Traditional career versus protean career
Career development model – examples
Challenges in career management – onboarding,
dual career path, plateauing, career breaks
• Career development is important for companies to
create and sustain a continuous learning environment
• The biggest challenge companies face is how to
balance advancing current employees‟ careers with
simultaneously attracting and acquiring employees
with new skills
• The growing use of teams is influencing the concept of
careers, e.g. project careers
• Changes in the concept of career affect:
employees‟ motivation to attend training programs
the outcomes they expect to gain from attendance
their choice of programs
how and what they need to know
Career management is the process through which
• Become aware of their own interests, values,
strengths and weaknesses.
• Obtain information about job opportunities within
• Identify career goals.
• Establish action plans to achieve career goals.
• From the company’s perspective, the failure to
motivate employees to plan their careers can result in:
a shortage of employees to fill open positions
lower employee commitment
inappropriate use of monies allocated for training and
• From the employees’ perspective, lack of career
management can result in:
feelings of not being valued by the company
being unable to find suitable employment should a job change
be necessary due to mergers, acquisitions, restructuring, or
• Hughes (1937) defined career as “the moving
perspective in which persons orient themselves with
reference to the social order, and of the typical
sequences and concatenation of office”.
• A more recent definition look at career as “a process
of development of the employee along a path of
experience and jobs in one or more organizations”
(Baruch & Rosenstein, 1992).
• On the one hand, the career is the „property‟ of the
individual, who may be inspired by new social norms,
but on the other hand, for employed people, it is
planned and managed to a large extent by their
• The protean career is a process which the person,
not the organization, is managing.
• It consists of all the person's varied experience in
education, training, work in several organizations,
changes in occupational field, etc…
• The protean person's own personal career choices
and search for self-fulfillment are the unifying or
integrative elements in his or her life.
• Based on self-direction with the goal of
psychological work success in one‟s life.
Linear and expert
Spiral and transitory
Heavy reliance on
Greater reliance on
relationships and job
A MODEL OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT
fit between self
develop life style
Hold on to
work and non-work
Phasing out of work
ps to other
Typical age Less than 30
30 – 45
45 – 60
2 – 10 years
More than 10
More than 10 years
Less than 2
CAREER DEVELOPMENT AT JOHNSON
& JOHNSON INC.
• Johnson & Johnson Inc have well-defined processes and tools to
help its employees drive their career in the direction that is most
meaningful to them . These include:
a personal, customized development program
leadership training and online learning
guidelines for productive career development conversations with
clear succession planning, supported by development programs
that are designed to give you specific experiences and skills
acquisition for your next target job
flexible career paths that can enable you to broaden your scope
of experience through exposure to different disciplines and
career opportunities across three business segments
CAREER DEVELOPMENT AT IBM
• IBM has structured its career development framework
around an expertise taxonomy, whereby everyone in the
company uses the same “language” as it relates to skills and
• The career development framework provides a structure for
employees to follow specific guidance on how to grow skills
in the various job roles and how to validate that they have
gained such capability.
Learning@IBM Explorer Website
Your Career Portlet
Individual Development Plan
CHALLENGES IN CAREER
• Onboarding, also known as organizational
socialization, refers to the mechanism through which
new employees acquire the necessary knowledge,
skills, and behaviors to become effective
organizational members and insiders.
• Tactics used in this process include formal meetings,
lectures, videos, printed materials, or computer-based
orientations to introduce newcomers to their new jobs
ONBOARDING PROCESS AT
• InMobi is a performance based mobile ad network
backed by Soft Bank and Kleiner Perkins Caufield &
Byers. InMobi partnered with MindTickle, a Gamification
startup to leverage it‟s employee engagement and
learning platform, AllAboard to deliver new hire
orientation at InMobi as an online social game. The
entire experience used a test-to-teach methodology,
wherein the quiz questions / puzzles were designed
such that while users with prior knowledge would score
better, users with no prior knowledge of the subject
matter could use their lateral thinking, hints and links to
relevant online reading material that were provided
along with the question.
• Deutsche Bank is a large and complex organisation and the
gap between a new recruit receiving a job offer and starting
work can be anything between two weeks and three months
• In a first for the banking industry, last year Deutsche Bank (DB)
launched its @DB app, which can be downloaded for free by
new post-offer recruits, from the iTunes Store.
• The app has been designed to give new starts an idea of
what it is like to work at DB. It features clear navigation,
making it easier to use for a non-technical audience, a
welcome video, an RSS news feed, checklist to help recruits
get set for their first day, an office location finder, a direct link
to social networking sites, biographies of senior managers,
podcasts and a feedback function.
• A career path is a sequence of job positions involving
similar types of work and skills that employees move
through in the company
• Traditional career path - Employee progresses vertically
upward in organization from one specific job to the
• Dual career path - Technical specialists contribute
expertise without having to become managers.
• The dual approach says that you can move up the
scientific track and be paid at an equivalent level to a
supervisor or a manager by being a really excellent
scientist and bringing value through innovation, ideas,
and scientific leadership.
COMPANIES OFFERING DUAL CAREER
• Eli Lilly and Company is an American global pharmaceutical
company. Years ago, the company saw a trend where
people who had excellent scientific skills were stepping
away [from research] to pursue administrative work because
there wasn't an opportunity for them to grow along
technical paths. That‟s when the company put in the dual
• Air Products & Chemicals is another example among many
chemical and drug producers with very similar outlooks
toward having a ladder system. "A primary driver was simply
that we wanted opportunities for career growth for our
practicing scientists and engineers," says Linda Dragotta,
human resources manager at Air Products. "We didn't want
to have to move people into management roles to afford
them that career growth."
• The point where the likelihood of additional
hierarchical promotion is very remote;
• The point where there are few internal opportunities
• A period in which an individual's learning rate does
• A time of perceived or actual professional
DIFFERENT KINDS OF CAREER
• Structural Plateau
When one has progressed to a point where the organizational structure
prevents him or her from moving up, due to non-availability of vacancies in
• Content Plateau
When one has mastered the job and there is no longer a sense of challenge in
the current position.
• Contribution Plateau
When one has ceased growing and searching for learning opportunities to
develop competencies and add value, becoming unable to respond to
changing situations or to keep up with technological changes.
• Damaged Reputation Plateau
When critical behaviours or events put a temporary stall on career progression.
• Life Plateau
When one experiences a loss of identity, direction, meaning or self-esteem, or
when one undergoes self-doubt in his or her life, not just in the job.
DEALING WITH A CAREER PLATEAU
• The strategies for dealing with a career plateau,
whatever the kind, revolve around two main
actions: reflection and reassessment.
Restructure your view of success
Seek a career move
Explore new learning
Manage your reputation
Find your balance
MANAGING CAREER BREAKS
• A career break is a period of time out from employment.
Traditionally, this is for mothers to raise children, but it is
sometimes used for people taking time out of their career
for personal development and/or professional
• A career break is usually between one month and two
years long. Six months to 2 years is the most common
period of time for a career break. It's also possible to take
a mini career break of less than one month, which
enables people to try out career break activities without
committing to longer periods of time.
• A career break is not simply a period of unemployment.
Career breakers usually do one or more of the following:
Paid work abroad
Studying or training
Offering palliative care
Staying up-to-date with (profession related) news
Recovering from accidents or illnesses
• Tesco PLC is a British multinational grocery and general
merchandise retailer headquartered in Cheshunt,
Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom. Tesco's Lifestyle
Breaks give employees the chance to spend time with
their children, renovate their house, go travelling, have
plastic surgery - whatever takes their fancy.