Early history of clinical psychology early views of mental illness ...

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Early history of clinical psychology early views of mental illness ...

  1. 1. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com Early History of Clinical Psychology Early History of Clinical Psychology Early Views of Mental Early Views of Mental Illness Early Views of Mental Illness Illness • Enlightened Approaches of Hippocrates and Galen Enlightened Approaches of Hippocrates and Galen • Witchcraft Witchcraft – Malleus maleficarum (1510) Malleus maleficarum (1510) • Written by two Dominican priests. Written by two Dominican priests. • Became a textbook of the inquisition. Became a textbook of the inquisition. • Lead to execution of 200–500 “witches,” 85% of Lead to execution of 200–500 “witches,” 85% of whom were girls and women. whom were girls and women. – Salem trials (1692) Salem trials (1692) • Lead to execution of 5 and imprisonment of 150 Lead to execution of 5 and imprisonment of 150 “witches.” “witches.” • Modern scholars suggest role-playing and/or ergot Modern scholars suggest role-playing and/or ergot poisoning as explanations. poisoning as explanations. Tests and Confessions Tests and Confessions zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  2. 2. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com An Early Enlightened An Early Enlightened View An Early Enlightened View View Institutions and Cures Institutions and Cures • St. Mary of Bethlehem Hospital in London— Bedlam (1547) St. Mary of Bethlehem Hospital in London— Bedlam (1547) – Inmates were chained, whipped, beaten, and poorly-fed. Inmates were chained, whipped, beaten, and poorly-fed. – Keepers earned their pay by displaying inmates to public. Keepers earned their pay by displaying inmates to public. • Cures Cures – ice water ice water – whirling whirling – purges, emetics purges, emetics – bloodletting bloodletting Bedlam Bedlam zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  3. 3. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com Reformers Reformers Phillipe Pinel (1745–1826) Phillipe Pinel (1745–1826) Professional Chronology Professional Chronology • M.D. from University of Toulouse (1773). • Moved to Paris where he treated the poor. • Interest in insanity sparked by the death of a friend who had been exhibiting symptoms of manic-depression (1783). • Influenced by Daquin, who believed insanity to be a disease that must be understood and treated by the methods of science. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  4. 4. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com Professional Chronology Professional Chronology (cont’d) (cont’d) • Appointed Director of the Bicêtre Asylum in Paris (1793), where he instituted a series of dramatic human reforms. • Continued his reforms as Director of La Salpêtrière, the Parisian asylum for insane women (1795–1826). La Salpêtrière La Salpêtrière Victor—the “Wild Boy of Victor—the “Wild Boy of Aveyron” (~1788–1828) Aveyron” (~1788–1828) • Noble savage or incurable idiot? • Pinel’s assistant, Itard, tried to rehabilitate Victor, but he was only partially successful. zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  5. 5. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com Other Reformers Other Reformers • Johann Guggenbühl (1816–1863) Johann Guggenbühl (1816–1863) – Originated the idea of institutional care for the Originated the idea of institutional care for the feebleminded. feebleminded. – Treatment based on naturalistic therapy. Treatment based on naturalistic therapy. • William Tuke (1732–1822) William Tuke (1732–1822) – Patients given freedom, respect and support, good food, Patients given freedom, respect and support, good food, recreation, exercise, medical treatment, religious recreation, exercise, medical treatment, religious instruction. instruction. – Led to establishment of similar institutions in America. Led to establishment of similar institutions in America. • Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802–1887) Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802–1887) U. S. Institutions U. S. Institutions 20th Century • “In 1949, no state mental hospital set the minimum standards of operation set by the APA.” • NIMH and Community Mental Health Center Act (1963). • Deinstitutionalization policies of the 1970s Important Modern Important Modern Developments Developments • Lightner Witmer (1867–1956)—the founder of clinical psychology in the U.S. • Radical Physical and Pharmacological Treatment – psychosurgery – coma and convulsive treatments – psychoactive drugs zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  6. 6. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com Treating the Insane Treating the Insane Philippe Pinel • “The gloomy and irritable character of maniacs, even when convalescent, is well known.” • “The fanciful ideas of melancholics are much more easily and effectually diverted by moral remedies, and especially by active employment, than by the best prepared and applied medicaments.” • “The amusement which he derived from this liberty [walking at all hours in a pleasant garden], exercise and familiar conversation, in which from time to time I engaged him, gradually induced a state of calmness.” Pinel Unchaining the Pinel Unchaining the Inmates Inmates Lightner Witmer Lightner Witmer zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/
  7. 7. zycnzj.com/ www.zycnzj.com Clinical Psychology Clinical Psychology Lightner Witmer • The investigation of the phenomena of mental development in school children...by means of statistical and clinical methods. • A psychological clinic, supplemented by a training school, for the treatment of school children suffering from retardation or physical defects. • The training of students for a new profession—that of psychological expert in connection with the school system. Witmer’s Journal Witmer’s Journal zycnzj.com/http://www.zycnzj.com/

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