Discussion with Lin (2001), yet inconsistent with two This section compares the study findings Ferkol (1998) and Ostler and Oon (1989). and the related empirical research. l F e r k o l (1998), f e w r e f e r e n c e In 1. About the causes of negative emotions: librarians working in public libraries (1) This study identified ten causes of reported information technologies as a negative emotions and it was consistent cause of anxiety. This difference may with a previous qualitative study (Sheih, have resulted from the fact that, at the 2003). time of this study, the public libraries 91 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  34. 34. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com Journal of Library and Information Studies 8:1 (June 2010) in Taiwan was experiencing a wave of 2. About the coping strategies for the negative library system migrations. emotions: l O s t l e r a n d O o n (1989), p u b l i c In This study identified ten coping service librarians in academic libraries strategies as reported in the previous section. reported mostly causes of anxiety from However, due to the open nature of this part contacts with library patrons and fewer of the questionnaire, most respondents only causes from library policies, assigned described the strategies but did not report the duties, procedural changes, etc. This is consequences or effects of their use. More inconsistent with this study in which research is required to understand what coping n o n-p a t r o n p r o b l e m s (e.g., w o r k strategies are effectives in handling negative content per se, library administration, emotions. Further, most respondents reported information technologies, etc.) all that they would attempt to control themselves caused anxiety. This difference may under the influence of negative emotions. This is likely be attributed to the different consistent with Sheih (2003) and Grosser (1987) types of libraries studied. In public and indicates that public service librarianship is libraries, librarian work is not as highly characteristics of emotional labor. departmentalized as in larger academic 3. About the effects of negative emotions on libraries. Naturally, the more diverse librarians: and complicated work content and the This study identified four effects of administrative and technical matters negative emotions as reported in the previous associated with which may cause more section, and most of which were perceived as anxiety for public librarians. negative. Particularly, when facing difficult (4) The major causes of job burnout included patrons, service sabotages may occur as a result both people related and non-people of declining work effectiveness or passive related causes. However, they were service attitudes. This finding is similar to Lin proportionally inconsistent with Sheih (2005) in which negative emotions and service (2003), in which people related cause had sabotages were closely related. However, prevailed. This, again, may have resulted whether suppression of negative emotions leads from the sample differences in the two to librarians’ higher intention toward service studies. sabotages awaits further investigation. 92 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  35. 35. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com An Empirical Study of Public Service Librarians’ Perceptions and Causes of Negative Emotions in Taiwan’s Public Libraries 5. Conclusion Librarians should also receive continuing education to reduce negative emotions from The study findings show that, among lacks of professional expertise or uncertainty the three types of negative emotions, job about information technologies. Social support burnout was the most frequently reported type. systems and partaking in proper leisure Library patrons, work content, and library activities may also help to reduce feelings of administration were the major causes of negativity. negative emotions. The major coping strategy reported by the respondents was to focus on the immediate problems and look for solutions. The Notes most prominent effect reported was the negative Note 1 h t t p : / / w w w . t p m l . e d u . t w / influence on librarians’ physical and mental Ta i p e i P u b l i c L i b r a r y/i n d e x. health. php?page=chinese-weblink-index. B a s e d o n t h e f i n d i n g s, t h i s s t u d y php&subsite=chinese&opx=getfile&ci suggests that library organizations should d=310 be equipped with policies and procedures for handling problem or difficult patrons. References Libraries should invest in library instruction Alschuler, C.F., & Alschuler, A.S. (1984, Sep). programs for patrons and enhance internal Developing healthy response to anger: The and external communication. Further, libraries counselor’s role. Journal of Counseling should provide employees with more and and Development, 63(1), 26-29. better trainings in emotion management and Arnold, M. B. (1960). Emotion and personality. interpersonal communication and consider New York: Columbia University. job rotation as well as employee career Arkoff, A. (1980). Adjustment and mental management programs. Increase in manpower health ([Z.-H. Wang], [Q.-C. Li] & [Q. and preventive emotional management may Yang], Trans. 2ed.). Taipei: Da-Yang. also effectively resolve negative emotion (Original work published 1968). [Text in problems. For individual librarians, this study Chinese]. suggests that librarians may partake in rational- Bartlett, V. (1995, Fall). Technostress and emotive therapy and counseling training in librarians. Library Administration and order to better communicate with their patrons. Management, 9(4), 226-230. 93 zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
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